Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21106

Search results for: hierarchical analysis

21106 Hybrid Hierarchical Clustering Approach for Community Detection in Social Network

Authors: Radhia Toujani, Jalel Akaichi


Social Networks generally present a hierarchy of communities. To determine these communities and the relationship between them, detection algorithms should be applied. Most of the existing algorithms, proposed for hierarchical communities identification, are based on either agglomerative clustering or divisive clustering. In this paper, we present a hybrid hierarchical clustering approach for community detection based on both bottom-up and bottom-down clustering. Obviously, our approach provides more relevant community structure than hierarchical method which considers only divisive or agglomerative clustering to identify communities. Moreover, we performed some comparative experiments to enhance the quality of the clustering results and to show the effectiveness of our algorithm.

Keywords: agglomerative hierarchical clustering, community structure, divisive hierarchical clustering, hybrid hierarchical clustering, opinion mining, social network, social network analysis

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21105 Digital Geography and Geographic Information System in Schools: Towards a Hierarchical Geospatial Approach

Authors: Mary Fargher


This paper examines the opportunities of using a more hierarchical approach to geospatial enquiry in using GIS in school geography. A case is made that it is not just the lack of teacher technological knowledge that is stopping some teachers from using GIS in the classroom but that there is a gap in their understanding of how to link GIS use more specifically to the pedagogy of teaching geography with GIS. Using a hierarchical approach to geospatial enquiry as a theoretical framework, the analysis shows clearly how concepts of spatial distribution, interaction, relation, comparison, and temporal relationships can be used by teachers more explicitly to capitalise on the analytical power of GIS and to construct what can be interpreted as powerful geographical knowledge. An exemplar illustrating this approach on the topic of geo-hazards is then presented for critical analysis and discussion. Recommendations are then made for a model of progression for geography teacher education with GIS through hierarchical geospatial enquiry that takes into account beginner, intermediate, and more advanced users.

Keywords: digital geography, GIS, education, hierarchical geospatial enquiry, powerful geographical knowledge

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21104 Meta-Learning for Hierarchical Classification and Applications in Bioinformatics

Authors: Fabio Fabris, Alex A. Freitas


Hierarchical classification is a special type of classification task where the class labels are organised into a hierarchy, with more generic class labels being ancestors of more specific ones. Meta-learning for classification-algorithm recommendation consists of recommending to the user a classification algorithm, from a pool of candidate algorithms, for a dataset, based on the past performance of the candidate algorithms in other datasets. Meta-learning is normally used in conventional, non-hierarchical classification. By contrast, this paper proposes a meta-learning approach for more challenging task of hierarchical classification, and evaluates it in a large number of bioinformatics datasets. Hierarchical classification is especially relevant for bioinformatics problems, as protein and gene functions tend to be organised into a hierarchy of class labels. This work proposes meta-learning approach for recommending the best hierarchical classification algorithm to a hierarchical classification dataset. This work’s contributions are: 1) proposing an algorithm for splitting hierarchical datasets into new datasets to increase the number of meta-instances, 2) proposing meta-features for hierarchical classification, and 3) interpreting decision-tree meta-models for hierarchical classification algorithm recommendation.

Keywords: algorithm recommendation, meta-learning, bioinformatics, hierarchical classification

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21103 Spatial Econometric Approaches for Count Data: An Overview and New Directions

Authors: Paula Simões, Isabel Natário


This paper reviews a number of theoretical aspects for implementing an explicit spatial perspective in econometrics for modelling non-continuous data, in general, and count data, in particular. It provides an overview of the several spatial econometric approaches that are available to model data that are collected with reference to location in space, from the classical spatial econometrics approaches to the recent developments on spatial econometrics to model count data, in a Bayesian hierarchical setting. Considerable attention is paid to the inferential framework, necessary for structural consistent spatial econometric count models, incorporating spatial lag autocorrelation, to the corresponding estimation and testing procedures for different assumptions, to the constrains and implications embedded in the various specifications in the literature. This review combines insights from the classical spatial econometrics literature as well as from hierarchical modeling and analysis of spatial data, in order to look for new possible directions on the processing of count data, in a spatial hierarchical Bayesian econometric context.

