Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: Adewale Olabisi

33 The Place of Inclusive Education in the Transformative Education of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Adewale Olabisi

Abstract:

The society has bastion of people with diverse kinds of special needs which invariably affect the kind of education that is provided to this category of children. Most schools for pupils with intellectual disabilities seem not to be achieving the objectives it was set out to achieve. Hence, there is the need to provide transformative education for these children with intellectual disabilities which can only be achieved in an inclusive educational setting. However, achieving this has been a great challenge in Nigeria. This paper, however, dealt with the urgent need for transformative teaching for persons with intellectual disabilities in readiness for them to be accepted in the society and also enhance their self-concept and perception which in turn will make a way for their self-sustenance. Suggestions and recommendations that will better enhance the full implementation of transformative teaching for pupils with intellectual disabilities in an inclusive environment were also made.

Keywords: inclusive education, transformative education, intellectual disabilities, Oyo state, Nigeria

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32 Effect of a Reactive Dye-Resin Complex on Dyeing Properties of Cotton Fabrics

Authors: Nurudeen Afolami Ayeni, Kasali Adewale Bello

Abstract:

Study of the effect of dye-resin complexation on the degree of dye absorption were carried out using Procion Blue MX-R to dye cotton fabric in the presence hexamethylol melamine (MR6) and its phosphate derivative (MPR4) for resination. The highest degree of dye exhaustion was obtained at 400C for 1 hour with the resinated fabric showing more affinity for the dye than the ordinary fibre. Improved fastness properties was recorded which show a relatively higher stability of dye-resin complex formed in the fibre.

Keywords: affinity, cotton, dyeing, reactive dye, resination

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31 Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Some Acid Dyes Derived from 1-Amino-4 Bromo-Anthraquine-2-Sulphonic Acid

Authors: Nuradeen Abdullahi Nadabo, Kasali Adewale Bello, Istifanus Chindo, Nurudeen Ayeni

Abstract:

Ten acid dyes were synthesized from 1-amino-4-bromo anthraghinone-2 sulphuric acid by condensation with different substituted amilines. These dyes were characterized by IR Spectroscopy and the results revealed an incorporation of various substituents. Application of these dyes were carried out on Nylon and wool fabrics using standard procedure melting point, percentage yield, molar extinction coefficient, wash, light and staining of adjacent fibre, of these dyes were also evaluated and the results obtained are within a reasonable range acceptable for commercial dyes.

Keywords: acid dyes, dyeing, exhaustion, extinction co-efficient

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30 Synthesis and Characterization of Some Mono Chloro-S-Triazine Vinyl Sulphone Reactive Dyes

Authors: Nuradeen Abdullahi Nadabo, Kasali Adewale Bello, Chindo Istifanus

Abstract:

A series of ten bi functional mono-chloro-s-triazine vinyl sulphone reactive dyes were synthesized based on H-acid with varied substituents coded as (BRD). These dyes were characterized by IR spectroscopy. The results revealed an incorporation of various substituents. The visible absorption spectra of these dyes were examined in various solvents and results shows positive and negative salvatochromism as the solvent polarity; changes, melting point, percentage yield and molar extinction co-efficient of these dyes were also evaluated and the results obtained are within a reasonable range acceptable for commercial dyeing.

Keywords: bifunctional, characterization, reactive dyes, synthesis

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29 Economic Environment and Entrepreneurial Development in Lagos and Ogun States, Nigeria

Authors: Jayeola Olabisi, T. Olawale Oladunjoye, Ademola A. Adewumi

Abstract:

The study empirically examines the relationship that exists between the economic environment and entrepreneurial development in Nigeria. A structured questionnaire is administered on the study and data collected are analysed using Analysis of Variance and Regression. The following variables are indices of determination; Interest Rate (IR); Income Tax (IT). The results of the study show that there is a significant relationship between IR and ED in Nigeria (p < 0.5) with a positive correlation (r=0.526, r2=0.276). Also, there is a significant relationship between IT and ED in Nigeria (p < 0.05), with a positive association (r=0.546; r2=0.299). The study concludes that the emergence of the higher level of the stable economic environment is critical to entrepreneurial development in Nigeria. Therefore, government involvement in public private partnership for infrastructural development, enlargement of productive, judicious and transparent use of funds collected from income tax and affordable interest rate will galvanise the inward sourcing of raw materials that boost entrepreneurial development in Nigeria.

