Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: R134a

19 Experimental Investigation of R600a as a Retrofit for R134a in a Household Refrigerator

Authors: T. O Babarinde, F. A Oyawale, O. S Ohunakin, R. O Ohunakin, R. O Leramo D.S Adelekan

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental study of R600a, environment-friendly refrigerants with low global warming potential (GWP), zero ozone depletion potential (ODP), as a substitute for R134a in domestic refrigerator. A refrigerator designed to work with R134a was used for this experiment, the capillary for this experiment was not varied at anytime during the experiment. 40, 60, 80g, charge of R600a were tested against 100 g of R134a under the designed capillary length of the refrigerator, and the performance using R600a was evaluated and compared with its performance when R134a was used. The results obtained showed that the design temperature and pull-down time set by International Standard Organisation (ISO) for small refrigerator was achieved using both 80g of R600a and 100g of R134a but R134a has earlier pulled down time than using R600a. The average coefficient of performance (COP) obtained using R600a is 17.7% higher than that of R134a while the average power consumption is 42.5 % lower than R134a, which shows that R600a can be used as replacement for R134a in domestic refrigerator without necessarily need to modified the capillary.

Keywords: domestic refrigerator, experimental, R600a, R134a

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18 Experimental Study of Mixture of R290/R600 to Replace R134a in a Domestic Refrigerator

Authors: T. O. Babarinde, B. O. Bolaji, S. O. Ismaila

Abstract:

Interest in natural refrigerants, such as hydrocarbons has been renewed in recent years because of the environmental problems associated with synthetic chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydro-chlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants. Due to the depletion of ozone-layer and global warming effects, synthetic refrigerants are being gradually phased out in accordance with the international protocols that aim to protect the environment. In this work, a refrigerator designed to work with R134a was used for this experiment, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) which consists of commercial propane and butane in a single evaporator domestic refrigerator with a total volume of 62 litres. In this experiment, type K thermocouples with their probes were used to measure the temperatures of four major components (evaporator, compressor, condenser and expansion device) of the refrigeration system. Also the system was instrumented with two pressure gauges at the inlet and outlet of the compressor for measuring the suction and discharged pressures. The experiments were carried out using 40, 60, 80,100g charges and the charges were measured with a digital charging scale. Thermodynamic properties of the LPG refrigerant were determined. The results obtained showed that using LPG charge of 60g. The system COP increased with 14.6% and the power consumption reduced with 9.8% when compared with R134a. Therefore, LPG can replace R134a in domestic refrigerator.

Keywords: domestic refrigerator, experimental, LPG, R134a

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17 Performance Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System with Alternate Refrigerants

Authors: K. Parthiban, P. Pradeep, I. Pon Surya Prakash, S. Vinoth, A. Murugan

Abstract:

The main aim of this project is to analyze the performance of vapor compression refrigeration system with alternate refrigerants. Currently we are using R134a as refrigerant. It is used in both household and industrial appliances as refrigerant. It has an advantage that the ozone depletion potential is zero i.e. R134a does not affects ozone layer. But its Global warming potential is considerably high. Also the compressor failure occurs frequently. Hence this project deals with how the performance of R134a varies with blended refrigerants such as R416a and R407c. This analysis is based on how much the Co-efficient of Performance (COP) varies with different refrigerants.

Keywords: compressor, condenser, expansion valve, evaporator

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16 Experimental Study of a Mixture of R290/R600 to Replace R134a in a Domestic Refrigerator

Authors: T. O. Babarinde

Abstract:

Interest in natural refrigerants, such as hydrocarbons has been renewed in recent years because of the environmental problems associated with synthetic chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydro-chlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants. Due to the depletion of ozone-layer and global warming effects, synthetic refrigerants are being gradually phased out in accordance with the international protocols that aim to protect the environment. In this work, a refrigerator designed to work with R134a was used for this experiment, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) which consists of commercial propane and butane in a single evaporator domestic refrigerator with a total volume of 62 litres. In this experiment, type K thermocouples with their probes were used to measure the temperatures of four major components (evaporator, compressor, condenser and expansion device) of the refrigeration system. Also the system was instrumented with two pressure gauges at the inlet and outlet of the compressor for measuring the suction and discharged pressures. Four sets of experiments were carried out using different charges and the charges were measured with a digital charging scale. Thermodynamic properties of the LPG refrigerant were determined. The results obtained showed that the design temperature and pull-down time set by International Standard Organisation (ISO) for refrigerator was achieved using LPG charge of 60g. The system COP increases with 14.6% and the power consumption reduced with 9.8% when compared with R134a. Therefore, LPG can replace R134a in domestic refrigerator.

