Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1540

Search results for: magnetic recording

1540 Modelling Asymmetric Magnetic Recording Heads with an Underlayer Using Superposition

Authors: Ammar Edress Mohamed, Mustafa Aziz, David Wright


This paper analyses and calculates the head fields of asymmetrical 2D magnetic recording heads when the soft-underlayer is present using the appropriate Green's function to derive the surface potential/field by utilising the surface potential for asymmetrical head without underlayer. The results follow closely the corners, while the gap region shows a linear behaviour for d/g < 0.5 compared with the calculated fields from finite-element.

Keywords: magnetic recording, finite elements, asymmetrical magnetic heads, superposition, Laplace's equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
1539 Target and Equalizer Design for Perpendicular Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording

Authors: P. Tueku, P. Supnithi, R. Wongsathan


Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR) is one of the leading technologies identified to enable areal density beyond 1 Tb/in2 of magnetic recording systems. A key challenge to HAMR designing is accuracy of positioning, timing of the firing laser, power of the laser, thermo-magnetic head, head-disk interface and cooling system. We study the effect of HAMR parameters on transition center and transition width. The HAMR is model using Thermal Williams-Comstock (TWC) and microtrack model. The target and equalizer are designed by the minimum mean square error (MMSE). The result shows that the unit energy constraint outperforms other constraints.

Keywords: heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal Williams-Comstock equation, microtrack model, equalizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
1538 Measurement of Thermal Protrusion Profile in Magnetic Recording Heads via Wyko Interferometry

Authors: Joseph Christopher R. Ragasa, Paolo Gabriel P. Casas, Nemesio S. Mangila, Maria Emma C. Villamin, Myra G. Bungag


A procedure in measuring the thermal protrusion profiles of magnetic recording heads was developed using a Wyko HD-8100 optical interference-based instrument. The protrusions in the heads were made by the application of a constant power through the thermal flying height controller pads. It was found that the thermally-induced bubble is confined to form in the same head locations, primarily in the reader and writer regions, regardless of the direction of approach of temperature. An application of power to the thermal flying height control pads ranging from 0 to 50 milliWatts showed that the protrusions demonstrate a linear dependence with the supplied power. The efficiencies calculated using this method were compared to that obtained through Guzik and found to be 19.57% greater due to the static testing environment used in the testing.

Keywords: thermal protrusion profile, magnetic recording heads, wyko interferometry, thermal flying height control

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1537 Recording Video in the CAVE

Authors: Mohamed Mediouni


Evaluating the performance of a simulator in the CAVE has to be confirmed by encouraging people to live the experience of virtual reality. In this paper, a detailed procedure of recording video is presented. Limitations of the experimental device are firstly exposed. Then, solutions for improving this idea are finally described.

Keywords: CAVE, stereoscopics, camera, recording

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
1536 Hysteresis Behavior and Microstructure in Nanostructured Alloys Cu-Fe and Cu-Fe-Co

Authors: Laslouni Warda, M. Azzaz


The intermetallic-based on transition metal compounds present interesting magnetic properties for the technological applications (permanent magnets, magnetic recording…). Cu70 Fe18Co12 and Cu70 Fe30 nanostructured with crystallite size vary from 10 a 12 nanometers have been developed by a mechanical milling method. For Cu-Fe samples, the iron and copper distribution was clear. The distribution showed a homogeneous distribution of iron and copper in a Cu-Fe obtained after 36 h milling. The structural properties have been performed with X-ray diffraction. With increasing milling times, Fe and Co diffuse into the Cu matrix, which accelerates the formation of the magnetic nanostructure Cu- Fe-Co and Cu-Fe alloys. The magnetic behavior is investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The two alloys nanocrystals possess ferromagnetic character at room temperature

Keywords: Cu-Fe-Co, Cu-Fe, nanocrystals, SEM, hysteresis loops, VSM, anisotropy theory

