Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Balaji Panchapakesan

18 Experimental Investigation of Natural Frequency and Forced Vibration of Euler-Bernoulli Beam under Displacement of Concentrated Mass and Load

Authors: Aref Aasi, Sadegh Mehdi Aghaei, Balaji Panchapakesan

Abstract:

This work aims to evaluate the free and forced vibration of a beam with two end joints subjected to a concentrated moving mass and a load using the Euler-Bernoulli method. The natural frequency is calculated for different locations of the concentrated mass and load on the beam. The analytical results are verified by the experimental data. The variations of natural frequency as a function of the location of the mass, the effect of the forced frequency on the vibrational amplitude, and the displacement amplitude versus time are investigated. It is discovered that as the concentrated mass moves toward the center of the beam, the natural frequency of the beam and the relative error between experimental and analytical data decreases. There is a close resemblance between analytical data and experimental observations.

Keywords: Euler-Bernoulli beam, natural frequency, forced vibration, experimental setup

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17 Measuring the Likeability of Robots among Seniors: A Field Research

Authors: Balaji Viswanathan, Tim Oates

Abstract:

A number of pilot projects have commenced across the world to use robots for senior care. We aim to measure the likeability of these robots among seniors and help robot designers focus on the features that matter. We built a robot likability score with over 30 parameters and used this to interview 50 seniors in various locations in the United States. This paper presents the results of this field research.

Keywords: HRI, assistive robotics, social robotics, HCI, aging

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16 Foil Bearing Stiffness Estimation with Pseudospectral Scheme

Authors: Balaji Sankar, Sadanand Kulkarni

Abstract:

Compliant foil gas lubricated bearings are used for the support of light loads in the order of few kilograms at high speeds, in the order of 50,000 RPM. The stiffness of the foil bearings depends both on the stiffness of the compliant foil and on the lubricating gas film. The stiffness of the bearings plays a crucial role in the stable operation of the supported rotor over a range of speeds. This paper describes a numerical approach to estimate the stiffness of the bearings using pseudo spectral scheme. Methodology to obtain the stiffness of the foil bearing as a function of weight of the shaft is given and the results are presented.

Keywords: foil bearing, simulation, numerical, stiffness estimation

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15 TRNG Based Key Generation for Certificateless Signcryption

Authors: S.Balaji, R.Sujatha, M. Ramakrishnan

Abstract:

Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive that fulfills both the functions of digital signature and public key encryption simultaneously in low cost when compared with the traditional signature-then-encryption approach. In this paper, we propose a novel mouse movement based key generation technique to generate secret keys which is secure against the outer and insider attacks. Tag Key Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM) process is implemented using True Random Number Generator (TRNG) method. This TRNG based key is used for data encryption in the Data Encapsulation Mechanism (DEM). We compare the statistical reports of the proposed system with the previous methods which implements TKEM based on pseudo random number generator

Keywords: pseudo random umber generator, signcryption, true random number generator, node deployment

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14 Ballast Water Management Triad: Administration, Ship Owner and the Seafarer

Authors: Rajoo Balaji, Omar Yaakob

Abstract:

The Ballast Water Convention requires less than 5% of the world tonnage for ratification. Consequently, ships will have to comply with the requirements. Compliance evaluation and enforcement will become mandatory. Ship owners have to invest in treatment systems and shipboard personnel have to operate them and ensure compliance. The monitoring and enforcement will be the responsibilities of the Administrations. Herein, a review of the current status of the Ballast Water Management and the issues faced by these are projected. Issues range from efficacy and economics of the treatment systems to sampling and testing. Health issues of chemical systems, paucity of data for decision support etc., are other issues. It is emphasized that management of ballast water must be extended to ashore and sustainable solutions must be researched upon. An exemplar treatment system based on ship’s waste heat is also suggested.

Keywords: Ballast Water Management, compliance evaluation, compliance enforcement, sustainability

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13 Analysis of Bending Abilities of Soft Pneumatic Actuator

Authors: Jeevan Balaji, Shreyas Chigurupati

Abstract:

Pneumatic gripper use compressed air to operate its actuators (fingers). Unlike the conventional metallic gripper, a soft pneumatic actuator (SPA) can be used for relocating fragile objects. An added advantage for this gripper is that the pressure exerted on the object can be varied by changing the dimensions of the air chambers and also by the number of chambers. SPAs have many benefits over conventional robots in the military, medical fields because of their compliance nature and are easily produced using the 3D printing process. In the paper, SPA is proposed to perform pick and place tasks. A design was developed for the actuators, which is convenient for gripping any fragile objects. Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is used for 3D printing the actuators. The actuator model behaves differently as the parameters such as its chamber height, number of chambers change. A detailed FEM model of the actuator is drafted for different pressure inputs using ABAQUS CAE software, and a safe loading pressure range is found.