Keywords: spatial data analysis, spatial econometrics, Bayesian hierarchical models, count data

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21102 Image Segmentation Using 2-D Histogram in RGB Color Space in Digital Libraries

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed


This paper presents an unsupervised color image segmentation method. It is based on a hierarchical analysis of 2-D histogram in RGB color space. This histogram minimizes storage space of images and thus facilitates the operations between them. The improved segmentation approach shows a better identification of objects in a color image and, at the same time, the system is fast.

Keywords: image segmentation, hierarchical analysis, 2-D histogram, classification

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21101 Hierarchical Clustering Algorithms in Data Mining

Authors: Z. Abdullah, A. R. Hamdan


Clustering is a process of grouping objects and data into groups of clusters to ensure that data objects from the same cluster are identical to each other. Clustering algorithms in one of the areas in data mining and it can be classified into partition, hierarchical, density based, and grid-based. Therefore, in this paper, we do a survey and review for four major hierarchical clustering algorithms called CURE, ROCK, CHAMELEON, and BIRCH. The obtained state of the art of these algorithms will help in eliminating the current problems, as well as deriving more robust and scalable algorithms for clustering.

Keywords: clustering, unsupervised learning, algorithms, hierarchical

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21100 Electricity Generation from Renewables and Targets: An Application of Multivariate Statistical Techniques

Authors: Filiz Ersoz, Taner Ersoz, Tugrul Bayraktar


Renewable energy is referred to as "clean energy" and common popular support for the use of renewable energy (RE) is to provide electricity with zero carbon dioxide emissions. This study provides useful insight into the European Union (EU) RE, especially, into electricity generation obtained from renewables, and their targets. The objective of this study is to identify groups of European countries, using multivariate statistical analysis and selected indicators. The hierarchical clustering method is used to decide the number of clusters for EU countries. The conducted statistical hierarchical cluster analysis is based on the Ward’s clustering method and squared Euclidean distances. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified eight distinct clusters of European countries. Then, non-hierarchical clustering (k-means) method was applied. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the validity of the results with data normalized by Z score transformation. To explore the relationship between the selected indicators, correlation coefficients were computed. The results of the study reveal the current situation of RE in European Union Member States.

Keywords: share of electricity generation, k-means clustering, discriminant, CO2 emission

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21099 Hierarchical Tree Long Short-Term Memory for Sentence Representations

Authors: Xiuying Wang, Changliang Li, Bo Xu


A fixed-length feature vector is required for many machine learning algorithms in NLP field. Word embeddings have been very successful at learning lexical information. However, they cannot capture the compositional meaning of sentences, which prevents them from a deeper understanding of language. In this paper, we introduce a novel hierarchical tree long short-term memory (HTLSTM) model that learns vector representations for sentences of arbitrary syntactic type and length. We propose to split one sentence into three hierarchies: short phrase, long phrase and full sentence level. The HTLSTM model gives our algorithm the potential to fully consider the hierarchical information and long-term dependencies of language. We design the experiments on both English and Chinese corpus to evaluate our model on sentiment analysis task. And the results show that our model outperforms several existing state of the art approaches significantly.

Keywords: deep learning, hierarchical tree long short-term memory, sentence representation, sentiment analysis

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21098 Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering in a Wireless Sensor Network Using Quantitative Data

Authors: Tapan Jain, Davender Singh Saini


Clustering is a useful mechanism in wireless sensor networks which helps to cope with scalability and data transmission problems. The basic aim of our research work is to provide efficient clustering using Hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC). If the distance between the sensing nodes is calculated using their location then it’s quantitative HAC. This paper compares the various agglomerative clustering techniques applied in a wireless sensor network using the quantitative data. The simulations are done in MATLAB and the comparisons are made between the different protocols using dendrograms.

Keywords: routing, hierarchical clustering, agglomerative, quantitative, wireless sensor network

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21097 Investigation of Compressive Strength of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Bricks with Hierarchical Bayesian Path Analysis

Authors: Ersin Sener, Ibrahim Demir, Hasan Aykut Karaboga, Kadir Kilinc


Bayesian methods, which have very wide range of applications, are implemented to the data obtained from the production of F class fly ash-based geopolymer bricks’ experimental design. In this study, dependent variable is compressive strength, independent variables are treatment type (oven and steam), treatment time, molding time, temperature, water absorbtion ratio and density. The effect of independent variables on compressive strength is investigated. There is no difference among treatment types, but there is a correlation between independent variables. Therefore, hierarchical Bayesian path analysis is applied. In consequence of analysis we specified that treatment time, temperature and density effects on compressive strength is higher, molding time, and water absorbtion ratio is relatively low.