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1535 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Sachinkumar Patil, Sonali Patil, Shitalkumar Patil


Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, synthesis, characterization, cancer therapy, hyperthermia, application

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1534 Supercomputer Simulation of Magnetic Multilayers Films

Authors: Vitalii Yu. Kapitan, Aleksandr V. Perzhu, Konstantin V. Nefedev


The necessity of studying magnetic multilayer structures is explained by the prospects of their practical application as a technological base for creating new storages medium. Magnetic multilayer films have many unique features that contribute to increasing the density of information recording and the speed of storage devices. Multilayer structures are structures of alternating magnetic and nonmagnetic layers. In frame of the classical Heisenberg model, lattice spin systems with direct short- and long-range exchange interactions were investigated by Monte Carlo methods. The thermodynamic characteristics of multilayer structures, such as the temperature behavior of magnetization, energy, and heat capacity, were investigated. The processes of magnetization reversal of multilayer structures in external magnetic fields were investigated. The developed software is based on the new, promising programming language Rust. Rust is a new experimental programming language developed by Mozilla. The language is positioned as an alternative to C and C++. For the Monte Carlo simulation, the Metropolis algorithm and its parallel implementation using MPI and the Wang-Landau algorithm were used. We are planning to study of magnetic multilayer films with asymmetric Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) interaction, interfacing effects and skyrmions textures. This work was supported by the state task of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russia # 3.7383.2017/8.9

Keywords: The Monte Carlo methods, Heisenberg model, multilayer structures, magnetic skyrmion

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1533 The Influence of Reaction Parameters on Magnetic Properties of Synthesized Strontium Ferrite

Authors: M. Bahgat, F. M. Awan, H. A. Hanafy


The conventional ceramic route was utilized to prepare a hard magnetic powder (M-type strontium ferrite, SrFe12O19). The stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and strontium carbonate were calcined at 1000°C and then fired at various temperatures. The influence of various reaction parameters such as mixing ratio, calcination temperature, firing temperature and firing time on the magnetic behaviors of the synthesized magnetic powder were investigated.The magnetic properties including Coercivity (Hc), Magnetic saturation (Ms), and Magnetic remnance (Mr) were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. Morphologically the produced magnetic powder has a dense hexagonal grain shape structure.

Keywords: hard magnetic materials, ceramic route, strontium ferrite, magnetic properties

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1532 Design, Development and Evaluation of a Portable Recording System to Capture Dynamic Presentations using the Teacher´s Tablet PC

Authors: Enrique Barra, Abel Carril, Aldo Gordillo, Joaquin Salvachua, Juan Quemada


Computers and multimedia equipment have improved a lot in the last years. They have reduced costs and size while at the same time has increased their capabilities. These improvements allowed us to design and implement a portable recording system that also integrates the teacher´s tablet PC to capture what he/she writes on the slides and all that happens in it. This paper explains this system in detail and the validation of the recordings that we did after using it to record all the lectures of a course in our university called “Communications Software”. The results show that pupils used the recordings for different purposes and consider them useful for a variety of things, especially after missing a lecture.

Keywords: recording system, capture dynamic presentations, lecture recording

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
1531 Analytical Model for Vacuum Cathode Arcs in an Oblique Magnetic Field

Authors: P. W. Chen, C. T. Chang, Y. Peng, J. Y. Wu, D. J. Jan, Md. Manirul Ali


In the last decade, the nature of cathode spot splitting and the current per spot depended on an oblique magnetic field was investigated. This model for cathode current splitting is developed that we have investigated with relationship the magnetic pressures produced by kinetic pressure, self-magnetic pressure, and changed with an external magnetic field. We propose a theoretical model that has been established to an external magnetic field with components normal and tangential to the cathode surface influenced on magnetic pressure strength. We mainly focus on developed to understand the current per spot influenced with the tangential magnetic field strength and normal magnetic field strength.