Keywords: interest rate, income tax, business environment and entrepreneurial development

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28 Strategic Partnerships for Sustainable Tourism Development in Papua New Guinea

Authors: Zainab Olabisi Tairu

Abstract:

Strategic partnerships are a core requirement in delivering sustainable tourism for development in developing nations like Papua New Guinea. This paper unveils the strategic partnerships for sustainable tourism development in Papua New Guinea. Much emphasis is made among tourism stakeholders, on the importance of strategic partnership and positioning in developing sustainable tourism development. This paper engages stakeholders’ ecotourism differentiation and power relations in the discussion of the paper through interviews and observations with tourism stakeholders in Papua New Guinea. Collaborative approaches in terms of sustaining the tourism industry, having a milestone of achieved plans, are needed for tourism growth and development. This paper adds a new insight to the body of knowledge on stakeholders’ identification, formation, power relations and an integrated approach to successful tourism development. In order to achieve responsible tourism planning and management outcomes, partnerships must be holistic in perspective and based on sustainable development principles.

Keywords: stakeholders, sustainable tourism, Papua New Guinea, partnerships

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27 Physical Properties of Nine Nigerian Staple Food Flours Related to Bulk Handling and Processing

Authors: Ogunsina Babatunde, Aregbesola Omotayo, Adebayo Adewale, Odunlami Johnson

Abstract:

The physical properties of nine Nigerian staple food flours related to bulk handling and processing were investigated following standard procedures. The results showed that the moisture content, bulk density, angle of repose, water absorption capacity, swelling index, dispersability, pH and wettability of the flours ranged from 9.95 to 11.98%, 0.44 to 0.66 g/cm3, 31.43 to 39.65o, 198.3 to 291.7 g of water/100 g of sample, 5.53 to 7.63, 60.3 to 73.8%, 4.43 to 6.70, and 11 to 150 s. The particle size analysis of the flour samples indicated significant differences (p<0.05). The least gelation concentration of the flour samples ranged from 6 to 14%. The colour of the flours fell between light and saturated, with the exception of cassava, millet and maize flours which appear dark and dull. The properties of food flours depend largely on the inherent property of the food material and may influence their functional behaviour as food materials.

Keywords: properties, flours, staple food, bulk handling

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26 Appraisal of Parents' Views and Supervision of Their Children's Use of Information Communication Technology

Authors: Olabisi Adedigba

Abstract:

It is a fundamental truth that Information Communication Technology (ICT) lies at the very heart of our today’s society and determines its development. The use of ICT has given a boost to the educational and mental development of an average pupil of this age far above their counterparts who lived centuries ago. Nevertheless, the present age children stand the risk of the scourge of this technology if proactive measures are not taken urgently to arrest the damages of its negative use on them. One of the measures that can be taken is supervision of children’s use of ICT. This research therefore investigated parents’ views and supervision of their children’s use of Information Communication Technology. Descriptive design was adopted for this study. 300 parents were randomly selected. “Parents’ Views and Supervision of Children’s Use of ICT” was used to collect data for the study. Data collected were analyzed using percentage, mean, standard deviation and t-test. The result revealed that parents’ view of their children’s use of ICT is negative while supervision of their children’s use of ICT is low. Recommendations were thus offered that schools and other stakeholders should educate parents on children’s proper utilization of ICT and parents are urged to maintain adequate supervision on their children use of ICT.

Keywords: appraisal of parents’ views and supervision, children’s use, information communication technology, t-test

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25 Trajectory Tracking Controller Based on Normalized Right Coprime Factorization Technique for the Ball and Plate System

Authors: Martins Olatunbosun Babatunde, Muhammed Bashir Muazu, Emmanuel Adewale Adedokun

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a double-loop trajectory-tracking controller for the ball and plate system (BPS) using the Normalized Right Coprime Factorization (NRCF) scheme.The Linear Algebraic (LA) method is used to design the inner loop required to stabilize the ball, while H-infinity NRCF method, that involved the lead-lag compensator design approach, is used to develop the outer loop that controls the plate. Simulation results show that the plate was stabilized at 0.2989 seconds and the ball was able to settle after 0.9646 seconds, with a trajectory tracking error of 0.0036. This shows that the controller has good adaptability and robustness.

Keywords: ball and plate system, normalized right coprime factorization, linear algebraic method, compensator, controller, tracking.

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24 Incidence of Disasters and Coping Mechanism among Farming Households in South West Nigeria

Authors: Fawehinmi Olabisi Alaba, O. R. Adeniyi

Abstract:

Farming households faces lots of disaster which contribute to endemic poverty. Anticipated increases in extreme weather events will exacerbate this. Primary data was administered to farming household using multi-stage random sampling technique. The result of the analysis shows that majority of the respondents (69.9%) are male, have mean household size, years of formal education and age of 5±1.14, 6±3.41, and 51.06±10.43 respectively. The major (48.9%) type of disaster experienced is flooding. Major coping mechanism adopted is sourcing for support from family and friends. Age, education, experience, access to extension agent, and mitigation control method contribute significantly to vulnerability to disaster. The major adaptation method (62.3%) is construction of drainage. The study revealed that the coping mechanisms employed may become less effective as increasingly fragile livelihood systems struggle to withstand disaster shocks. Thus there is need for training of the farmers on measures to adapt to mitigate the shock from disasters.