Keywords: domestic refrigerator, experimental, R290/R600, R134a

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15 Optimization of a Combined Ejector-Vapor Compression Refrigeration Systems with R134a

Authors: Ilhem Ouelhazi, Mouna Elakhdar, Lakdar Kairouani

Abstract:

A computer simulation model for a combined ejector-vapor compression cycle that uses working fluid R134a. A refrigeration system was developed which combines a basic vapor compression refrigeration cycle with an ejector cooling cycle. A one-dimensional mathematical model was developed using the equations governing the flow and thermodynamics based on the constant area ejector flow model. The effects of the operating parameters on the cooling capacity, the performance coefficient, and the entrainment ratio are studied. The current model is based on the NIST-REFPROP database for refrigerants properties calculations. The simulated performance is compared with the available experimental data from the literature for validation.

Keywords: combined refrigeration cycle, constant area ejector, R134a, ejector-cooling cycle, performance, mathematical simulation, vapor compression cycle

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14 Thermal Conductivity and Diffusivity of Alternative Refrigerants as Retrofit for Freon 12

Authors: Mutalubi Aremu Akintunde, John Isa

Abstract:

The negative impact on the atmosphere, of chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants (CFC) radical changes and measures were put in place to replace them. This has led to search for alternative refrigerants over the past decades. This paper presents thermal conductivity, diffusivity and performance of two alternative refrigerants as replacement to R12, which has been a versatile refrigerant which had turned the refrigeration industries around for decades, but one of the offensive refrigerants. The new refrigerants were coded RA1 (50%R600a/50%R134a;) and RA2 (70%R600a/30%R134a). The diffusivities for RA1 and RA2 were estimated to be, 2.76384 X 10-8 m2/s and 2.74386 X 10-8 m2/s respectively, while that of R12 under the same experimental condition is 2.43772 X 10-8 m2/s. The performances of the two refrigerants in a refrigerator initially designed for R12, were very close to that of R12. Other thermodynamic parameters showed that R12 can be replaced with both RA1 and RA2.

Keywords: alternative refrigerants, conductivity, diffusivity, performance, refrigerants

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13 Exergetic Comparison between Three Configurations of Two Stage Vapor Compression Refrigeration Systems

Authors: Wafa Halfaoui Mbarek, Khir Tahar, Ben Brahim Ammar

Abstract:

This study reports a comparison from an exergetic point of view between three configurations of vapor compression industrial refrigeration systems operating with R134a as working fluid. The performances of the different cycles are analyzed as function of several operating parameters such as condensing temperature and inter stage pressure. In addition, the contributions of component exergy destruction to the total exergy destruction are obtained for each system. The results are estimated to be used in the selection of the most advantageous configuration from an exergetic view point.

Keywords: vapor compression, exergy, destruction, efficiency, R134a

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12 Exergy Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Using R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717

Authors: Ali Dinarveis

Abstract:

This paper compares the energy and exergy efficiency of a vapour compression refrigeration system using refrigerants of different groups. In this study, five different refrigerants including R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717 have been studied. EES Program is used to solve the thermodynamic equations. The results of this analysis are shown graphically. Based on the results, energy and exergy efficiencies for R717 are higher than the other refrigerants. Also, the energy and exergy efficiencies will be decreased with increasing the condensing temperature and decreasing the evaporating temperature.

Keywords: Energy, Exergy, Refrigeration, thermodynamic, vapour

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11 Coefficient of Performance (COP) Optimization of an R134a Cross Vane Expander Compressor Refrigeration System

Authors: Y. D. Lim, K. S. Yap, K. T. Ooi

Abstract:

Cross Vane Expander Compressor (CVEC) is a newly invented expander-compressor combined unit, where it is introduced to replace the compressor and the expansion valve in traditional refrigeration system. The mathematical model of CVEC has been developed to examine its performance, and it was found that the energy consumption of a conventional refrigeration system was reduced by as much as 18%. It is believed that energy consumption can be further reduced by optimizing the device. In this study, the coefficient of performance (COP) of CVEC has been optimized under predetermined operational parameters and constrained main design parameters. Several main design parameters of CVEC were selected to be the variables, and the optimization was done with theoretical model in a simulation program. The theoretical model consists of geometrical model, dynamic model, heat transfer model and valve dynamics model. Complex optimization method, which is a constrained, direct search and multi-variables method was used in the study. As a result, the optimization study suggested that with an appropriate combination of design parameters, a 58% COP improvement in CVEC R134a refrigeration system is possible.