Keywords: cathode spot, vacuum arc discharge, oblique magnetic field, tangential magnetic field

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1530 Non-Equilibrium Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Magnetic FeCoPt Nanocrystalline Alloys

Authors: O. Crisan, A. D. Crisan, I. Mercioniu, R. Nicula, F. Vasiliu


FePt-based systems are currently under scrutiny for their possible use as future materials for perpendicular magnetic recording. Another possible application is in the field of permanent magnets without rare-earths, magnets that are capable to operate at higher temperatures than the classic Nd-Fe-B magnets. Within this work, FeCoPt alloys prepared by rapid solidification from the melt are structurally and magnetically characterized. Extended transmission electron microscopy analysis shows the high degree of L10 ordering. X-ray diffraction is used to characterize the phase structure and to obtain the structural parameters of interest for L10 ordering. Co-existence of hard CoFePt and CoPt L10 phases with the soft fcc FePt phase is obtained within a refined microstructure made of alternatively disposed grains of around 5 to 20 nm in size. Magnetic measurements show increased remanence close to the parent L10 FePt phase and not so high coercivity due to the significant presence of the soft magnetic constituent phase. A Curie temperature of about 820K is reported for the FeCoPt alloy.

Keywords: melt-spinning, FeCoPt alloys, high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), ordered L10 structure

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1529 Magnetic and Optical Properties of GaFeMnN

Authors: A.Abbad, H.A.Bentounes, W.Benstaali


The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) is used to calculate the magnetic and optical properties of quaternary GaFeMnN. The results show that the compound becomes magnetic and half metallic and there is an apparition of peaks at low frequencies for the optical properties.

Keywords: FP-LAPW, LSDA, magnetic moment, reflectivity

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1528 Digital Recording System Identification Based on Audio File

Authors: Michel Kulhandjian, Dimitris A. Pados


The objective of this work is to develop a theoretical framework for reliable digital recording system identification from digital audio files alone, for forensic purposes. A digital recording system consists of a microphone and a digital sound processing card. We view the cascade as a system of unknown transfer function. We expect same manufacturer and model microphone-sound card combinations to have very similar/near identical transfer functions, bar any unique manufacturing defect. Input voice (or other) signals are modeled as non-stationary processes. The technical problem under consideration becomes blind deconvolution with non-stationary inputs as it manifests itself in the specific application of digital audio recording equipment classification.

Keywords: blind system identification, audio fingerprinting, blind deconvolution, blind dereverberation

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1527 First Principle Calculation of The Magnetic Properties of Mn-doped 6H-SiC

Authors: M. Al Azri, M. Elzain, K. Bouziane, S. M. Chérif


The electronic and magnetic properties of 6H-SiC with Mn impurities have been calculated using ab-initio calculations. Various configurations of Mn sites and Si and C vacancies were considered. The magnetic coupling between the two Mn atoms at substitutional and interstitials sites with and without vacancies is studied as a function of Mn atoms interatomic distance. It was found that the magnetic interaction energy decreases with increasing distance between the magnetic atoms. The energy levels appearing in the band gap due to vacancies and due to Mn impurities are determined. The calculated DOS’s are used to analyze the nature of the exchange interaction between the impurities. The band coupling model based on the p-d and d-d level repulsions between Mn and SiC has been used to describe the magnetism observed in each configuration. Furthermore, the impacts of applying U to Mn-d orbital on the magnetic moment have also been investigated. The results are used to understand the experimental data obtained on Mn- 6H-SiC (as-implanted and as –annealed) for various Mn concentration (CMn = 0.7%, 1.6%, 7%).