Keywords: adaptation, disasters, flooding, vulnerability

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23 Improving Communication System through Router Configuration: The Nigerian Navy Experience

Authors: Saidu I. Rambo, Emmanuel O. Ibam, Sunday O. Adewale

Abstract:

The configuration of routers for effective communication in the Nigerian Navy (NN) enables the navy to improve on the current communication systems. The current system is faced with challenges that make the systems partially effective. The major implementation of the system is to configure routers using hierarchical model and obtaining a VSAT option on C-band platform. These routers will act as a link between Naval Headquarters and the Commands under it. The routers main responsibilities are to forward packets from source location to destination using a Link State Routing Protocol (LSRP). Also using the Point to Point Protocol (PPP), creates a strong encrypted password using Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) which uses one-way hash function of Message Digest 5 (MD5) to provide complete protection against hackers/intruders. Routers can be configured using a Linux operating system or internet work operating system in the Microsoft platform. With this, system packets can be forwarded to various locations more effectively than the present system being used.

Keywords: C-band, communication, router, VSAT

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22 Perceived Influence of Information Communication Technology on Empowerment Amongst the College of Education Physical and Health Education Students in Oyo State

Authors: I. O. Oladipo, Olusegun Adewale Ajayi, Omoniyi Oladipupo Adigun

Abstract:

Information Communication Technology (ICT) have the potential to contribute to different facets of educational development and effective learning; expanding access, promoting efficiency, improve the quality of learning, enhancing the quality of teaching and provide important mechanism for the economic crisis. Considering the prevalence of unemployment among the higher institution graduates in this nation, in which much seems not to have been achieved in this direction. In view of this, the purpose of this study is to create an awareness and enlightenment of ICT for empowerment opportunities after school. A self-developed modified 4-likert scale questionnaire was used for data collection among Colleges of Education, Physical and Health Education students in Oyo State. Inferential statistical analysis of chi-square set at 0.05 alpha levels was used to analyze the stated hypotheses. The study concludes that awareness and enlightenment of ICT significantly influence empowerment opportunities and recommended that college of education students should be encouraged on the application of ICT for job opportunity after school.

Keywords: employment, empowerment, information communication technology, physical education

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21 Assessment of Women Involvement in Fishing Activities: A Case Study of Epe and Ibeju Lekki LGA, Lagos

Authors: Temitope Adewale, Oladapo Raji

Abstract:

The study was designed to investigate the assessment of women's involvement in fishing. In order to give the study a direction, five research questions, as well as two hypotheses, were postulated, and a total of fifty (50) respondents each were selected from two local government areas for the study. This brings a total of one hundred (100) respondents selected from these local government areas in Lagos state. The outcome of the finding indicates that the percentage of the respondents’ age, 49% was between 31 and 35 years, 56% has a working experience of 6-10 years, 61% were married, 69% had secondary education as their educational level. However, findings show that socio-economic characteristics (x2 =15.504, df=6, p < 0.05) and income (r=0.83, p < 0.05) have a significant relationship on the fishing. It was established that the Women in Fish production/processing were faced with a lot of constraints such as high cost of inputs, inadequate electricity supply, lack of adequate capital, non-availability of the improved oven, non-availability of extension agents, inadequate fish landing, lack of transportation facilities, lack of training on financial management and loan acquisition which affected the level of output of women in Fish processing adversely.

Keywords: women, fishing, agriculture, Lagos

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20 Effects of Air Pollution on Dew Water: A Case Study of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Authors: M. Sanmi Awopetu, Olugbenga Aribisala, Olabisi O. Ologuntoye, S. Olumuyi Akindele

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Human existence vis-à-vis its environment is more and more getting a threatened sequel to air pollution occasioned majorly by human coupled with natural activities. Earth is getting warmer; ozone layer is getting depleted, acid rain is being experienced, all as a result of air pollution. This study seeks to investigate the effect of air pollution on dew water. Thirty-one (31) samples of dew water were collected in four locations in Ado- Ekiti, Ekiti State Nigeria. Analytical studies of the dew water samples were carried out to determine the pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) in order to determine whether the dew water is polluted or not. There is no documented world standard for dew water quality. However, the standard for normal rain water which is pH between 5.0-5.6 and acid rain pH between 4.0-4.4 was adopted for this study. The pH of dew water samples collected and analyzed ranged between 5.5 and 7.9 in Olokun Ado-Ekiti while other samples fell in between this range. In Government Reserved Area (GRA), Ajilosun and EKSU school area, the pH ranged between 6.4 and 7.9 while EC fell in between 0.0 and 0.9 mS/cm which shows that the observed zones are polluted. Everyone has a role to play in order to reduce the pollutants being released into the atmosphere. There is a need to develop an international standard for dew water quality.

