Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Abdelfatah Aref Tamimi

34 Cryptography Based Authentication Methods

Authors: Mohammad A. Alia, Abdelfatah Aref Tamimi, Omaima N. A. Al-Allaf

Abstract:

This paper reviews a comparison study on the most common used authentication methods. Some of these methods are actually based on cryptography. In this study, we show the main cryptographic services. Also, this study presents a specific discussion about authentication service, since the authentication service is classified into several categorizes according to their methods. However, this study gives more about the real life example for each of the authentication methods. It talks about the simplest authentication methods as well about the available biometric authentication methods such as voice, iris, fingerprint, and face authentication.

Keywords: information security, cryptography, system access control, authentication, network security

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33 Evaluation of the Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Sustainable Concrete Exposed to Acid Solution

Authors: Adil Tamimi

Abstract:

Limestone powder is a natural material that is available in many parts of the world. In this research self-compacting concrete was designed and prepared using limestone powder. The resulted concrete was exposed to the hydrochloric acid solution and compared with reference concrete. Mechanical properties of both fresh and hardened concrete have been evaluated. Scanning Electron Microscopy “SEM” has been unitized to analyse the morphological development of the hydration products. In sulphuric acid solution, a large formation of gypsum was detected in both samples of self-compacting concrete and conventional concrete. The Higher amount of thaumasite and ettringite was also detected in the SCC sample. In hydrochloric acid solution, monochloroaluminate was detected.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, mechanical properties, Scanning Electron Microscopy, acid solution

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32 The Effect of Measurement Distribution on System Identification and Detection of Behavior of Nonlinearities of Data

Authors: Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi, Farhad Asadi, Aref Ghafouri

Abstract:

In this paper, we considered and applied parametric modeling for some experimental data of dynamical system. In this study, we investigated the different distribution of output measurement from some dynamical systems. Also, with variance processing in experimental data we obtained the region of nonlinearity in experimental data and then identification of output section is applied in different situation and data distribution. Finally, the effect of the spanning the measurement such as variance to identification and limitation of this approach is explained.

Keywords: Gaussian process, nonlinearity distribution, particle filter, system identification

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31 The Evaluation of the Performance of Different Filtering Approaches in Tracking Problem and the Effect of Noise Variance

Authors: Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi, Farhad Asadi, Aref Ghafouri

Abstract:

Performance of different filtering approaches depends on modeling of dynamical system and algorithm structure. For modeling and smoothing the data the evaluation of posterior distribution in different filtering approach should be chosen carefully. In this paper different filtering approaches like filter KALMAN, EKF, UKF, EKS and smoother RTS is simulated in some trajectory tracking of path and accuracy and limitation of these approaches are explained. Then probability of model with different filters is compered and finally the effect of the noise variance to estimation is described with simulations results.

Keywords: Gaussian approximation, Kalman smoother, parameter estimation, noise variance

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30 Hybrid Quasi-Steady Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Model for Studying the Behavior of Oil in Water Emulsions Used in Machining Tool Cooling and Lubrication

Authors: W. Hasan, H. Farhat, A. Alhilo, L. Tamimi

Abstract:

Oil in water (O/W) emulsions are utilized extensively for cooling and lubricating cutting tools during parts machining. A robust Lattice Boltzmann (LBM) thermal-surfactants model, which provides a useful platform for exploring complex emulsions’ characteristics under variety of flow conditions, is used here for the study of the fluid behavior during conventional tools cooling. The transient thermal capabilities of the model are employed for simulating the effects of the flow conditions of O/W emulsions on the cooling of cutting tools. The model results show that the temperature outcome is slightly affected by reversing the direction of upper plate (workpiece). On the other hand, an important increase in effective viscosity is seen which supports better lubrication during the work.