Keywords: ab-initio calculations, diluted magnetic semiconductors, magnetic properties, silicon carbide

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1526 Comparison between Simulation and Experimentally Observed Interactions between Two Different Sized Magnetic Beads in a Fluidic System

Authors: Olayinka Oduwole, Steve Sheard


The magnetic separation of biological cells using super-magnetic beads has been used widely for various bioassays. These bioassays can further be integrated with other laboratory components to form a biosensor which can be used for cell sorting, mixing, purification, transport, manipulation etc. These bio-sensing applications have also been facilitated by the wide availability of magnetic beads which range in size and magnetic properties produced by different manufacturers. In order to improve the efficiency and separation capabilities of these biosensors, it is important to determine the magnetic force induced velocities and interaction of beads within the magnetic field; this will help biosensor users choose the desired magnetic bead for their specific application. This study presents for the first time the interaction between a pair of different sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in a static fluid moving within a uniform magnetic field using a modified finite-time-finite-difference scheme. A captured video was used to record the trajectory pattern and a good agreement was obtained between the simulated trajectories and the video data. The model is, therefore, a good approximation for predicting the velocities as well as the interaction between various magnetic particles which differ in size and magnetic properties for bio-sensing applications requiring a low concentration of magnetic beads.

Keywords: biosensor, magnetic field, magnetic separation, super-paramagnetic bead

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1525 Magnetic Field Induced Tribological Properties of Magnetic Fluid

Authors: Kinjal Trivedi, Ramesh V. Upadhyay


Magnetic fluid as a nanolubricant is a most recent field of study due to its unusual properties that can be tuned by applying a magnetic field. In present work, four ball tester has been used to investigate the tribological properties of the magnetic fluid having a 4 wt% of nanoparticles. The structural characterization of fluid shows crystallite size of particle is 11.7 nm and particles are nearly spherical in nature. The magnetic characterization shows the fluid saturation magnetization is 2.2 kA/m. The magnetic field applied using permanent strip magnet (0 to 1.6 mT) on the faces of the lock nut and fixing a solenoid (0 to 50 mT) around a shaft, such that shaft rotates freely. The magnetic flux line for both the systems analyzed using finite elemental analysis. The coefficient of friction increases with the application of magnetic field using permanent strip magnet compared to zero field value. While for the solenoid, it decreases at 20 mT. The wear scar diameter is lower for 1.1 mT and 20 mT when the magnetic field applied using permanent strip magnet and solenoid, respectively. The coefficient of friction and wear scar reduced by 29 % and 7 % at 20 mT using solenoid. The worn surface analysis carried out using Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope to understand the wear mechanism. The results are explained on the basis of structure formation in a magnetic fluid upon application of magnetic field. It is concluded that the tribological properties of magnetic fluid depend on magnetic field and its applied direction.

Keywords: four ball tester, magnetic fluid, nanolubricant, tribology

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1524 Road Vehicle Recognition Using Magnetic Sensing Feature Extraction and Classification

Authors: Xiao Chen, Xiaoying Kong, Min Xu


This paper presents a road vehicle detection approach for the intelligent transportation system. This approach mainly uses low-cost magnetic sensor and associated data collection system to collect magnetic signals. This system can measure the magnetic field changing, and it also can detect and count vehicles. We extend Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients to analyze vehicle magnetic signals. Vehicle type features are extracted using representation of cepstrum, frame energy, and gap cepstrum of magnetic signals. We design a 2-dimensional map algorithm using Vector Quantization to classify vehicle magnetic features to four typical types of vehicles in Australian suburbs: sedan, VAN, truck, and bus. Experiments results show that our approach achieves a high level of accuracy for vehicle detection and classification.

Keywords: vehicle classification, signal processing, road traffic model, magnetic sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
1523 Mass Transfer in Reactor with Magnetic Field Generator

Authors: Tomasz Borowski, Dawid Sołoducha, Rafał Rakoczy, Marian Kordas


The growing interest in magnetic fields applications is visible due to the increased number of articles on this topic published in the last few years. In this study, the influence of various magnetic fields (MF) on the mass transfer process was examined. To carry out the prototype set-up equipped with an MF generator that is able to generate a pulsed magnetic field (PMF), oscillating magnetic field (OMF), rotating magnetic field (RMF) and static magnetic field (SMF) was used. To demonstrate the effect of MF’s on mass transfer, the calcium carbonate precipitation process was selected. To the vessel with attached conductometric probes and placed inside the generator, specific doses of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate were added. Electrical conductivity changes of the mixture inside the vessel were measured over time until equilibrium was established. Measurements were conducted for various MF strengths and concentrations of added chemical compounds. Obtained results were analyzed, which allowed to creation of mathematical correlation models showing the influence of MF’s on the studied process.