Keywords: dew, air pollution, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, Ado-Ekiti

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19 Influence of Facilities, Equipment and Nutrition on Athletes Performance at the West African Universities Games Competitions

Authors: Abdulai Afolabi Ahmed

Abstract:

The research was undertaken to examine the influence of sports facilities, equipment, and nutrition on athletes' performance in West-Africa Universities Games (WAUG) with the objectives of finding the areas of success and failure. Relevant literatures were reviewed. The survey research design was adopted for the study. Availability of facilities, equipment and nutrition questionnaire (AFENQ) was administered on hundred (n-100) participants - athletes from five Nigerian Universities from South-West, Nigeria which included Federal University of Technology, Akure, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Lagos State University, Oyo, Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Awoye and Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti. Nigeria. The tests re-test reliability value obtained from the instrument using Pearson Product Moment Correlation co-efficient of 0.86 was used to analyze the result. While the questionnaire collected was subjected to influential descriptive statistics of multiple regression to analyse the data. The results of the data showed that facilities, equipment, and nutrition variables when taken together effectively predict the performance of the athletes during WAUG competitions. The implication is that sports organizers should provide sports resources for the improved performance of the athletes, and that, university managers should employ nutritionist to plan and prepare food for the university athletes before and after major competitions.

Keywords: athletes, equipment, extramural, influence, nutrition, performance

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18 A Recommender System for Dynamic Selection of Undergraduates' Elective Courses

Authors: Adewale O. Ogunde, Emmanuel O. Ajibade

Abstract:

The task of selecting a few elective courses from a variety of available elective courses has been a difficult one for many students over the years. In many higher institutions, guidance and counselors or level advisers are usually employed to assist the students in picking the right choice of courses. In reality, these counselors and advisers are most times overloaded with too many students to attend to, and sometimes they do not have enough time for the students. Most times, the academic strength of the student based on past results are not considered in the new choice of electives. Recommender systems implement advanced data analysis techniques to help users find the items of their interest by producing a predicted likeliness score or a list of top recommended items for a given active user. Therefore, in this work, a collaborative filtering-based recommender system that will dynamically recommend elective courses to undergraduate students based on their past grades in related courses was developed. This approach employed the use of the k-nearest neighbor algorithm to discover hidden relationships between the related courses passed by students in the past and the currently available elective courses. Real students’ results dataset was used to build and test the recommendation model. The developed system will not only improve the academic performance of students, but it will also help reduce the workload on the level advisers and school counselors.

Keywords: collaborative filtering, elective courses, k-nearest neighbor algorithm, recommender systems

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17 Estimation of Heritability and Repeatability for Pre-Weaning Body Weights of Domestic Rabbits Raised in Derived Savanna Zone of Nigeria

Authors: Adewale I. Adeolu, Vivian U. Oleforuh-Okoleh, Sylvester N. Ibe

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Heritability and repeatability estimates are needed for the genetic evaluation of livestock populations and consequently for the purpose of upgrading or improvement. Pooled data on 604 progeny from three consecutive parities of purebred rabbit breeds (Chinchilla, Dutch and New Zealand white) raised in Derived Savanna Zone of Nigeria were used to estimate heritability and repeatability for pre-weaning body weights between 1st and 8th week of age. Traits studied include Individual kit weight at birth (IKWB), 2nd week (IK2W), 4th week (IK4W), 6th week (IK6W) and 8th week (IK8W). Nested random effects analysis of (Co)variances as described by Statistical Analysis System (SAS) were employed in the estimation. Respective heritability estimates from the sire component (h2s) and repeatability (R) as intra-class correlations of repeated measurements from the three parties for IKWB, IK2W, IK4W and IK8W are 0.59±0.24, 0.55±0.24, 0.93±0.31, 0.28±0.17, 0.64±0.26 and 0.12±0.14, 0.05±0.14, 0.58±0.02, 0.60±0.11, 0.20±0.14. Heritability and repeatability (except R for IKWB and IK2W) estimates are moderate to high. In conclusion, since pre-weaning body weights in the present study tended to be moderately to highly heritable and repeatable, improvement of rabbits raised in derived savanna zone can be realized through genetic selection criterions.

Keywords: heritability, nested design, parity, pooled data, repeatability

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16 An Adaptive Distributed Incremental Association Rule Mining System

Authors: Adewale O. Ogunde, Olusegun Folorunso, Adesina S. Sodiya

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Most existing Distributed Association Rule Mining (DARM) systems are still facing several challenges. One of such challenges that have not received the attention of many researchers is the inability of existing systems to adapt to constantly changing databases and mining environments. In this work, an Adaptive Incremental Mining Algorithm (AIMA) is therefore proposed to address these problems. AIMA employed multiple mobile agents for the entire mining process. AIMA was designed to adapt to changes in the distributed databases by mining only the incremental database updates and using this to update the existing rules in order to improve the overall response time of the DARM system. In AIMA, global association rules were integrated incrementally from one data site to another through Results Integration Coordinating Agents. The mining agents in AIMA were made adaptive by defining mining goals with reasoning and behavioral capabilities and protocols that enabled them to either maintain or change their goals. AIMA employed Java Agent Development Environment Extension for designing the internal agents’ architecture. Results from experiments conducted on real datasets showed that the adaptive system, AIMA performed better than the non-adaptive systems with lower communication costs and higher task completion rates.