Keywords: hybrid lattice Boltzmann method, Gunstensen model, thermal, surfactant-covered droplet, Marangoni stress

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29 Secrecy Analysis in Downlink Cellular Networks in the Presence of D2D Pairs and Hardware Impairment

Authors: Mahdi Rahimi, Mohammad Mahdi Mojahedian, Mohammad Reza Aref

Abstract:

In this paper, a cellular communication scenario with a transmitter and an authorized user is considered to analyze its secrecy in the face of eavesdroppers and the interferences propagated unintentionally through the communication network. It is also assumed that some D2D pairs and eavesdroppers are randomly located in the cell. Assuming hardware impairment, perfect connection probability is analytically calculated, and upper bound is provided for the secrecy outage probability. In addition, a method based on random activation of D2Ds is proposed to improve network security. Finally, the analytical results are verified by simulations.

Keywords: physical layer security, stochastic geometry, device-to-device, hardware impairment

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28 The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field on Rats Brain

Authors: Omar Abdalla, Abdelfatah Ahmed, Ahmed Mustafa, Abdelazem Eldouma

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is evaluating the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field on Waster rats brain. The number of rats used in this study were 25, which were divided into five groups, each group containing five rats as follows: Group 1: The control group which was not exposed to energized field; Group 2: Rats were exposed to a magnetic field with an intensity of 0.6 mT (2 hours/day); Group 3: Rats were exposed to a magnetic field of 1.2 mT (2 hours/day); Group4: Rats were exposed to a magnetic field of 1.8 mT (2 hours/day); Group 5: Rats were exposed to a magnetic field of 2.4 mT (2 hours/day) and all groups were exposed for seven days, by designing a maze and calculating the time average for arriving to the decoy at special conditions. We found the time average before exposure for the all groups was G2=330 s, G3=172 s, G4=500 s and G5=174 s, respectively. We exposed all groups to ELF-MF and measured the time and we found: G2=465 s, G3=388 s, G4=501 s, and G5=442 s. It was observed that the time average increased directly with field strength. Histological samples of frontal lop of brain for all groups were taken and we found lesion, atrophy, empty vacuoles and disorder choroid plexus at frontal lope of brain. And finally we observed the disorder of choroid plexus in histological results and Alzheimer's symptoms increase when the magnetic field increases.

Keywords: nonionizing radiation, biophysics, magnetic field, shrinkage

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27 Design Channel Non Persistent CSMA MAC Protocol Model for Complex Wireless Systems Based on SoC

Authors: Ibrahim A. Aref, Tarek El-Mihoub, Khadiga Ben Musa

Abstract:

This paper presents Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) communication model based on SoC design methodology. Such model can be used to support the modelling of the complex wireless communication systems, therefore use of such communication model is an important technique in the construction of high performance communication. SystemC has been chosen because it provides a homogeneous design flow for complex designs (i.e. SoC and IP based design). We use a swarm system to validate CSMA designed model and to show how advantages of incorporating communication early in the design process. The wireless communication created through the modeling of CSMA protocol that can be used to achieve communication between all the agents and to coordinate access to the shared medium (channel).

Keywords: systemC, modelling, simulation, CSMA

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26 Evaluations of 3D Concrete Printing Produced in the Environment of United Arab Emirates

Authors: Adil K. Tamimi, Tarig Ali, Rawan Anoohi, Ahmed Rajput, Kaltham Alkamali

Abstract:

3D concrete printing is one of the most innovative and modern techniques in the field of construction that achieved several milestones in that field for the following advantages: saving project’s time, ability to execute complicated shapes, reduce waste and low cost. However, the concept of 3D printing in UAE is relatively new where construction teams, including clients, consultants, and contractors, do not have the required knowledge and experience in the field. This is the most significant obstacle for the construction parties, which make them refrained from using 3D concrete printing compared to conventional concreting methods. This study shows the historical development of the 3D concrete printing, its advantages, and the challenges facing this innovation. Concrete mixes and materials have been proposed and evaluated to select the best combination for successful 3D concrete printing. The main characteristics of the 3D concrete printing in the fresh and hardened states are considered, such as slump test, flow table, compressive strength, tensile, and flexural strengths. There is need to assess the structural stability of the 3D concrete by testing the bond between interlayers of the concrete.  