Keywords: COP, cross vane expander-compressor, CVEC, design, simulation, refrigeration system, air-conditioning, R134a, multi variables

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10 Generalized Correlation for the Condensation and Evaporation Heat Transfer Coefficients of Propane (R290), Butane (R600), R134a, and R407c in Porous Horizontal Tubes: Experimental Investigation

Authors: M. Tarawneh

Abstract:

This work is an experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of different refrigerants during the condensation and evaporation processes in porous media. Four different refrigerants (R134a, R407C, 600a, R290), with different porosities were used to reach a real understanding of the actual heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop when using porous material inside the condenser and evaporator. Steel balls were used as porous media with different porosities (38%, 43%, 48%). The main goal of this project is to enhance the heat transfer coefficient during the condensation and evaporation processes when using different refrigerants and different porosities. Different correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop of the different refrigerants were developed. Also a generalized empirical correlation was developed for the different refrigerants. The experimental and predicted heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops were compared. It was found that, the Absolute standard deviation for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop not exceeded values of 15% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: condensation, evaporation, porous media, horizontal tubes, heat transfer coefficient, propane, butane

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9 A Design of the Organic Rankine Cycle for the Low Temperature Waste Heat

Authors: K. Fraňa, M. Müller

Abstract:

A presentation of the design of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with heat regeneration and super-heating processes is a subject of this paper. The maximum temperature level in the ORC is considered to be 110°C and the maximum pressure varies up to 2.5MPa. The selection process of the appropriate working fluids, thermal design and calculation of the cycle and its components are described. With respect to the safety, toxicity, flammability, price and thermal cycle efficiency, the working fluid selected is R134a. As a particular example, the thermal design of the condenser used for the ORC engine with a theoretical thermal power of 179 kW was introduced. The minimal heat transfer area for a completed condensation was determined to be approximately 520m2.

Keywords: organic rankine cycle, thermal efficiency, working fluids, environmental engineering

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8 Comparative Exergy Analysis of Vapor Compression Refrigeration System Using Alternative Refrigerants

Authors: Gulshan Sachdeva, Vaibhav Jain

Abstract:

In present paper, the performance of various alternative refrigerants is compared to find the substitute of R22, the widely used hydrochlorofluorocarbon refrigerant in developing countries. These include the environmentally friendly hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants such as R134A, R410A, R407C and M20. In the present study, a steady state thermodynamic model (includes both first and second law analysis) which simulates the working of an actual vapor-compression system is developed. The model predicts the performance of system with alternative refrigerants. Considering the recent trends of replacement of ozone depleting refrigerants and improvement in system efficiency, R407C is found to be potential candidate to replace R22 refrigerant in the present study.

Keywords: refrigeration, compression system, performance study, modeling, R407C

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7 A Second Law Assessment of Organic Rankine Cycle Depending on Source Temperature

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has potential in reducing fossil fuels and relaxing environmental problems. In this work performance analysis of ORC is conducted based on the second law of thermodynamics for recovery of low temperature heat source from 100°C to 140°C using R134a as the working fluid. Effects of system parameters such as turbine inlet pressure or source temperature are theoretically investigated on the exergy destructions (anergies) at various components of the system as well as net work production or exergy efficiency. Results show that the net work or exergy efficiency has a peak with respect to the turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is low, however, increases monotonically with increasing turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is high.

Keywords: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), low temperature heat source, exergy, source temperature

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6 Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Three Power Generation and Refrigeration Energy Recovery Systems from Thermal Loss of a Diesel Engine in Different Driving Conditions

Authors: H. Golchoobian, M. H. Taheri, S. Saedodin, A. Sarafraz

Abstract:

This paper investigates the possibility of using three systems of organic Rankine auxiliary power generation, ejector refrigeration and absorption to recover energy from a diesel car. The analysis is done for both urban and suburban driving modes that vary from 60 to 120 km/h. Various refrigerants have also been used for organic Rankine and Ejector refrigeration cycles. The capacity was evaluated by Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system in both urban and suburban conditions for cyclopentane and ammonia as refrigerants. Also, for these two driving plans, produced cooling by absorption refrigeration system under variable ambient temperature conditions and in ejector refrigeration system for R123, R134a and R141b refrigerants were investigated.