Keywords: soft robotics, pneumatic actuator, design and modelling, bending analysis

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12 Benefit-Cost Analysis of Flood Management: a Case Study of Jammu and Kashmir

Authors: Kowser Ali Jan, R. Balaji

Abstract:

A disaster hurts those affected. It also spares many in the affected areas, yet those spared may be indirectly affected. The analytical framework of prevention and coping has proved useful in many circumstances. Historically and currently, there has been limited quantitative information available on flood management in Jammu and Kashmir. This study focuses on the Cost-benefit Analysis (CBA) of flood management by District Disaster Management Kulgam, and the assessment is based on secondary pooled data collected from government offices, NGOs, published Journals, and local and national newspapers. It also described the scenario, the approach adopted, and the sources of flood damage cost information. The estimated total benefits account for 78686.18 lakh of rupees, and that of total costs account for 2218.75lakh of rupees. The Benefit-Cost ratio greater than one (>1) shows that Flood Management in District Kulgam was economically feasible and successfully managed. The State of Jammu and Kashmir takes essential prevention and management measures to bring down the damages due to floods to significant status.

Keywords: cost-benefit analysis, nature, flood management, disaster

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11 Morphological Study of Sesamoid Bones of Thumb in South Indians

Authors: B. V. Murlimanju, R. Abisshek Balaji, Apoorva Aggarwal, Mangala M. Pai

Abstract:

Background: Since the literature is scarce from the South Indian population about the sesamoid bones of the thumb, the present study was undertaken. The objective of the present study was to figure out the muscle of the thumb which contain these sesamoid bones. Methods: The present study included 25 cadaveric thumbs, which were obtained from the anatomy laboratory of our institution. Thumbs were studied for the prevalence of sesamoid bones at the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. The muscle which contain these sesamoid bones were identified. Results: The present study observed that, there were 2 sesamoid bones (92%) at the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb each at its medial and lateral aspect. The medial sesamoid bone was found inside the adductor pollicis muscle and lateral one was found either in the flexor pollicis brevis muscle or abductor pollicis brevis muscle. However, among the 25 thumbs being studied, 2 thumbs (8%) had solitary sesamoid bone. The interphalangeal joint of the thumb exhibited only one sesamoid bone at the median plane. Conclusion: The morphological data of the present study from the South Indians can be used as a database, which is enlightening to the operating hand surgeon and radiologist.

Keywords: morphology, muscles, sesamoid bones, thumb

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10 Aerodynamic Design of Three-Dimensional Bellmouth for Low-Speed Open-Circuit Wind Tunnel

Authors: Harshavardhan Reddy, Balaji Subramanian

Abstract:

A systematic parametric study to find the optimum bellmouth profile by relating geometric and performance parameters to satisfy a set of specifications is reported. A careful aerodynamic design of bellmouth intake is critical to properly direct the flow with minimal losses and maximal flow uniformity into the honeycomb located inside the settling chamber of an indraft wind tunnel, thus improving the efficiency of the entire unit. Design charts for elliptically profiled bellmouths with two different contraction ratios (9 and 18) and three different test section speeds (25 m/s, 50 m/s, and 75 m/s) were presented. A significant performance improvement - especially in the Coefficient of discharge and in the flow angularity and boundary layer thickness at the honeycomb inlet - was observed when an entry corner radius (r/D = 0.08) was added to the bellmouth profile. The nonuniformity at the honeycomb inlet drops by about three times (~1% to 0.3%) when moving from square to regular octagonal cross-section. An octagonal cross-sectioned bellmouth intake with L/d = 0.55, D/d = 1.625, and r/D = 0.08 met all the four target performance specifications and is proposed as the best choice for a low-speed wind tunnel.

Keywords: bellmouth intake, low-speed wind tunnel, coefficient of discharge, nonuniformity, flow angularity, boundary layer thickness, CFD, aerodynamics

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9 Indian Road Traffic Flow Analysis Using Blob Tracking from Video Sequences

Authors: Balaji Ganesh Rajagopal, Subramanian Appavu alias Balamurugan, Ayyalraj Midhun Kumar, Krishnan Nallaperumal

Abstract:

Intelligent Transportation System is an Emerging area to solve multiple transportation problems. Several forms of inputs are needed in order to solve ITS problems. Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) is a core and important ITS area of this modern era. This involves travel time forecasting, efficient road map analysis and cost based path selection, Detection of the vehicle in the dynamic conditions and Traffic congestion state forecasting. This Article designs and provides an algorithm for traffic data generation which can be used for the above said ATIS application. By inputting the real world traffic situation in the form of video sequences, the algorithm determines the Traffic density in terms of congestion, number of vehicles in a given path which can be fed for various ATIS applications. The Algorithm deduces the key frame from the video sequences and follows the Blob detection, Identification and Tracking using connected components algorithm to determine the correlation between the vehicles moving in the real road scene.