Keywords: 3D printing, workability, compressive strength, robots, dimensions

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25 A Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Performance of a Combined Solar Unit for Air Conditioning and Water Desalination

Authors: Zied Guidara, Alexander Morgenstern, Aref Younes Maalej

Abstract:

In this paper, a desiccant solar unit for air conditioning and desalination is presented first. Secondly, a dynamic modelling study of the desiccant wheel is developed. After that, a simulation study and an experimental investigation of the behaviour of desiccant wheel are developed. The experimental investigation is done in the chamber of commerce in Freiburg-Germany. Indeed, the variations of calculated and measured temperatures and specific humidity of dehumidified and rejected air are presented where a good agreement is found when comparing the model predictions with experimental data under the considered range of operating conditions. Finally, the study of the compartments of desalination and water condensation shows that the unit can produce an acceptable quantity of water at the same time of the air conditioning operation.

Keywords: air conditioning, desalination, condensation, design, desiccant wheel

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24 New Desiccant Solar Unit for Air Conditioning and Desalination: Study of the Compartments of Desalination and Water Condensation

Authors: Zied Guidara, Alexander Morgenstern, Aref Maalej

Abstract:

In this paper, a new desiccant solar unit for air conditioning and desalination is presented first. Secondly, a dynamic modelling study of the desiccant wheel is developed. After that, a simulation study and an experimental investigation of the behaviour of the desiccant wheel are developed. The experimental investigation is done in the chamber of commerce in Freiburg-Germany. Indeed, the variations of calculated and measured temperatures and specific humidity of dehumidified and rejected air are presented where a good agreement is found when comparing the model predictions with experimental data under the considered range of operating conditions. Finally, the study of the compartments of desalination and water condensation shows that the unit can produce an acceptable quantity of water at the same time of the air conditioning operation.

Keywords: air conditioning, desalination, condensation, design, desiccant wheel, modelling, experimental investigation

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23 Sustainability of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Rashad Al Araj, Adil K. Tamimi

Abstract:

Concrete, despite being one of the most produced materials in the world, still has weaknesses and drawbacks. Significant concern of the cementitious materials in structural applications is their quasi-brittle behavior, which causes the material to crack and lose its durability. One of the very recently proposed mitigations for this problem is the implementation of nanotechnology in the concrete mix by adding carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to it. CNTs can enhance the critical mechanical properties of concrete as a structural material. Thus, this paper demonstrates a state-of-the-art review of reinforcing concrete with CNTs, emphasizing on the structural performance. It also goes over the properties of CNTs alone, the present methods and costs associated with producing them, the possible special applications of concretes reinforced with CNTs, the key challenges and drawbacks that this new technology still encounters, and the most reliable practices and methodologies to produce CNT-reinforced concrete in the lab. This work has shown that the addition of CNTs to the concrete mix in percentages as low as 0.25% weight of cement could increase the flexural strength and toughness of concrete by more than 45% and 25%, respectively, and enhance other durability-related properties, given that an effective dispersion of CNTs in the cementitious mix is achieved. Since nano reinforcement for cementitious materials is a new technology, many challenges have to be tackled before it becomes practiced at the mass level.

Keywords: sustainability, carbon nano tube, microsilica, concrete

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22 Model Order Reduction for Frequency Response and Effect of Order of Method for Matching Condition

Authors: Aref Ghafouri, Mohammad javad Mollakazemi, Farhad Asadi

Abstract:

In this paper, model order reduction method is used for approximation in linear and nonlinearity aspects in some experimental data. This method can be used for obtaining offline reduced model for approximation of experimental data and can produce and follow the data and order of system and also it can match to experimental data in some frequency ratios. In this study, the method is compared in different experimental data and influence of choosing of order of the model reduction for obtaining the best and sufficient matching condition for following the data is investigated in format of imaginary and reality part of the frequency response curve and finally the effect and important parameter of number of order reduction in nonlinear experimental data is explained further.

Keywords: frequency response, order of model reduction, frequency matching condition, nonlinear experimental data

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21 Insecticidal Effects of Plant Extracts of Thymus daenensis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

Authors: Afsoon Danesh Afrooz, Sohrab Imani, Ali Ahadiyat, Aref Maroof, Yahya Ostadi

Abstract:

This study has been investigated for finding alternative and safe botanical pesticides instead of chemical insecticides. The effects of plant extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Thymus daenensis were tested against adult of Callosobrochus maculatus F. Experiments were carried out at 27±1°C and 60 ± 5% R. H. under dark condition with adopting a complete randomized block design. Three replicates were set up for five concentrations of each plants extract. LC50 values were determined by SPSS 16.0 software. LC50 values indicated that plant extract of Thymus daenensis with 1.708 (µl/l air) against adult was more effective than the plant extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with LC50 12.755 (µl/l air). It was found that plant extract of Thymus daenensis in comparison with extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis could be used as a pesticide for control store pests.