Keywords: experimental design, F class fly ash, geopolymer bricks, hierarchical Bayesian path analysis

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21096 Comparative Analysis of Effecting Factors on Fertility by Birth Order: A Hierarchical Approach

Authors: Ali Hesari, Arezoo Esmaeeli


Regarding to dramatic changes of fertility and higher order births during recent decades in Iran, access to knowledge about affecting factors on different birth orders has crucial importance. In this study, According to hierarchical structure of many of social sciences data and the effect of variables of different levels of social phenomena that determine different birth orders in 365 days ending to 1390 census have been explored by multilevel approach. In this paper, 2% individual row data for 1390 census is analyzed by HLM software. Three different hierarchical linear regression models are estimated for data analysis of the first and second, third, fourth and more birth order. Research results displays different outcomes for three models. Individual level variables entered in equation are; region of residence (rural/urban), age, educational level and labor participation status and province level variable is GDP per capita. Results show that individual level variables have different effects in these three models and in second level we have different random and fixed effects in these models.

Keywords: fertility, birth order, hierarchical approach, fixe effects, random effects

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21095 Knowledge Discovery from Production Databases for Hierarchical Process Control

Authors: Pavol Tanuska, Pavel Vazan, Michal Kebisek, Dominika Jurovata


The paper gives the results of the project that was oriented on the usage of knowledge discoveries from production systems for needs of the hierarchical process control. One of the main project goals was the proposal of knowledge discovery model for process control. Specifics data mining methods and techniques was used for defined problems of the process control. The gained knowledge was used on the real production system, thus, the proposed solution has been verified. The paper documents how it is possible to apply new discovery knowledge to be used in the real hierarchical process control. There are specified the opportunities for application of the proposed knowledge discovery model for hierarchical process control.

Keywords: hierarchical process control, knowledge discovery from databases, neural network, process control

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21094 Why Do We Need Hierachical Linear Models?

Authors: Mustafa Aydın, Ali Murat Sunbul


Hierarchical or nested data structures usually are seen in many research areas. Especially, in the field of education, if we examine most of the studies, we can see the nested structures. Students in classes, classes in schools, schools in cities and cities in regions are similar nested structures. In a hierarchical structure, students being in the same class, sharing the same physical conditions and similar experiences and learning from the same teachers, they demonstrate similar behaviors between them rather than the students in other classes.

Keywords: hierarchical linear modeling, nested data, hierarchical structure, data structure

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21093 Hydrothermally Fabricated 3-D Nanostructure Metal Oxide Sensors

Authors: Mohammad Alenezi


Hierarchical nanostructures with higher dimensionality, consisting of nanostructure building blocks such as nanowires, nanotubes, or nanosheets are very attractive. They hold great properties like the high surface-to-volume ratio and well-ordered porous structures, which can be very challenging to attain for other mono-morphological nanostructures. Well-ordered hierarchical nanostructures with high surface-to-volume ratios facilitate gas diffusion into their surfaces as well as scattering of light. Therefore, hierarchical nanostructures are expected to perform highly as gas sensors. A multistage controlled hydrothermal synthesis method to fabricate high-performance single ZnO brushlike hierarchical nanostructure gas sensor from initial nanowires is reported. The performance of the sensor based on brush-like hierarchical nanostructure is analyzed and compared to that of a nanowire gas sensor. The hierarchical gas sensor demonstrated high sensitivity toward low concentration of acetone at high speed of response. The enhancement in the hierarchical sensor performance is attributed to the increased surface to volume ratio, reduction in dimensionality of the nanowire building blocks, formation of junctions between the initial nanowire and the secondary nanowires, and enhanced gas diffusion into the surfaces of the hierarchical nanostructures.

Keywords: metal oxide, nanostructure, hydrothermal, sensor

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21092 A Model Based Metaheuristic for Hybrid Hierarchical Community Structure in Social Networks

Authors: Radhia Toujani, Jalel Akaichi


In recent years, the study of community detection in social networks has received great attention. The hierarchical structure of the network leads to the emergence of the convergence to a locally optimal community structure. In this paper, we aim to avoid this local optimum in the introduced hybrid hierarchical method. To achieve this purpose, we present an objective function where we incorporate the value of structural and semantic similarity based modularity and a metaheuristic namely bees colonies algorithm to optimize our objective function on both hierarchical level divisive and agglomerative. In order to assess the efficiency and the accuracy of the introduced hybrid bee colony model, we perform an extensive experimental evaluation on both synthetic and real networks.