Keywords: adaptivity, data mining, distributed association rule mining, incremental mining, mobile agents

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15 Starting Order Eight Method Accurately for the Solution of First Order Initial Value Problems of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: James Adewale, Joshua Sunday

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In this paper, we developed a linear multistep method, which is implemented in predictor corrector-method. The corrector is developed by method of collocation and interpretation of power series approximate solutions at some selected grid points, to give a continuous linear multistep method, which is evaluated at some selected grid points to give a discrete linear multistep method. The predictors were also developed by method of collocation and interpolation of power series approximate solution, to give a continuous linear multistep method. The continuous linear multistep method is then solved for the independent solution to give a continuous block formula, which is evaluated at some selected grid point to give discrete block method. Basic properties of the corrector were investigated and found to be zero stable, consistent and convergent. The efficiency of the method was tested on some linear, non-learn, oscillatory and stiff problems of first order, initial value problems of ordinary differential equations. The results were found to be better in terms of computer time and error bound when compared with the existing methods.

Keywords: predictor, corrector, collocation, interpolation, approximate solution, independent solution, zero stable, consistent, convergent

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14 Effect of Credit Use on Technical Efficiency of Cassava Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Adewale Oladapo, Carolyn A. Afolami

Abstract:

Agricultural production should be the major financial contributor to the Nigerian economy; however, the petroleum sector had taken the importance attached to this sector. The situation tends to be more worsening unless necessary attention is given to adequate credit supply among food crop farmers. This research analyses the effect of credit use on the technical efficiency of cassava farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from two hundred randomly selected cassava farmers through a multistage sampling procedure in the study area. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). Findings revealed that 95.0% of the farmers were male while 56.0% had no formal education and were married. The SFA showed that cassava farmer’s efficiency increased with farm size, herbicide and planting material at 5%,10% and 1% respectively but decreased with fertilizer application at 1% level while farmers’ age, education, household size, experience and access to credit increased technical inefficiency at 10%. The study concluded that cassava farmers are technically inefficient in the use of farm resources and recommended that adequate and workable agricultural policy measures that will ensure availability and efficient fertilizer distribution should be put in place to increase efficiency. Furthermore, the government should encourage youth participation in cassava production and ensure improvement in farmer’s access to credit to increase farmer’s technical efficiency.

Keywords: agriculture, access to credit, cassava farmers, technical efficiency

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13 Modern Agriculture and Industrialization Nexus in the Nigerian Context

Authors: Ese Urhie, Olabisi Popoola, Obindah Gershon, Olabanji Ewetan

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Modern agriculture involves the use of improved tools and equipment (instead of crude and ineffective tools) like tractors, hand operated planters, hand operated fertilizer drills and combined harvesters - which increase agricultural productivity. Farmers in Nigeria still have huge potentials to enhance their productivity. The study argues that the increase in agricultural output due to increased productivity, orchestrated by modern agriculture will promote forward linkages and opportunities in the processing sub-sector; both the manufacturing of machines and the processing of raw materials. Depending on existing incentives, foreign investment could be attracted to augment local investment in the sector. The availability of raw materials in large quantity – which prices are competitive – will attract investment in other industries. In addition, potentials for backward linkages will also be created. In a nutshell, adopting the unbalanced growth theory in favour of the agricultural sector could engender industrialization in a country with untapped potentials. The paper highlights the numerous potentials of modern agriculture that are yet to be tapped in Nigeria and also provides a theoretical analysis of how the realization of such potentials could promote industrialization in the country. The study adopts the Lewis’ theory of structural–change model and Hirschman’s theory of unbalanced growth in the design of the analytical framework. The framework will be useful in empirical studies that will guide policy formulation.

Keywords: modern agriculture, industrialization, structural change model, unbalanced growth

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12 People Living with HIV/AIDS: In the Face of Social Stigma and the Role of Therapeutic Communication

Authors: Semiu Bello

Abstract:

Since the discovery of HIV/AIDS in 1981, it has been a major global challenge and its ravaging consequences have had negative imprints on both the affected and infected people. The challenge of HIV/AIDS does not only affect the developing countries of the world, the developed nations have had their share of the experiences. The disease has, therefore, attracted the attentions of national governments and international donor agencies with huge financial investments toward the eradication of the virus and its global menace. Socially, however, people living with HIV/AIDS have had to battle with an array of social challenges in regards to the infection; the social stigmas, which seem to be more prevalent in underdeveloped and developing societies. The social stigmas with which people living with HIV/AIDS have suffered from include, but not limited, to social isolation, group avoidance, loss of jobs, public ridicule and non-appointment to official and government positions. Given this background, this study examines the roles of therapeutic communication otherwise called patient-provider communication within a clinical environment, focusing on Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH) Sagamu, Nigeria as a case study. In other words, this study will investigate the level of interpersonal communication, interactions, and relationships that often take place between people living with HIV/AIDS and health care providers including doctors, nurses and social workers. This study will methodologically adopt the in-depth interview to interview six members of people living with HIV/AIDS at OOUTH. The dimensions of the data will determine the policy prescriptions of this study, which as envisage, may contribute to the improved use of therapeutic communication by health care providers and may thereof improve the psychology of people living with HIV/AIDS in the face of any social stigma.

Keywords: health care providers, people living with HIV/AIDS, social stigma, therapeutic communication

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11 Slum Dwellers Residential Location Choices Decision: A Determinant of Slum Growth in Lagos Mega City

Authors: Olabisi Badmos, Daniel Callo-Concha, Babatunde Agbola, Andreas Rienow, Klaus Greve, Carsten Jurgens

Abstract:

Slums are important components of city development planning, especially in Africa where slum growth is on par with urban growth. Purposefully, our knowledge on the residential choice of slum dwellers, which contributes to population growth in slums, is limited. This is the case in Lagos, a megacity reportedly dominated by slum dwellers. Thus, this study aims to disclose the factors influencing the residential choices and causes of people to remain in Lagos slums. Data was collected through questionnaire administration and focus group discussions. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and describe the factors influencing residential location choice; logistic regression was utilized to determine the extent to which the neighborhood and household attributes, influence slum dwellers decisions to remain in the slums. Results showed that movement to Lagos was the main cause of population growth in slums; most of the migrants were from closer geopolitical zones (in Nigeria). Further, the movement patterns observed support two theories of human mobility in slums: slum as a sink, and as a final destination. Also, the factors that brought most of the slum dwellers to the slums (cheap housing, proximity to work etc.) differs from the ones that made them stay (Gender, employment status, housing status etc.). This study concludes that residential choice and intention to stay are the major contributors to population growth in a slum. It is therefore important for Lagos state Government to incorporate these elements of residential choices of slum dwellers in their slum management policies if the city aims to be free of slums by 2030

Keywords: Lagos, population growth, residential decision choices, slum

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10 Influence of Procrastination on Academic Achievement of Students in Tertiary Institutions in Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Usman Tunde Saadu, Adedayo Adesokan, Raseed Adewale Hamsat

Abstract:

This study examined the influence of procrastination on the academic achievement of students in tertiary institutions in Kwara State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey was adopted for this study and the total number of 300 respondents participated in the study. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 3 institutions and 30 departments respectively. Systematic sampling technique was used to select 10 final year students in each department. Two instruments were used to obtain data from the respondents. Procrastination Assessment Scale adapted from Solomon and Rothblum (1984) and a proforma designed by researchers to obtain students CGPA in 2013/2014 academic session. The reliability score of 0.80 was obtained for the instrument using split half method. One research question and one hypothesis were postulated for this study. Percentage was employed to answer research question while research hypothesis was tested with t-test statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significant. The findings of this study revealed that most of final year students in tertiary institutions in Kwara State procrastinated because 82.3% engaged in procrastination while 17.7% did not procrastinate. Also, the study revealed that there was a significant difference between the academic achievement of tertiary institution students who procrastinate and those who did not procrastinate (cal. t-value =2.634 < critical t-value = 1.960). Students who did not engage in act of procrastinate achieved better academically than students who engage in procrastination. Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made; procrastination as a concept, should be taught at the various institutions so that students will understand what the concept is all about. Guidance and counsellor and educational psychologists should be employed at various institutions to handle students who procrastinate so that appropriate methods will be recommended so solve the problem.

Keywords: academic, achievement, procrastination, institution

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9 Effect of Micro Credit Access on Poverty Reduction among Small Scale Women Entrepreneurs in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Adewale Oladapo, C. A. Afolami

Abstract:

The study analyzed the effect of micro credit access on poverty reduction among small scale women entrepreneurs in Ondo state, Nigeria. Primary data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 100 randomly selected woman entrepreneurs. These were drawn in multistage sampling process covering four local government areas (LGAS). Data collected include socio economics characteristics of respondents, access to micro credit, sources of micro credit, and constraints faced by the entrepreneur in sourcing for micro credit. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) index of poverty measure, Gini coefficients and probit regression analysis. The study found that respondents sampled for the survey were within the age range of 31-40 years with mean age 38.6%. Mostly (56.0%) of the respondents were educated to the tune of primary school. Majority (87.0%) of the respondents were married with fairly large household size of (4-5). The poverty index analysis revealed that most (67%) of the sample respondents were poor. The result of the Probit regression analyzed showed that income was a significant variable in micro credit access, while the result of the Gini coefficient revealed a very high income inequality among the respondents. The study concluded that most of the respondents were poor and return on investment (income) was an important variable that increased the chance of respondents in sourcing for micro-credit loan and recommended that income realized by entrepreneur should be properly documented to facilitate loan accessibility.