Keywords: callosobruchus maculatus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, insecticidal effects, Thymus daenensis

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20 Nutrition Bio-Shield Superfood: Healthy and Live Herbal Supplement for Immune System Enhancement

Authors: Azam Bayat, Aref Khalkhali, Ali Reza Mahjoub

Abstract:

Healthy and viable herbal supplement were prepared from wheat by a green route. This organic biomaterial was named Nutrition Bio-shield Superfood (NBS). The NBS supplement had various vitamins, macro and micro molecules, and ingredients. In this study, 20 small Balb/C labile specimens were used in a weighing 30 ± 5 range. The samples were randomly divided into different groups, then the groups were divided into 5 groups. According to the results of this study, the mean number of white blood cells and neutrophil percentage in the experimental group receiving healthy and live dietary supplement showed a significant increase at the 5% probability level in all three groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/ kg body weight of the mouse compared to the control group. In general, the dietary supplement increases the level of immunity.

Keywords: healthy and live herbal supplement, biomaterial, immune system, enhancement

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19 Experimental Investigation of Natural Frequency and Forced Vibration of Euler-Bernoulli Beam under Displacement of Concentrated Mass and Load

Authors: Aref Aasi, Sadegh Mehdi Aghaei, Balaji Panchapakesan

Abstract:

This work aims to evaluate the free and forced vibration of a beam with two end joints subjected to a concentrated moving mass and a load using the Euler-Bernoulli method. The natural frequency is calculated for different locations of the concentrated mass and load on the beam. The analytical results are verified by the experimental data. The variations of natural frequency as a function of the location of the mass, the effect of the forced frequency on the vibrational amplitude, and the displacement amplitude versus time are investigated. It is discovered that as the concentrated mass moves toward the center of the beam, the natural frequency of the beam and the relative error between experimental and analytical data decreases. There is a close resemblance between analytical data and experimental observations.

Keywords: Euler-Bernoulli beam, natural frequency, forced vibration, experimental setup

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18 Conservative Treatment Versus Percutaneous Wire Fixation in treatment of Distal Radial Fracture in Elderly

Authors: Abdelfatah Elsenosy, Mahmoud Ebrahim

Abstract:

Background: Distal radius fractures are commonly encountered in orthopedic practice, especially in elderly patients. A number of clinical papers have supported the idea that anatomic restoration of the distal end of the radius is essential to gain superior results. Aim and objectives: The aim of the study is to systematically review the literature for the management of distal end radius in elderly persons (conservative treatment versus percutaneous wire fixation) as regards radiological and functional outcomes. Subjects and methods: Studies were identified from the Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until 2019 using combinations of the following search terms: distal radius fracture, conservative treatment, non-operative treatment, and nonsurgical treatment, surgical treatment, operative, elderly, and older. Reference lists of relevant studies were manually searched. Results: There was no statistical significance difference between CI and PKF groups’ frequency of complication in all of the selected studies. Based on the results, we recommend more analysis regarding every parameter of the radiographic and functional results and specific complications related to each fixation need to be accomplished, which requires more Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high quality. Conclusion: Surgical treatment seems to be more effective distal radius fracture compared with conservative treatment when the radiographic outcomes were analyzed, and no significant differences were detected in the functional outcomes and complication rate.