Keywords: mass transfer, oscillating magnetic field, rotating magnetic field, static magnetic field

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1522 Analytical Modeling of Equivalent Magnetic Circuit in Multi-segment and Multi-barrier Synchronous Reluctance Motor

Authors: Huai-Cong Liu,Tae Chul Jeong,Ju Lee


This paper describes characteristic analysis of a synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM)’s rotor with the Multi-segment and Multi-layer structure. The magnetic-saturation phenomenon in SynRM is often appeared. Therefore, when modeling analysis of SynRM the calculation of nonlinear magnetic field needs to be considered. An important influence factor on the convergence process is how to determine the relative permeability. An improved method, which ensures the calculation, is convergence by linear iterative method for saturated magnetic field. If there are inflection points on the magnetic curve,an optimum convergence method of solution for nonlinear magnetic field was provided. Then the equivalent magnetic circuit is calculated, and d,q-axis inductance can be got. At last, this process is applied to design a 7.5Kw SynRM and its validity is verified by comparing with the result of finite element method (FEM) and experimental test data.

Keywords: SynRM, magnetic-saturation, magnetic circuit, analytical modeling

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1521 Electronic and Magnetic Properties of the Dy₀.₀₆₂₅Y₀.₉₃₇₅ FeO₃ and Dy₀.₁₂₅ Y₀.₈₇₅ FeO₃ Perovskites

Authors: Sari Aouatef, Larabi Amina


First-principles calculations within density functional theory based are used to investigate the influence of doped rare earth elements on some properties of perovskite systems Dy₀.₀₆₂₅Y₀.₉₃₇₅FeO₃ and Dy₀.₁₂₅ Y₀.₈₇₅ FeO₃. The electronic and magnetic properties are studied by means of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method with Vasp code. The calculated densities of states presented in this work identify the semiconducting behavior for Dy₀.₁₂₅ Y₀.₈₇₅ FeO₃, and the semi-metallic behavior for Dy₀.₀₆₂₅Y₀.₉₃₇₅ FeO₃. Besides, to investigate magnetic properties of several compounds, four magnetic configurations are considered (ferromagnetic (FM), antiferromagnetic type A (A-AFM), antiferromagnetic type C (C-AFM) and antiferromagnetic type G (G-AFM). By doping the Dy element, the system shows different changes in the magnetic order and electronic structure. It is found that Dy₀.₀₆₂₅Y₀.₉₃₇₅ FeO₃ exhibits the strongest magnetic change corresponding to the transition to the ferromagnetic order with the largest magnetic moment of 4.997.

Keywords: DFT, Perovskites, multiferroic, magnetic properties

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1520 Integration of Magnetoresistance Sensor in Microfluidic Chip for Magnetic Particles Detection

Authors: Chao-Ming Su, Pei-Sheng Wu, Yu-Chi Kuo, Yin-Chou Huang, Tan-Yueh Chen, Jefunnie Matahum, Tzong-Rong Ger


Application of magnetic particles (MPs) has been applied in biomedical field for many years. There are lots of advantages through this mediator including high biocompatibility and multi-diversified bio-applications. However, current techniques for evaluating the quantity of the magnetic-labeled sample assays are rare. In this paper, a Wheatstone bridge giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor integrated with a homemade detecting system was fabricated and used to quantify the concentration of MPs. The homemade detecting system has shown high detecting sensitivity of 10 μg/μl of MPs with optimized parameter vertical magnetic field 100 G, horizontal magnetic field 2 G and flow rate 0.4 ml/min.