Keywords: entrepreneurs, income, micro-credit, poverty

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8 The Effect of Reaction Time on the Morphology and Phase of Quaternary Ferrite Nanoparticles (FeCoCrO₄) Synthesised from a Single Source Precursor

Authors: Khadijat Olabisi Abdulwahab, Mohammad Azad Malik, Paul O'Brien, Grigore Timco, Floriana Tuna

Abstract:

The synthesis of spinel ferrite nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution is very crucial in their numerous applications including information storage, hyperthermia treatment, drug delivery, contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging, catalysis, sensors, and environmental remediation. Ferrites have the general formula MFe₂O₄ (M = Fe, Co, Mn, Ni, Zn e.t.c) and possess remarkable electrical and magnetic properties which depend on the cations, method of preparation, size and their site occupancies. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on the use of a single source precursor to synthesise quaternary ferrite nanoparticles. Here in, we demonstrated the use of trimetallic iron pivalate cluster [CrCoFeO(O₂CᵗBu)₆(HO₂CᵗBu)₃] as a single source precursor to synthesise monodisperse cobalt chromium ferrite (FeCoCrO₄) nanoparticles by the hot injection thermolysis method. The precursor was thermolysed in oleylamine, oleic acid, with diphenyl ether as solvent at 260 °C. The effect of reaction time on the stoichiometry, phases or morphology of the nanoparticles was studied. The p-XRD patterns of the nanoparticles obtained after one hour was pure phase of cubic iron cobalt chromium ferrite (FeCoCrO₄). TEM showed that a more monodispersed spherical ferrite nanoparticles were obtained after one hour. Magnetic measurements revealed that the ferrite particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The nanoparticles were characterised by Powder X-ray Diffraction (p-XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID).

Keywords: cobalt chromium ferrite, colloidal, hot injection thermolysis, monodisperse, reaction time, single source precursor, quaternary ferrite nanoparticles

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7 Geospatial Assessment of Waste Disposal System in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Babawale Akin Adeyemi, Esan Temitayo, Adeyemi Olabisi Omowumi

Abstract:

The paper analyzed waste disposal system in Akure, Ondo State using GIS techniques. Specifically, the study identified the spatial distribution of collection points and existing dumpsite; evaluated the accessibility of waste collection points and their proximity to each other with the view of enhancing better performance of the waste disposal system. Data for the study were obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained through the administration of questionnaire. From field survey, 35 collection points were identified in the study area. 10 questionnaires were administered around each collection point making a total of 350 questionnaires for the study. Also, co-ordinates of each collection point were captured using a hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver which was used to analyze the spatial distribution of collection points. Secondary data used include administrative map collected from Akure South Local Government Secretariat. Data collected was analyzed using the GIS analytical tools which is neighborhood function. The result revealed that collection points were found in all parts of Akure with the highest concentration around the central business district. The study also showed that 80% of the collection points enjoyed efficient waste service while the remaining 20% does not. The study further revealed that most collection points in the core of the city were in close proximity to each other. In conclusion, the paper revealed the capability of Geographic Information System (GIS) as a technique in management of waste collection and disposal technique. The application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in the evaluation of the solid waste management in Akure is highly invaluable for the state waste management board which could also be beneficial to other states in developing a modern day solid waste management system. Further study on solid waste management is also recommended especially for updating of information on both spatial and non-spatial data.

Keywords: assessment, geospatial, system, waste disposal

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6 Effective Environmental Planning Management (EPM) as Panacea to Sustainable Urban Development

Authors: Jegede Kehinde Jacob, Ola Akeem Bayonle, Adewale Yemi Yekeen

Abstract:

The rapid rate of urban growth in most developing countries of the world in recent times is alarming. Mass movement of people from rural areas to the urban centres, the consequence of the uncontrolled rapid urbanisation resulting to many un-conforming environmental challenges such as inadequate infrastructure, land, water and air pollution, poor environmental sanitation, poor and inadequate housing, urban degradation, sprawl and slums, urban violence, crime, robbery and prostitution as well as many other social vices that make the cities unsustainable. The resultant effects of all these are abysmal failure in the management of cities on the part of the governing authorities and other relevant stakeholders as well as unconducive and unwholesome condition of living of the people. This paper attempts to examine holistically the issue of environmental planning management (EPM) process development and management concept with a view for dynamic and interactive approach for various stakeholders as partners in achieving sustainable cities of our dream. The areas of discussion including conceptual and contextual issues, sustainable cities concept, good urban governance including literature review. The paper goes further to examine opportunities and challenges of built environment generally, the nature and context of environmental problems in particular, the role and duties of environmental planning and management (EPM) process in sustainable urban development. The paper further reviewed briefly the various levels of institutionalisation of EPM process with a typical case study of sustainable Ibadan project (SIP). The paper concludes with a list of recommendations to ensure effective and lasting solutions to cities problems through initiation of EPM process achievable in a sustainable manner.