Keywords: traffic transportation, traffic density estimation, blob identification and tracking, relative velocity of vehicles, correlation between vehicles

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8 Embedment Design Concept of Signature Tower in Chennai

Authors: M. Gobinath, S. Balaji

Abstract:

Assumptions in model inputs: Grade of concrete=40 N/mm2 (for slab), Grade of concrete=40 N/mm2 (for shear wall), Grade of Structural steel (plate girder)=350 N/mm2 (yield strength), Ultimate strength of structural steel=490 N/mm2, Grade of rebar=500 N/mm2 (yield strength), Applied Load=1716 kN (un-factored). Following assumptions are made for the mathematical modelling of RCC with steel embedment: (1) The bond between the structural steel and concrete is neglected. (2) The stiffener is provided with shear studs to transfer the shear force. Hence nodal connectivity is established between solid nodes (concrete) and shell elements (stiffener) at those locations. (3) As the end reinforcements transfer either tension/compression, it is modeled as line element and connected to solid nodes. (4) In order to capture the bearing of bottom flange on to the concrete, the line element of plan size of solid equal to the cross section of line elements is connected between solid and shell elements below for bottom flange and above for top flange. (5) As the concrete cannot resist tension at the interface (i.e., between structural steel and RCC), the tensile stiffness is assigned as zero and only compressive stiffness is enabled to take. Hence, non-linear static analysis option is invoked.

Keywords: structure, construction, signature tower, embedment design concept

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7 Data-Driven Analysis of Velocity Gradient Dynamics Using Neural Network

Authors: Nishant Parashar, Sawan S. Sinha, Balaji Srinivasan

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We perform an investigation of the unclosed terms in the evolution equation of the velocity gradient tensor (VGT) in compressible decaying turbulent flow. Velocity gradients in a compressible turbulent flow field influence several important nonlinear turbulent processes like cascading and intermittency. In an attempt to understand the dynamics of the velocity gradients various researchers have tried to model the unclosed terms in the evolution equation of the VGT. The existing models proposed for these unclosed terms have limited applicability. This is mainly attributable to the complex structure of the higher order gradient terms appearing in the evolution equation of VGT. We investigate these higher order gradients using the data from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of compressible decaying isotropic turbulent flow. The gas kinetic method aided with weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme (WENO) based flow- reconstruction is employed to generate DNS data. By applying neural-network to the DNS data, we map the structure of the unclosed higher order gradient terms in the evolution of the equation of the VGT with VGT itself. We validate our findings by performing alignment based study of the unclosed higher order gradient terms obtained using the neural network with the strain rate eigenvectors.

Keywords: compressible turbulence, neural network, velocity gradient tensor, direct numerical simulation

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6 Supply Chain Network Design for Perishable Products in Developing Countries

Authors: Abhishek Jain, Kavish Kejriwal, V. Balaji Rao, Abhigna Chavda

Abstract:

Increasing environmental and social concerns are forcing companies to take a fresh view of the impact of supply chain operations on environment and society when designing a supply chain. A challenging task in today’s food industry is the distribution of high-quality food items throughout the food supply chain. Improper storage and unwanted transportation are the major hurdles in food supply chain and can be tackled by making dynamic storage facility location decisions with the distribution network. Since food supply chain in India is one of the biggest supply chains in the world, the companies should also consider environmental impact caused by the supply chain. This project proposes a multi-objective optimization model by integrating sustainability in decision-making, on distribution in a food supply chain network (SCN). A Multi-Objective Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MOMILP) model between overall cost and environmental impact caused by the SCN is formulated for the problem. The goal of MOMILP is to determine the pareto solutions for overall cost and environmental impact caused by the supply chain. This is solved by using GAMS with CPLEX as third party solver. The outcomes of the project are pareto solutions for overall cost and environmental impact, facilities to be operated and the amount to be transferred to each warehouse during the time horizon.