Keywords: radius, fracture, surgical, RCTs, conservative, radiographic, outcomes, orthopedic

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17 Experimental Investigation of Hybrid Rocket Motor: Ignition, Throttling and Re-Ignition Phenomena

Authors: A. El-S. Makled, M. K. Al-Tamimi

Abstract:

Ignition phenomena are of great interest area over the past many years, and it has a direct impact on many propulsion and combustion applications. The direct goal of the paper is to realize and evaluate a functioning ignition method, shut-off, throttling and re-start operations for the hybrid rocket motor. A small-scale hybrid rocket motor (SSHRM) is designed, manufactured, demonstrated at various operating conditions and finally equipped for laboratory firing tests with high level of safety. Various solid fuel grains as Polymethyle-methacrylate (PMMA) and Polyethylene (PE) are selected, and it is decided to use the commercial gaseous oxygen (GO2) for its availability and low cost. Examine different types of ignition methods, pyrotechnic charge, fuse wire, heat wire and finally hot oxidizer method by using the heat exchanger, which are proposed as very safe ignition methods. Finally; recognize phenomena of throttling and re-start operations. Ignition by hot GO2 impingement is proved to be a very attractive ignition method for laboratory SSHRM, for its high safety, reliability and acceptable delay time. Finally; the throttling and re-start operations are demonstrated several times and can be carried out more easily with hot air ignition method.

Keywords: hybrid rocket motor, ignition system, re-start phenomena, throttling

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16 Thermodynamics of Stable Micro Black Holes Production by Modeling from the LHC

Authors: Aref Yazdani, Ali Tofighi

Abstract:

We study a simulative model for production of stable micro black holes based on investigation on thermodynamics of LHC experiment. We show that how this production can be achieved through a thermodynamic process of stability. Indeed, this process can be done through a very small amount of powerful fuel. By applying the second law of black hole thermodynamics at the scale of quantum gravity and perturbation expansion of the given entropy function, a time-dependent potential function is obtained which is illustrated with exact numerical values in higher dimensions. Seeking for the conditions for stability of micro black holes is another purpose of this study. This is proven through an injection method of putting the exact amount of energy into the final phase of the production which is equivalent to the same energy injection into the center of collision at the LHC in order to stabilize the produced particles. Injection of energy into the center of collision at the LHC is a new pattern that it is worth a try for the first time.

Keywords: micro black holes, LHC experiment, black holes thermodynamics, extra dimensions model

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15 Designing Inventory System with Constrained by Reducing Ordering Cost, Lead Time and Lost Sale Rate and Considering Random Disturbance in Ordering Quantity

Authors: Arezoo Heidary, Abolfazl Mirzazadeh, Aref Gholami-Qadikolaei

Abstract:

In the business environment it is very common that a lot received may not be equal to quantity ordered. in this work, a random disturbance in a received quantity is considered. It is assumed a maximum allowable limit for storage space and inventory investment.The impact of lead time and ordering cost reductions once they act dependently is also investigated. Further, considering a mixture of back order and lost sales for allowable shortage system, the effect of investment on reducing lost sale rate is analyzed. For the proposed control system, a Lagrangian method is applied in order to solve the problem and an algorithmic procedure is utilized to achieve optimal solution with the global minimum expected cost. Finally, proves on concavity and convexity of the model in the decision variables are shown.

Keywords: stochastic inventory system, lead time, ordering cost, lost sale rate, inventory constraints, random disturbance

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14 Hybrid Rocket Motor Performance Parameters: Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation

Authors: A. El-S. Makled, M. K. Al-Tamimi

Abstract:

A mathematical model to predict the performance parameters (thrusts, chamber pressures, fuel mass flow rates, mixture ratios, and regression rates during firing time) of hybrid rocket motor (HRM) is evaluated. The internal ballistic (IB) hybrid combustion model assumes that the solid fuel surface regression rate is controlled only by heat transfer (convective and radiative) from flame zone to solid fuel burning surface. A laboratory HRM is designed, manufactured, and tested for low thrust profile space missions (10-15 N) and for validating the mathematical model (computer program). The polymer material and gaseous oxidizer which are selected for this experimental work are polymethyle-methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene (PE) as solid fuel grain and gaseous oxygen (GO2) as oxidizer. The variation of various operational parameters with time is determined systematically and experimentally in firing of up to 20 seconds, and an average combustion efficiency of 95% of theory is achieved, which was the goal of these experiments. The comparison between recording fire data and predicting analytical parameters shows good agreement with the error that does not exceed 4.5% during all firing time. The current mathematical (computer) code can be used as a powerful tool for HRM analytical design parameters.