Keywords: social network, community detection, agglomerative hierarchical clustering, divisive hierarchical clustering, similarity, modularity, metaheuristic, bee colony

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21091 Finding Related Scientific Documents Using Formal Concept Analysis

Authors: Nadeem Akhtar, Hira Javed


An important aspect of research is literature survey. Availability of a large amount of literature across different domains triggers the need for optimized systems which provide relevant literature to researchers. We propose a search system based on keywords for text documents. This experimental approach provides a hierarchical structure to the document corpus. The documents are labelled with keywords using KEA (Keyword Extraction Algorithm) and are automatically organized in a lattice structure using Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). This groups the semantically related documents together. The hierarchical structure, based on keywords gives out only those documents which precisely contain them. This approach open doors for multi-domain research. The documents across multiple domains which are indexed by similar keywords are grouped together. A hierarchical relationship between keywords is obtained. To signify the effectiveness of the approach, we have carried out the experiment and evaluation on Semeval-2010 Dataset. Results depict that the presented method is considerably successful in indexing of scientific papers.

Keywords: formal concept analysis, keyword extraction algorithm, scientific documents, lattice

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21090 An E-Assessment Website to Implement Hierarchical Aggregate Assessment

Authors: M. Lesage, G. Raîche, M. Riopel, F. Fortin, D. Sebkhi


This paper describes a Web server implementation of the hierarchical aggregate assessment process in the field of education. This process describes itself as a field of teamwork assessment where teams can have multiple levels of hierarchy and supervision. This process is applied everywhere and is part of the management, education, assessment and computer science fields. The E-Assessment website named “Cluster” records in its database the students, the course material, the teams and the hierarchical relationships between the students. For the present research, the hierarchical relationships are team member, team leader and group administrator appointments. The group administrators have the responsibility to supervise team leaders. The experimentation of the application has been performed by high school students in geology courses and Canadian army cadets for navigation patrols in teams. This research extends the work of Nance that uses a hierarchical aggregation process similar as the one implemented in the “Cluster” application.

Keywords: e-learning, e-assessment, teamwork assessment, hierarchical aggregate assessment

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21089 Detecting of Crime Hot Spots for Crime Mapping

Authors: Somayeh Nezami


The management of financial and human resources of police in metropolitans requires many information and exact plans to reduce a rate of crime and increase the safety of the society. Geographical Information Systems have an important role in providing crime maps and their analysis. By using them and identification of crime hot spots along with spatial presentation of the results, it is possible to allocate optimum resources while presenting effective methods for decision making and preventive solutions. In this paper, we try to explain and compare between some of the methods of hot spots analysis such as Mode, Fuzzy Mode and Nearest Neighbour Hierarchical spatial clustering (NNH). Then the spots with the highest crime rates of drug smuggling for one province in Iran with borderline with Afghanistan are obtained. We will show that among these three methods NNH leads to the best result.

Keywords: GIS, Hot spots, nearest neighbor hierarchical spatial clustering, NNH, spatial analysis of crime

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21088 Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Using the Tθ Family of Similarity Measures

Authors: Salima Kouici, Abdelkader Khelladi


In this work, we begin with the presentation of the Tθ family of usual similarity measures concerning multidimensional binary data. Subsequently, some properties of these measures are proposed. Finally, the impact of the use of different inter-elements measures on the results of the Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Methods is studied.

Keywords: binary data, similarity measure, Tθ measures, agglomerative hierarchical clustering

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
21087 Hierarchical Filtering Method of Threat Alerts Based on Correlation Analysis

Authors: Xudong He, Jian Wang, Jiqiang Liu, Lei Han, Yang Yu, Shaohua Lv


Nowadays, the threats of the internet are enormous and increasing; however, the classification of huge alert messages generated in this environment is relatively monotonous. It affects the accuracy of the network situation assessment, and also brings inconvenience to the security managers to deal with the emergency. In order to deal with potential network threats effectively and provide more effective data to improve the network situation awareness. It is essential to build a hierarchical filtering method to prevent the threats. In this paper, it establishes a model for data monitoring, which can filter systematically from the original data to get the grade of threats and be stored for using again. Firstly, it filters the vulnerable resources, open ports of host devices and services. Then use the entropy theory to calculate the performance changes of the host devices at the time of the threat occurring and filter again. At last, sort the changes of the performance value at the time of threat occurring. Use the alerts and performance data collected in the real network environment to evaluate and analyze. The comparative experimental analysis shows that the threat filtering method can effectively filter the threat alerts effectively.