Keywords: absorption system, diesel engine, ejector refrigeration, energy recovery, organic Rankine cycle

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5 An Experimental Study on the Effects of Aspect Ratio of a Rectangular Microchannel on the Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Drop

Authors: J. A. Louw Coetzee, Josua P. Meyer

Abstract:

The thermodynamic properties of different refrigerants in combination with the variation in geometrical properties (hydraulic diameter, aspect ratio, and inclination angle) of a rectangular microchannel determine the two-phase frictional pressure gradient. The effect of aspect ratio on frictional pressure drop had not been investigated enough during adiabatic two-phase flow and condensation in rectangular microchannels. This experimental study was concerned with measurement of the frictional pressure gradient in a rectangular microchannel, with hydraulic diameter of 900 μm. The aspect ratio of this microchannel was varied over a range that stretched from 0.3 to 3 in order to capture the effect of aspect ratio variation. A commonly used refrigerant, R134a, was used in the tests that spanned over a mass flux range of 100 to 1000 kg m-2 s-1 as well as the whole vapour quality range. This study formed part of a refrigerant condensation experiment and was therefore conducted at a saturation temperature of 40 °C. The study found that there was little influence of the aspect ratio on the frictional pressure drop at the test conditions. The data was compared to some of the well known micro- and macro-channel two-phase pressure drop correlations. Most of the separated flow correlations predicted the pressure drop data well at mass fluxes larger than 400 kg m-2 s-1 and vapour qualities above 0.2.

Keywords: aspect ratio, microchannel, two-phase, pressure gradient

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4 Investigation on Ultrahigh Heat Flux of Nanoporous Membrane Evaporation Using Dimensionless Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: W. H. Zheng, J. Li, F. J. Hong

Abstract:

Thin liquid film evaporation in ultrathin nanoporous membranes, which reduce the viscous resistance while still maintaining high capillary pressure and efficient liquid delivery, is a promising thermal management approach for high-power electronic devices cooling. Given the challenges and technical limitations of experimental studies for accurate interface temperature sensing, complex manufacturing process, and short duration of membranes, a dimensionless lattice Boltzmann method capable of restoring thermophysical properties of working fluid is particularly derived. The evaporation of R134a to its pure vapour ambient in nanoporous membranes with the pore diameter of 80nm, thickness of 472nm, and three porosities of 0.25, 0.33 and 0.5 are numerically simulated. The numerical results indicate that the highest heat transfer coefficient is about 1740kW/m²·K; the highest heat flux is about 1.49kW/cm² with only about the wall superheat of 8.59K in the case of porosity equals to 0.5. The dissipated heat flux scaled with porosity because of the increasing effective evaporative area. Additionally, the self-regulation of the shape and curvature of the meniscus under different operating conditions is also observed. This work shows a promising approach to forecast the membrane performance for different geometry and working fluids.

Keywords: high heat flux, ultrathin nanoporous membrane, thin film evaporation, lattice Boltzmann method

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3 A Theoretical Analysis of Air Cooling System Using Thermal Ejector under Variable Generator Pressure

Authors: Mohamed Ouzzane, Mahmoud Bady

Abstract:

Due to energy and environment context, research is looking for the use of clean and energy efficient system in cooling industry. In this regard, the ejector represents one of the promising solutions. The thermal ejector is a passive component used for thermal compression in refrigeration and cooling systems, usually activated by heat either waste or solar. The present study introduces a theoretical analysis of the cooling system which uses a gas ejector thermal compression. A theoretical model is developed and applied for the design and simulation of the ejector, as well as the whole cooling system. Besides the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum, the gas dynamic equations, state equations, isentropic relations as well as some appropriate assumptions are applied to simulate the flow and mixing in the ejector. This model coupled with the equations of the other components (condenser, evaporator, pump, and generator) is used to analyze profiles of pressure and velocity (Mach number), as well as evaluation of the cycle cooling capacity. A FORTRAN program is developed to carry out the investigation. Properties of refrigerant R134a are calculated using real gas equations. Among many parameters, it is thought that the generator pressure is the cornerstone in the cycle, and hence considered as the key parameter in this investigation. Results show that the generator pressure has a great effect on the ejector and on the whole cooling system. At high generator pressures, strong shock waves inside the ejector are created, which lead to significant condenser pressure at the ejector exit. Additionally, at higher generator pressures, the designed system can deliver cooling capacity for high condensing pressure (hot season).