Keywords: hybrid combustion, internal ballistics, hybrid rocket motor, performance parameters

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13 Endocrine Therapy-Induced Alopecia in Patients with Breast Cancer in Tunisia

Authors: Aref Zribi, Sonia Ben Nasr, Sana Fendri, Mahdi Balti, Abderazzek Haddaoui

Abstract:

Background: Despite their benefit, Endocrine therapies (ET) are known to have substantial adverse events (AEs) such as hot flashes, mood disorders and osteoarticular pain. ET induced alopecia(EIA) is less frequently noted by patients and is less reported in the literature. The aim of our study was to report ET alopecia characteristics and their influence on patient and treatment observance. Method: We conducted a retrospective study including luminal BC patients treated in the oncology department of the military hospital of Tunis between January 2015 and December 2020. Patients treated with previous chemotherapy-inducing alopecia were excluded. Results: 145 female patients were included. The median age was 59 years. EIA was reported in 44% of cases. Alopecia was attributed to aromatase inhibitors in 53% and tamoxifen in 21%. Severity was grade 1 in 80% and grade 2 in the remaining cases. ET discontinuation because of alopecia was noted in 6.5 % of patients. Moderate improvement of alopecia was observed with topical minoxidil and Thallium metallicum 9CH homeopathy during ET in 60% of patients. Conclusions: EIA is frequent in BC patients and should be considered to improve treatment observance and patients’ quality of life.

Keywords: endocrine therapy, alopecia, breast cancer, Tunisia

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12 A Critical Study of the Performance of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) Using Locally Supplied Materials in Bahrain

Authors: A. Umar, A. Tamimi

Abstract:

Development of new types of concrete with improved performance is a very important issue for the whole building industry. The development is based on the optimization of the concrete mix design, with an emphasis not only on the workability and mechanical properties but also to the durability and the reliability of the concrete structure in general. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a high-performance material designed to flow into formwork under its own weight and without the aid of mechanical vibration. At the same time it is cohesive enough to fill spaces of almost any size and shape without segregation or bleeding. Construction time is shorter and production of SCC is environmentally friendly (no noise, no vibration). Furthermore, SCC produces a good surface finish. Despite these advantages, SCC has not gained much local acceptance though it has been promoted in the Middle East for the last ten to twelve years. The reluctance in utilizing the advantages of SCC, in Bahrain, may be due to lack of research or published data pertaining to locally produced SCC. Therefore, there is a need to conduct studies on SCC using locally available material supplies. From the literature, it has been observed that the use of viscosity modifying admixtures (VMA), micro silica and glass fibers have proved to be very effective in stabilizing the rheological properties and the strength of fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Therefore, in the present study, it is proposed to carry out investigations of SCC with combinations of various dosages of VMAs with and without micro silica and glass fibers and to study their influence on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, viscosity modifying admixture, micro silica, glass fibers

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11 3D Hybrid Multiphysics Lattice Boltzmann Model for Studying the Flow Behavior of Emulsions in Structured Rectangular Microchannels

Authors: Luma Al-Tamimi, Hassan Farhat, Wessam Hasan

Abstract:

A three-dimensional (3D) hybrid quasi-steady thermal lattice Boltzmann model is developed to couple the effects of surfactant, temperature, interfacial tension, and contact angle. This 3D model is an extended scheme of a previously introduced two-dimensional (2D) hybrid lattice Boltzmann model. The 3D model is used to study the combined multi-physics effects on emulsion systems flowing in rectangular microchannels with and without confinements, where the suspended phase is made of droplets, plugs, or a mixture of both. The simulation results show that emulsion systems with plugs as the suspended phase are more efficient than with droplets, whereas mixed systems that form large plugs through coalescence have even greater efficiency. The 3D contact angle model generates matching results to those of the 2D model, which were validated with experiments. Furthermore, the effects of various confinements on adhering single drop systems are investigated for delineating their influence on the power required for transporting the suspended phase through the channel. It is shown that the deeper the constriction is, the lower the system efficiency. Increasing the surfactant concentration or fluid temperature in a channel with confinement carries a substantial positive effect on oil droplet transportation.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, thermal, contact angle, surfactants, high viscosity ratio, porous media