Keywords: correlation analysis, hierarchical filtering, multisource data, network security

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21086 Semi-Supervised Hierarchical Clustering Given a Reference Tree of Labeled Documents

Authors: Ying Zhao, Xingyan Bin


Semi-supervised clustering algorithms have been shown effective to improve clustering process with even limited supervision. However, semi-supervised hierarchical clustering remains challenging due to the complexities of expressing constraints for agglomerative clustering algorithms. This paper proposes novel semi-supervised agglomerative clustering algorithms to build a hierarchy based on a known reference tree. We prove that by enforcing distance constraints defined by a reference tree during the process of hierarchical clustering, the resultant tree is guaranteed to be consistent with the reference tree. We also propose a framework that allows the hierarchical tree generation be aware of levels of levels of the agglomerative tree under creation, so that metric weights can be learned and adopted at each level in a recursive fashion. The experimental evaluation shows that the additional cost of our contraint-based semi-supervised hierarchical clustering algorithm (HAC) is negligible, and our combined semi-supervised HAC algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms on real-world datasets. The experiments also show that our proposed methods can improve clustering performance even with a small number of unevenly distributed labeled data.

Keywords: semi-supervised clustering, hierarchical agglomerative clustering, reference trees, distance constraints

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21085 Identify and Prioritize the Sustainable Development of Sports Venues Using New and Degradable Energies with a Hierarchical Analysis Approach

Authors: Mahsaossadat Pourrahmati Khelejan


The purpose of this research was to identify and prioritize the sustainable development of sports venues using new and degradable energies with using the AHP Hierarchical Analysis approach. The research method is a descriptive strategy with regard to the direction of implementation and is a hierarchical research with a practical purpose. In this study, 30 experts (physical education faculty members, geography professors, accredited sports venues managers, and renewable energy engineers) were selected using purposeful sampling method as the research population. The research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire on the factors affecting the sustainable development of sports venues by using new technologies and degradable energy. Finally, the research questionnaire was designed with four components and 21 items. All steps were performed by using Expert Choice software. The importance of indicators that influence the sustainable development of sports venues is highlighted by the use of clean and degradable energy, for example: 1. Economic factor, weighing 0.420 2. Environmental index, weighing 0. 320 3. Physical index, weighing 0.148 4. Social index, weighing 0.122.

Keywords: Sports Venues, Sustainable Development, Degradable Energies, Prioritize

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21084 Hierarchical Porous Carbon Composite Electrode for High Performance Supercapacitor Application

Authors: Chia-Chia Chang, Jhen-Ting Huang, Hu-Cheng Weng, An-Ya Lo


This study developed a simple hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) synthesis process and used for supercapacitor application. In which, mesopore provides huge specific surface area, meanwhile, macropore provides excellent mass transfer. Thus the hierarchical porous electrode improves the charge-discharge performance. On the other hand, cerium oxide (CeO2) have also got a lot research attention owing to its rich in content, low in price, environmentally friendly, good catalytic properties, and easy preparation. Besides, a rapid redox reaction occurs between trivalent cerium and tetravalent cerium releases oxygen atom and increase the conductivity. In order to prevent CeO2 from disintegration under long-term charge-discharge operation, the CeO2 carbon porous materials were was integrated as composite material in this study. For in the ex-situ analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis were adopted to identify the surface morphology, crystal structure, and microstructure of the composite. 77K Nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis was used to analyze the porosity of each specimen. For the in-situ test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) were conducted by potentiostat to understand the charge and discharge properties. Ragone plot was drawn to further analyze the resistance properties. Based on above analyses, the effect of macropores/mespores and the CeO2/HPC ratios on charge-discharge performance were investigated. As a result, the capacitance can be greatly enhanced by 2.6 times higher than pristine mesoporous carbon electrode.