Keywords: air cooling system, refrigeration, thermal ejector, thermal compression

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2 Experimental Study of an Isobaric Expansion Heat Engine with Hydraulic Power Output for Conversion of Low-Grade-Heat to Electricity

Authors: Maxim Glushenkov, Alexander Kronberg

Abstract:

Isobaric expansion (IE) process is an alternative to conventional gas/vapor expansion accompanied by a pressure decrease typical of all state-of-the-art heat engines. The elimination of the expansion stage accompanied by useful work means that the most critical and expensive parts of ORC systems (turbine, screw expander, etc.) are also eliminated. In many cases, IE heat engines can be more efficient than conventional expansion machines. In addition, IE machines have a very simple, reliable, and inexpensive design. They can also perform all the known operations of existing heat engines and provide usable energy in a very convenient hydraulic or pneumatic form. This paper reports measurement made with the engine operating as a heat-to-shaft-power or electricity converter and a comparison of the experimental results to a thermodynamic model. Experiments were carried out at heat source temperature in the range 30–85 °C and heat sink temperature around 20 °C; refrigerant R134a was used as the engine working fluid. The pressure difference generated by the engine varied from 2.5 bar at the heat source temperature 40 °C to 23 bar at the heat source temperature 85 °C. Using a differential piston, the generated pressure was quadrupled to pump hydraulic oil through a hydraulic motor that generates shaft power and is connected to an alternator. At the frequency of about 0.5 Hz, the engine operates with useful powers up to 1 kW and an oil pumping flowrate of 7 L/min. Depending on the temperature of the heat source, the obtained efficiency was 3.5 – 6 %. This efficiency looks very high, considering such a low temperature difference (10 – 65 °C) and low power (< 1 kW). The engine’s observed performance is in good agreement with the predictions of the model. The results are very promising, showing that the engine is a simple and low-cost alternative to ORC plants and other known energy conversion systems, especially at low temperatures (< 100 °C) and low power range (< 500 kW) where other known technologies are not economic. Thus low-grade solar, geothermal energy, biomass combustion, and waste heat with a temperature above 30 °C can be involved into various energy conversion processes.

Keywords: isobaric expansion, low-grade heat, heat engine, renewable energy, waste heat recovery

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1 Life Cycle Assessment Applied to Supermarket Refrigeration System: Effects of Location and Choice of Architecture

Authors: Yasmine Salehy, Yann Leroy, Francois Cluzel, Hong-Minh Hoang, Laurence Fournaison, Anthony Delahaye, Bernard Yannou

Abstract:

Taking into consideration all the life cycle of a product is now an important step in the eco-design of a product or a technology. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a standard tool to evaluate the environmental impacts of a system or a process. Despite the improvement in refrigerant regulation through protocols, the environmental damage of refrigeration systems remains important and needs to be improved. In this paper, the environmental impacts of refrigeration systems in a typical supermarket are compared using the LCA methodology under different conditions. The system is used to provide cold at two levels of temperature: medium and low temperature during a life period of 15 years. The most commonly used architectures of supermarket cold production systems are investigated: centralized direct expansion systems and indirect systems using a secondary loop to transport the cold. The variation of power needed during seasonal changes and during the daily opening/closure periods of the supermarket are considered. R134a as the primary refrigerant fluid and two types of secondary fluids are considered. The composition of each system and the leakage rate of the refrigerant through its life cycle are taken from the literature and industrial data. Twelve scenarios are examined. They are based on the variation of three parameters, 1. location: France (Paris), Spain (Toledo) and Sweden (Stockholm), 2. different sources of electric consumption: photovoltaic panels and low voltage electric network and 3. architecture: direct and indirect refrigeration systems. OpenLCA, SimaPro softwares, and different impact assessment methods were compared; CML method is used to evaluate the midpoint environmental indicators. This study highlights the significant contribution of electric consumption in environmental damages compared to the impacts of refrigerant leakage. The secondary loop allows lowering the refrigerant amount in the primary loop which results in a decrease in the climate change indicators compared to the centralized direct systems. However, an exhaustive cost evaluation (CAPEX and OPEX) of both systems shows more important costs related to the indirect systems. A significant difference between the countries has been noticed, mostly due to the difference in electric production. In Spain, using photovoltaic panels helps to reduce efficiently the environmental impacts and the related costs. This scenario is the best alternative compared to the other scenarios. Sweden is a country with less environmental impacts. For both France and Sweden, the use of photovoltaic panels does not bring a significant difference, due to a less sunlight exposition than in Spain. Alternative solutions exist to reduce the impact of refrigerating systems, and a brief introduction is presented.

Keywords: eco-design, industrial engineering, LCA, refrigeration system

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