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10 Insecticidial Effects of Essential Oil of Carum copticum on Sitophilus oryzae L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Authors: Giti Sabri, Sohrab Imani, Ali Ahadiyat, Aref Maroof, Yahya Ostadi

Abstract:

Recently, there has been a growing interest in research concerning the possible use of plant extracts as alternatives to synthetic insecticides. In this research, the insecticidal effects of Carum copticum essential oils against rice weevil adults were investigated in laboratory condition. Essential oils was extracted through distillation with water using Clevenger apparatus. Tests of randomized complete block included six concentrations and three replications for essential oils (fumigant toxicity) along with control treatment in condition of 27±1ºC degrees Celsius temperature, relative humidity of 65 ± 5 percent and darkness. LC50 values were calculated by SPSS.21.0 software which presented the value of LC50 of Carum copticum essential oils after 48 hurs, 187.35± 0.40 µl/l air on rice weevil adults. Results showed that increasing the concentration of essential oils increased the mortality rate cases. The results also showed that essential oils of Carum copticum are effective biological sources which can effectively protect stored grain from infestation by the rice weevil; although for application of these combinations further research may be needed.

Keywords: insecticidial effects, essential oil, Carum copticum, Sitophilus oryzae

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9 Influence of Parameters of Modeling and Data Distribution for Optimal Condition on Locally Weighted Projection Regression Method

Authors: Farhad Asadi, Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi, Aref Ghafouri

Abstract:

Recent research in neural networks science and neuroscience for modeling complex time series data and statistical learning has focused mostly on learning from high input space and signals. Local linear models are a strong choice for modeling local nonlinearity in data series. Locally weighted projection regression is a flexible and powerful algorithm for nonlinear approximation in high dimensional signal spaces. In this paper, different learning scenario of one and two dimensional data series with different distributions are investigated for simulation and further noise is inputted to data distribution for making different disordered distribution in time series data and for evaluation of algorithm in locality prediction of nonlinearity. Then, the performance of this algorithm is simulated and also when the distribution of data is high or when the number of data is less the sensitivity of this approach to data distribution and influence of important parameter of local validity in this algorithm with different data distribution is explained.

Keywords: local nonlinear estimation, LWPR algorithm, online training method, locally weighted projection regression method

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8 The Impact of Collaborative Writing through Wikis and Blogs on Iranian EFL Learners’ Writing Achievement

Authors: Farhad Ghorbandordinejad, Shamsoddin Aref

Abstract:

Wikis and blogs, defined as educational tools in line with the objectives of collaborative writing, are regarded as innovative ways of writing addressing the problems of conventional types of writing. Although writing in wikis and blogs step in different contexts, they are both aiming at betterment of collaborative writing procedures. It is believed that due to certain reasons bringing in wikis and blogs to learners' life can lead to better performance of writing. This study aimed at dipping into pedagogical aspects of wikis and blogs in the hope of eliminating prior traditional mistakes and bringing students together in a more constructive L2 context. To this end, three groups of intermediate students were experimented in three settings of wiki-group, blog-group and conventional (control) group. Despite conventional group learners, participants in both experimental groups experienced L2 writing in a new telecollaborative context. An achievement test was administered after the treatment to check learners’ degree of improvement in EFL writing. The results of this study provide a deep insight towards the effectiveness of writing in the contexts of wikis and blogs compared with conventional writing procedures. The overall conclusion drawn from the distinction of conventional writing, on one hand, and wikis and blogs, on the other hand, indicates that the latter channels of writing are more constructive for learners’ writing improvements.