Keywords: hierarchical porous carbon, cerium oxide, supercapacitor

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21083 Energy Planning Analysis of an Agritourism Complex Based on Energy Demand Simulation: A Case Study of Wuxi Yangshan Agritourism Complex

Authors: Li Zhu, Binghua Wang, Yong Sun


China is experiencing the rural development process, with the agritourism complex becoming one of the significant modes. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the energy performance of agritourism complex. This study focuses on a typical case of the agritourism complex and simulates the energy consumption performance on condition of the regular energy system. It was found that HVAC took 90% of the whole energy demand range. In order to optimize the energy supply structure, the hierarchical analysis was carried out on the level of architecture with three main factors such as construction situation, building types and energy demand types. Finally, the energy planning suggestion of the agritourism complex was put forward and the relevant results were obtained.

Keywords: agritourism complex, energy planning, energy demand simulation, hierarchical structure model

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21082 Exploring the Activity Fabric of an Intelligent Environment with Hierarchical Hidden Markov Theory

Authors: Chiung-Hui Chen


The Internet of Things (IoT) was designed for widespread convenience. With the smart tag and the sensing network, a large quantity of dynamic information is immediately presented in the IoT. Through the internal communication and interaction, meaningful objects provide real-time services for users. Therefore, the service with appropriate decision-making has become an essential issue. Based on the science of human behavior, this study employed the environment model to record the time sequences and locations of different behaviors and adopted the probability module of the hierarchical Hidden Markov Model for the inference. The statistical analysis was conducted to achieve the following objectives: First, define user behaviors and predict the user behavior routes with the environment model to analyze user purposes. Second, construct the hierarchical Hidden Markov Model according to the logic framework, and establish the sequential intensity among behaviors to get acquainted with the use and activity fabric of the intelligent environment. Third, establish the intensity of the relation between the probability of objects’ being used and the objects. The indicator can describe the possible limitations of the mechanism. As the process is recorded in the information of the system created in this study, these data can be reused to adjust the procedure of intelligent design services.

Keywords: behavior, big data, hierarchical hidden Markov model, intelligent object

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21081 An Exploratory Sequential Design: A Mixed Methods Model for the Statistics Learning Assessment with a Bayesian Network Representation

Authors: Zhidong Zhang


This study established a mixed method model in assessing statistics learning with Bayesian network models. There are three variants in exploratory sequential designs. There are three linked steps in one of the designs: qualitative data collection and analysis, quantitative measure, instrument, intervention, and quantitative data collection analysis. The study used a scoring model of analysis of variance (ANOVA) as a content domain. The research study is to examine students’ learning in both semantic and performance aspects at fine grain level. The ANOVA score model, y = α+ βx1 + γx1+ ε, as a cognitive task to collect data during the student learning process. When the learning processes were decomposed into multiple steps in both semantic and performance aspects, a hierarchical Bayesian network was established. This is a theory-driven process. The hierarchical structure was gained based on qualitative cognitive analysis. The data from students’ ANOVA score model learning was used to give evidence to the hierarchical Bayesian network model from the evidential variables. Finally, the assessment results of students’ ANOVA score model learning were reported. Briefly, this was a mixed method research design applied to statistics learning assessment. The mixed methods designs expanded more possibilities for researchers to establish advanced quantitative models initially with a theory-driven qualitative mode.

Keywords: exploratory sequential design, ANOVA score model, Bayesian network model, mixed methods research design, cognitive analysis

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21080 Ranking the Elements of Relationship Market Orientation Banks (Case Study: Saderat Bank of Iran)

Authors: Sahar Jami, Iman Valizadeh


Today banks not only should seek for new customers but also should consider previous maintenance and retention and establish a stable relationship with them. In this term, relationship-manner marketing seeks to make, maintain, and promote the relationship between customers and other stakeholders in benefits to fulfill all involved parties. This fact is possible just by interactive transaction and promises fulfillment. According to the importance of relationship-manner marketing in banks, making context to make relationship-manner marketing has high importance. Therefore, the present study aims at exploring intention condition to relationship-manner marketing in Iran Province Iran Limited bank, and also prioritizing its variables using hierarchical analysis (AHP). There is questionnaire designed in this research to paired comparison of relationship-manner marketing elements. After distributing this questionnaire among statistical society members who are 20 of Iran Limited bank experts, data analysis has been done by Expert Choice software.