Keywords: magnetic particles, magnetoresistive sensors, microfluidics, biosensor

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1519 Optimization of Surface Coating on Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Xiao-Li Liu, Ling-Yun Zhao, Xing-Jie Liang, Hai-Ming Fan


Owing to their unique properties, magnetic nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for biomedical applications. Highly monodispersed magnetic nanoparticles with controlled particle size and surface coating have been successfully synthesized as a model system to investigate the effect of surface coating on the T2 relaxivity and specific absorption rate (SAR) under an alternating magnetic field, respectively. Amongst, by using mPEG-g-PEI to solubilize oleic-acid capped 6 nm magnetic nanoparticles, the T2 relaxivity could be significantly increased by up to 4-fold as compared to PEG coated nanoparticles. Moreover, it largely enhances the cell uptake with a T2 relaxivity of 92.6 mM-1s-1 for in vitro cell MRI. As for hyperthermia agent, SAR value increase with the decreased thickness of PEG surface coating. By elaborate optimization of surface coating and particle size, a significant increase of SAR (up to 74%) could be achieved with a minimal variation on the saturation magnetization (<5%). The 19 nm magnetic nanoparticles with 2000 Da PEG exhibited the highest SAR of 930 W•g-1 among the samples, which can be maintained in various simulated physiological conditions. This systematic work provides a general strategy for the optimization of surface coating of magnetic core for high performance MRI contrast agent and hyperthermia agent.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging, surface modification

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1518 Development of ELF Passive Shielding Application Using Magnetic Aqueous Substrate

Authors: W. N. L. Mahadi, S. N. Syed Zin, W. A. R. Othman, N. A. Mohd Rasyid, N. Jusoh


Public concerns on Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) exposure have been elongated since the last few decades. Electrical substations and high tension rooms (HT room) in commercial buildings were among the contributing factors emanating ELF magnetic fields. This paper discussed various shielding methods conventionally used in mitigating the ELF exposure. Nevertheless, the standard methods were found to be impractical and incapable of meeting currents shielding demands. In response to that, remarkable researches were conducted in effort to invent novel methods which is more convenient and efficient such as magnetic aqueous shielding or paint, textiles and papers shielding. A mitigation method using magnetic aqueous substrate in shielding application was proposed in this paper for further investigation. using Manganese Zinc Ferrite (Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4). The magnetic field and flux distribution inside the aqueous magnetic material are evaluated to optimize shielding against ELF-EMF exposure, as to mitigate its exposure.

Keywords: ELF shielding, magnetic aqueous substrate, shielding effectiveness, passive shielding, magnetic material

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1517 Electro Magnetic Tractor (E. M. Tractor)

Authors: Sijo Varghese


A space craft (E. M. Tractor) which is intended to deflect or tug the asteroids which possesses threat towards the planets is the whole idea behind this paper. In this case "Electro Magnetic Induction" is used where it is known that when two separate circuits are connected to the electro magnet and on application of electric current through the one circuit in to the coil induces magnetic fields which repels the other circuit.( Faraday's law of Electromagnetic Induction). Basically a Spacecraft is used to attach a large sheet of aluminum on to the surface of the asteroid, the Spacecraft acts as an electro magnet and the induced magnetic field would eventually repel the aluminum intern repelling the asteroid. This method would take less time as compared to use of gravity( which requires a larger spacecraft and process will take a long time).