Keywords: built environment, environmental planning, sustainable cities, sustainable development, urbanization

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5 Utilizing Spatial Uncertainty of On-The-Go Measurements to Design Adaptive Sampling of Soil Electrical Conductivity in a Rice Field

Authors: Ismaila Olabisi Ogundiji, Hakeem Mayowa Olujide, Qasim Usamot

Abstract:

The main reasons for site-specific management for agricultural inputs are to increase the profitability of crop production, to protect the environment and to improve products’ quality. Information about the variability of different soil attributes within a field is highly essential for the decision-making process. Lack of fast and accurate acquisition of soil characteristics remains one of the biggest limitations of precision agriculture due to being expensive and time-consuming. Adaptive sampling has been proven as an accurate and affordable sampling technique for planning within a field for site-specific management of agricultural inputs. This study employed spatial uncertainty of soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) estimates to identify adaptive re-survey areas in the field. The original dataset was grouped into validation and calibration groups where the calibration group was sub-grouped into three sets of different measurements pass intervals. A conditional simulation was performed on the field ECa to evaluate the ECa spatial uncertainty estimates by the use of the geostatistical technique. The grouping of high-uncertainty areas for each set was done using image segmentation in MATLAB, then, high and low area value-separate was identified. Finally, an adaptive re-survey was carried out on those areas of high-uncertainty. Adding adaptive re-surveying significantly minimized the time required for resampling whole field and resulted in ECa with minimal error. For the most spacious transect, the root mean square error (RMSE) yielded from an initial crude sampling survey was minimized after an adaptive re-survey, which was close to that value of the ECa yielded with an all-field re-survey. The estimated sampling time for the adaptive re-survey was found to be 45% lesser than that of all-field re-survey. The results indicate that designing adaptive sampling through spatial uncertainty models significantly mitigates sampling cost, and there was still conformity in the accuracy of the observations.

Keywords: soil electrical conductivity, adaptive sampling, conditional simulation, spatial uncertainty, site-specific management

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4 Pain Intensity, Functional Disability and Physical Activity among Elderly Individuals with Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

Authors: Adesola Odole, Nse Odunaiya, Samuel Adewale

Abstract:

Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain (CMLBP) is prevalent in the aging population; some studies have documented the association among pain intensity, functional disability and physical activity in the general population but very few studies in the elderly. This study was designed to investigate the association among pain intensity, functional disability and physical activity of elderly individuals with CMLBP in the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria and also to determine the difference in physical activity, pain intensity and functional disability between males and females. A total of 96 participants diagnosed with CMLBP participated in this cross-sectional survey. They were conveniently sampled from selected units in the UCH, Ibadan, Nigeria. Data on sex, marital status, occupation and duration of onset of pain of participants were obtained from the participants. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Questionnaire were used to measure the physical activity, pain intensity and functional disability of the participants respectively. Data was analysed using Spearman correlation, independent t-test; and α was set at 0.05. Participants (25 males, 71 females) were aged 69.64±7.43 years. The majority (76.0%) of the participants were married, and over half (55.2%) were retirees. Participants’ mean pain intensity score was 5.21±2.03 and mean duration of onset of low back pain was 63.63 ± 90.01 months. The majority (67.6%) of the participants reported severe to crippled functional disability. Their mean functional disability was 46.91 ± 13.99. Participants’ mean physical activity score was 97.47 ± 82.55. There was significant association between physical activity and pain intensity (r = -0.21, p = 0.04). There was significant association between physical activity and functional disability (r = -0.47, p = 0.00). Male (87.26 ± 79.94) and female (101.07 ± 83.71) participants did not differ significantly in physical activity (t = 0.00, p = 0.48). In addition, male (5.48 ± 2.06) and female (5.11 ± 2.02) participants’ pain intensity were comparable (t = 0.26, p = 0.44). There was also no significant difference in functional disability (t = 0.05, p = 0.07) between male (42.56 ±13.85) and female (48.45 ± 13.81) participants. It can be concluded from this study that majority of the elderly individuals with chronic mechanical low back pain had a severe to crippled functional disability. Those who reported increased physical activity had reduced pain intensity and functional disability. Male and female elderly individuals with chronic mechanical low back pain are comparable in their pain intensity, functional disability, and physical activity. Elderly individuals with CMLBP should be educated on the importance of participating in physical activity which could reduce their pain symptoms and improve functional disability.

Keywords: elderly, functional disability, mechanical low back pain, pain intensity, physical activity

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