Keywords: relationship marketing, relationship market orientation, Saderat Bank of Iran, hierarchical analysis

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21079 Re-Analyzing Energy-Conscious Design

Authors: Svetlana Pushkar, Oleg Verbitsky


An energy-conscious design for a classroom in a hot-humid climate is reanalyzed. The hypothesis of this study is that use of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation in building operation energy consumption will lead to re-analysis of the energy-conscious design. Therefore, the objective of this study is to reanalyze the energy-conscious design by evaluating the environmental impact of operational energy with PV electrical generation. Using the hierarchical design structure of Eco-indicator 99, the alternatives for energy-conscious variables are statistically evaluated by applying a two-stage nested (hierarchical) ANOVA. The recommendations for the preferred solutions for application of glazing types, wall insulation, roof insulation, window size, roof mass, and window shading design alternatives were changed (for example, glazing type recommendations were changed from low-emissivity glazing, green, and double- glazed windows to low-emissivity glazing only), whereas the applications for the lighting control system and infiltration are not changed. Such analysis of operational energy can be defined as environment-conscious analysis.

Keywords: ANOVA, Eco-Indicator 99, energy-conscious design, hot–humid climate, photovoltaic

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21078 Comprehensive Risk Analysis of Decommissioning Activities with Multifaceted Hazard Factors

Authors: Hyeon-Kyo Lim, Hyunjung Kim, Kune-Woo Lee


Decommissioning process of nuclear facilities can be said to consist of a sequence of problem solving activities, partly because there may exist working environments contaminated by radiological exposure, and partly because there may also exist industrial hazards such as fire, explosions, toxic materials, and electrical and physical hazards. As for an individual hazard factor, risk assessment techniques are getting known to industrial workers with advance of safety technology, but the way how to integrate those results is not. Furthermore, there are few workers who experienced decommissioning operations a lot in the past. Therefore, not a few countries in the world have been trying to develop appropriate counter techniques in order to guarantee safety and efficiency of the process. In spite of that, there still exists neither domestic nor international standard since nuclear facilities are too diverse and unique. In the consequence, it is quite inevitable to imagine and assess the whole risk in the situation anticipated one by one. This paper aimed to find out an appropriate technique to integrate individual risk assessment results from the viewpoint of experts. Thus, on one hand the whole risk assessment activity for decommissioning operations was modeled as a sequence of individual risk assessment steps, and on the other, a hierarchical risk structure was developed. Then, risk assessment procedure that can elicit individual hazard factors one by one were introduced with reference to the standard operation procedure (SOP) and hierarchical task analysis (HTA). With an assumption of quantification and normalization of individual risks, a technique to estimate relative weight factors was tried by using the conventional Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP) and its result was reviewed with reference to judgment of experts. Besides, taking the ambiguity of human judgment into consideration, debates based upon fuzzy inference was added with a mathematical case study.

Keywords: decommissioning, risk assessment, analytic hierarchical process (AHP), fuzzy inference

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21077 Effects of Hierarchy on Poisson’s Ratio and Phononic Bandgaps of Two-Dimensional Honeycomb Structures

Authors: Davood Mousanezhad, Ashkan Vaziri


As a traditional cellular structure, hexagonal honeycombs are known for their high strength-to-weight ratio. Here, we introduce a class of fractal-appearing hierarchical metamaterials by replacing the vertices of the original non-hierarchical hexagonal grid with smaller hexagons and iterating this process to achieve higher levels of hierarchy. It has been recently shown that the isotropic in-plane Young's modulus of this hierarchical structure at small deformations becomes 25 times greater than its regular counterpart with the same mass. At large deformations, we find that hierarchy-dependent elastic buckling introduced at relatively early stages of deformation decreases the value of Poisson's ratio as the structure is compressed uniaxially leading to auxeticity (i.e., negative Poisson's ratio) in subsequent stages of deformation. We also show that the topological hierarchical architecture and instability-induced pattern transformations of the structure under compression can be effectively used to tune the propagation of elastic waves within the structure. We find that the hierarchy tends to shift the existing phononic bandgaps (defined as frequency ranges of strong wave attenuation) to lower frequencies while opening up new bandgaps. Deformation is also demonstrated as another mechanism for opening more bandgaps in hierarchical structures. The results provide new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in regulating mechanical properties of materials at both the static and dynamic regimes.

Keywords: cellular structures, honeycombs, hierarchical structures, metamaterials, multifunctional structures, phononic crystals, auxetic structures

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