Keywords: asteroids, electro magnetic induction, gravity, electro magnetic tractor

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1516 Double Magnetic Phase Transition in the Intermetallic Compound Gd₂AgSi₃

Authors: Redrisse Djoumessi Fobasso, Baidyanath Sahu, Andre M. Strydom


The R₂TX₃ (R = rare-earth, T = transition, and X = s and p block element) series of compounds are interesting owing to their fascinating structural and magnetic properties. In this present work, we have studied the magnetic and physical properties of the new Gd₂AgSi₃ polycrystalline compound. The sample was synthesized by the arc-melting method and confirmed to crystallize in the tetragonal α-ThSi₂-type crystal structure with space group I4/amd. Dc– and ac–magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and magnetoresistance measurements were performed on the new compound. The structure provides a unique position in the unit cell for the magnetic trivalent Gd ion. Two magnetic phase transitions were consistently found in dc- and ac-magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity at temperatures Tₙ₁ = 11 K and Tₙ₂ = 20 K, which is an indication of the complex magnetic behavior in this compound. The compound is found to be metamagnetic over a range of temperatures below and above Tₙ₁. From field-dependent electrical resistivity, it is confirmed that the compound shows unusual negative magnetoresistance in the antiferromagnetically ordered region. These results contribute to a better understanding of this class of materials.

Keywords: complex magnetic behavior, metamagnetic, negative magnetoresistance, two magnetic phase transitions

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1515 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Mn-Doped 6H-SiC

Authors: M. Al Azri, M. Elzain, K. Bouziane, S. M. Chérif


n-Type 6H-SiC(0001) substrates were implanted with three fluencies of Mn+ 5x1015 Mn/cm2 (Mn content: 0.7%), 1x1016 (~2 %), and 5x1016 cm–2 (7%) with implantation energy of 80 keV and substrate temperature of 365ºC. The samples were characterized using Rutherford Backscattering and Channeling Spectroscopy (RBS/C), High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction technique (HRXRD), micro-Raman Spectroscopy (μRS), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) techniques. The aim of our work is to investigate implantation induced defects with dose and to study any correlation between disorder-composition and magnetic properties. In addition, ab-initio calculations were used to investigate the structural and magnetic properties of Mn-doped 6H-SiC. Various configurations of Mn sites and vacancy types were considered. The calculations showed that a substitutional Mn atom at Si site possesses larger magnetic moment than Mn atom at C site. A model is introduced to explain the dependence of the magnetic structure on site occupation. The magnetic properties of ferromagnetically (FM) and antiferromagnetically (AFM) coupled pairs of Mn atoms with and without neighboring vacancies have also been explored.

Keywords: ab-initio calculations, diluted magnetic semiconductors, magnetic properties, silicon carbide

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1514 Magnetic Field Generation in Inhomogeneous Plasma via Ponderomotive Force

Authors: Fatemeh Shahi, Mehdi Sharifian, Laia Shahrassai, Elham Eskandari A.


A new mechanism is reported here for magnetic field generation in laser-plasma interaction by means of nonlinear ponderomotive force. The plasma considered here is unmagnetized inhomogeneous plasma with an exponentially decreasing profile. A damped periodic magnetic field with a relatively lower frequency is obtained using the ponderomotive force exerted on plasma electrons. Finally, with an electric field and by using Faraday’s law, the magnetic field profile in the plasma has been obtained. Because of the negative exponential density profile, the generated magnetic field is relatively slowly oscillating and damped through the plasma.

Keywords: magnetic field generation, laser-plasma interaction, ponderomotive force, inhomogeneous plasma

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1513 In situ Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Study of Permalloy Thin Film Growth on Nanorippled Si

Authors: Sarathlal Koyiloth Vayalil, Stephan V. Roth, Gonzalo Santoro, Peng Zhang, Matthias Schwartzkopf, Bjoern Beyersdorff