Keywords: collaborative writing, wikis, blogs, writing achievement

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7 Dry Friction Occurring in the Suspensions for Passive and Switchable Damper Systems and Its Effect on Ride Comfort

Authors: Aref M. A. Soliman, Mahmoud A. Hassan

Abstract:

In all vehicle suspension, there is a dry friction. One of the various active suspensions, which have been shown to have considerable practical potential, is a switchable damper suspension system. In this paper, vehicle ride comfort for the passive and switchable damper suspension systems as affected by the value of frictional force generated in springs is discussed. A mathematical model of a quarter vehicle model for two setting switchable damper suspension system with dry friction force is developed to evaluate vehicle ride comfort in terms of suspension performance criteria. The vehicle itself is treated as a rigid body undergoing vertical motions. Comparisons between passive and switchable damper suspensions systems with dry friction force in terms of ride performance are also discussed. The results showed that the ride comfort for the passive and switchable damper suspension systems was deteriorated due to dry friction occurring in the suspensions. The two setting switchable damper with and without dry friction force gives better ride improvements compared with the passive suspension system. Also, the obtained results show an optimum value of damping ratio of the passive suspension system.

Keywords: ride comfort, dry friction, switchable damper, passive suspension

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6 Acute Asthma in Emergency Department, Prevalence of Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Symptoms

Authors: Sherif Refaat, Hassan Aref

Abstract:

Background: Although asthma is a well-identified presentation to the emergency department, little is known about the frequency and percentage of respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in patients with acute asthma in the emergency department (ED). Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between acute asthma exacerbation and different respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms including chest pain encountered by patients visiting the emergency department. Subjects and methods: Prospective study included 169 (97 females and 72 males) asthmatic patients who were admitted to emergency department of two tertiary care facility hospitals for asthma exacerbation from the period of September 2010 to August 2013, an anonyms questionnaire was used to collect symptoms and analysis of symptoms. Results: Females were 97 (57%) of the patients, mean age was 35.6 years; dyspnea on exertion was the commonest symptom accounting for 161 (95.2%) of patients, followed by dyspnea at rest 155 (91.7%), wheezing in 152 (89.9%), chest pain was present in 82 patients (48.5%), the pain was burning in 36 (43.9%) of the total patients with chest pain. Non-respiratory symptoms were seen frequently in acute asthma in ED. Conclusions: Dyspnea was the commonest chest symptoms encountered in patients with acute asthma followed by wheezing. Chest pain in acute asthma is a common symptom and should be fully studied to exclude misdiagnosis as of cardiac origin; there is a need for a better dissemination of knowledge about this disease association with chest pain. It was also noted that other non-respiratory symptoms are frequently encountered with acute asthma in emergency department.

Keywords: asthma, emergency department, respiratory symptoms, non respiratory system

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5 The Impact of Child Maltreatment on School Performance in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Al Muneef Maha, Al Tamimi Dana

Abstract:

Introduction: Child maltreatment was proven to negatively impact children’s and adolescent’s academic performances; showing less academic achievements, problems completing homework assignments, and was marginally associated with being frequently absent from school (1). Objectives: To identify the impact of child maltreatment on school performance among adolescents in National Guard Schools. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at National Guard schools in Riyadh. Students aged 12-19 years were invited to participate. Participants (N=674) completed the survey instrument which included demographics, exposure to different types of abuse, and overall level of academic performance. Results: Participants’ mean age was 15.6±1.6 years and males (53%). Ninety-five percent lived with both parents, 2% with single parent, and 3% with step parents. Four percent lived with alcoholic parents or guardians, and 7% have lived with a family member who has been arrested or imprisoned. Poor performance (failure in exam) were more likely among the students who lived with alcoholics vs. non-alcoholics (33% vs. 11%, p<0.01), imprisoned family member vs. non-imprisoned (26% vs. 11%, p<0.01), psychologically abused vs. not abused (21% vs. 10%, p<0.01), physically abused vs. not abused (19% vs. 9%, p<0.01). Predisposing factors to poor performance in school included living with alcoholic parents or guardians (OR=2.8, CI=1.1-6.7), psychologically abused (OR=1.7, CI=1.0-3.0), and physically abused (OR=1.7, CI=1.0-2.8). Conclusions: The results suggest that child maltreatment may adversely impact school performance. These findings highlight the importance of increasing the awareness about the impact of child maltreatment on school performance among families, schools, and the community. Recommend to the Ministry of Education to consider counseling of students with poor performance due to adverse child experiences or maltreatment.

Keywords: child abuse, child maltreatment, school performance, Saudi Arabia

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