Nanostructured magnetic thin films have gained significant relevance due to its applications in magnetic storage and recording media. Self-organized arrays of nanoparticles and nanowires can be produced by depositing metal thin films on nano-rippled substrates. The substrate topography strongly affects the film growth giving rise to anisotropic properties (optical, magnetic, electronic transport). Ion-beam erosion (IBE) method can provide large-area patterned substrates with the valuable possibility to widely modify pattern length scale by simply acting on ion beam parameters (i.e. energy, ions, geometry, etc.). In this work, investigation of the growth mechanism of Permalloy thin films on such nano-rippled Si (100) substrates using in situ grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering measurements (GISAXS) have been done. In situ GISAXS measurements during the deposition of thin films have been carried out at the P03/MiNaXS beam line of PETRA III storage ring of DESY, Hamburg. Nanorippled Si substrates prepared by low energy ion beam sputtering with an average wavelength of 33 nm and 1 nm have been used as templates. It has been found that the film replicates the morphology up to larger thickness regimes and also the growth is highly anisotropic along and normal to the ripple wave vectors. Various growth regimes have been observed. Further, magnetic measurements have been done using magneto-optical Kerr effect by rotating the sample in the azimuthal direction. Strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with its easy axis in a direction normal to the ripple wave vector has been observed. The strength of the magnetic anisotropy is found to be decreasing with increasing thin film thickness values. The mechanism of the observed strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and its depends on the thickness of the film has been explained by correlating it with the GISAXS results. In conclusion, we have done a detailed growth analysis of Permalloy thin films deposited on nanorippled Si templates and tried to explain the correlation between structure, morphology to the observed magnetic properties.

Keywords: grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering, magnetic thin films, magnetic anisotropy, nanoripples

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1512 Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements of Urban Areas in Denizli City and Showing the Distributions of Heavy Metal Pollution

Authors: Ali Aydin


Three hundred and fifty soil samples were collected around the urban and residential area, for the purpose of a magnetic susceptibility study on pollution in Denizli City, Turkiye. Measurements of volume-specific magnetic susceptibility (к) and mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) show a significant variation range from place to place collected soil samples. In this study, we did a primary magnetic study near the high heavy traffic pollution in a part of Denizli city, Turkiye which was said the most polluted city in Aegean Region of Turkey. The magnetic susceptibility measurements increased from the garden area to residential area and reached the high levels near the industrial areas of the city. Magnetic particle concentration and grain size sourced exhaust gasses, and other pollution sources increase with the increasing distance from a residential area, indicating the high traffic road area.

Keywords: magnetic susceptibility, pollution, magnetic particle, Denizli

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1511 Functionalized Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Extraction of Protein and Metal Nanoparticles from Complex Fluids

Authors: Meenakshi Verma, Mandeep Singh Bakshi, Kultar Singh


Magnetic nanoparticles have received incredible importance in view of their diverse applications, which arise primarily due to their response to the external magnetic field. The magnetic behaviour of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) helps them in numerous different ways. The most important amongst them is the ease with which they can be purified and also can be separated from the media in which they are present merely by applying an external magnetic field. This exceptional ease of separation of the magnetic NPs from an aqueous media enables them to use for extracting/removing metal pollutants from complex aqueous medium. Functionalized magnetic NPs can be subjected for the metallic impurities extraction if are favourably adsorbed on the NPs surfaces. We have successfully used the magnetic NPs as vehicles for gold and silver NPs removal from the complex fluids. The NPs loaded with gold and silver NPs pollutant fractions has been easily removed from the aqueous media by using external magnetic field. Similarly, we have used the magnetic NPs for extraction of protein from complex media and then constantly washed with pure water to eliminate the unwanted surface adsorbed components for quantitative estimation. The purified and protein loaded magnetic NPs are best analyzed with SDS Page to not only for characterization but also for separating the protein fractions. A collective review of the results indicates that we have synthesized surfactant coated iron oxide NPs and then functionalized these with selected materials. These surface active magnetic NPs work very well for the extraction of metallic NPs from the aqueous bulk and make the whole process environmentally sustainable. Also, magnetic NPs-Au/Ag/Pd hybrids have excellent protein extracting properties. They are much easier to use in order to extract the magnetic impurities as well as protein fractions under the effect of external magnetic field without any complex conventional purification methods.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, protein, functionalized, extraction

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