Keywords: multi-objective mixed linear programming, food supply chain network, GAMS, multi-product, multi-period, environment

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5 Supplier Selection Using Sustainable Criteria in Sustainable Supply Chain Management

Authors: Richa Grover, Rahul Grover, V. Balaji Rao, Kavish Kejriwal

Abstract:

Selection of suppliers is a crucial problem in the supply chain management. On top of that, sustainable supplier selection is the biggest challenge for the organizations. Environment protection and social problems have been of concern to society in recent years, and the traditional supplier selection does not consider about this factor; therefore, this research work focuses on introducing sustainable criteria into the structure of supplier selection criteria. Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) is the management and administration of material, information, and money flows, as well as coordination among business along the supply chain. All three dimensions - economic, environmental, and social - of sustainable development needs to be taken care of. Purpose of this research is to maximize supply chain profitability, maximize social wellbeing of supply chain and minimize environmental impacts. Problem statement is selection of suppliers in a sustainable supply chain network by ranking the suppliers against sustainable criteria identified. The aim of this research is twofold: To find out what are the sustainable parameters that can be applied to the supply chain, and to determine how these parameters can effectively be used in supplier selection. Multicriteria decision making tools will be used to rank both criteria and suppliers. AHP Analysis will be used to find out ratings for the criteria identified. It is a technique used for efficient decision making. TOPSIS will be used to find out rating for suppliers and then ranking them. TOPSIS is a MCDM problem solving method which is based on the principle that the chosen option should have the maximum distance from the negative ideal solution (NIS) and the minimum distance from the ideal solution.

Keywords: sustainable supply chain management, sustainable criteria, MCDM tools, AHP analysis, TOPSIS method

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4 Toxic Influence of Cypermethrin on Biochemical Changes in Fresh Water Fish, Cyprinus carpio

Authors: Gowri Balaji, Muthusamy Nachiyappan, Ramalingam Venugopal

Abstract:

Amongst the wide spectrum of pesticides, pyrethroids are preferably used rather than organochlorine, organophosphorous and carbamates pesticides due to their high effectiveness. Synthetic pyrethroids which are the chemicals used for the pest control in agriculture are now being excessively used in India. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the adverse effect of cypermethrin on the fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio, the common carp. The effect was assessed by comparing the biochemical parameters in the blood and liver tissues of control fishes with three experimental group of fishes exposed with cypermethrin for 7 days 1/15 Lc50 (E1) 1/10 Lc50 (E2) and 1/5 Lc50 values (E3). After 7 days of exposure, blood was collected and liver and gills was dissected out. The activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were estimated by standard spectrophotometric techniques in the blood, liver and gills tissue homogenate. Lactate dehydrogenase was significantly decreased in E2 and E3 experimental groups. The activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were significantly altered in the experimental groups. All the biochemical parameters studied were adversely affected in the liver and gills of cypermethrin exposed fish. The results obtained from the present study of cypermethrin exposed fishes indicate a marked toxic effect of cypermethrin and also its dose dependent impact on different organs of the fish.

Keywords: cypermethrin, Cyprinus carpio, ALT, AST, LDH, liver, gills

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3 Suicide Prevention through Spiritual Practice

Authors: Jayant Balaji Athavale, Sean Clarke

Abstract:

Background: According to the WHO, every year, more than 700,000 people die by suicide, which is one person around every 45 seconds. Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death among 15 to 29-year-olds globally. The most common situations or life events that might cause suicidal thoughts are financial problems/unemployment, rejections, relationship breakups, sexual/substance abuse and mental illnesses. Mental/psychological weakness caused due to defects in one’s personality is one of the main reasons why people feel they cannot cope in such situations and contemplate suicide. A WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020 lists a 4-point strategy to enhance mental health by ‘implementing strategies for promotion and prevention in mental health.’ Methodology: With 40 years of spiritual research background, the team at the Maharshi University of Spirituality has studied the spiritual root causes that can significantly affect one’s mental health and the solutions to improve it. Results/Findings: According to spiritual science, the time and nature of death are mostly due to spiritual reasons. A person would mostly contemplate and attempt suicide when he is spiritually most vulnerable. Spiritual practice, as per universal principles, helps in protecting a person spiritually and prevents him from getting such thoughts of self-harm or acting upon them by controlling such impulses. The University has had much success in helping people to overcome the defects in their personalities, including those with suicidal thoughts, through spiritual practices such as chanting the Name of God and the Personality Defect Removal (PDR) process developed by the Author. Conclusion: If such techniques were taught in educational institutions, they could be simple yet effective self-help tools to prevent thoughts of suicide and enhance mental health and well-being.

Keywords: suicide, mental health, abuse, suicide prevention, personality defect removal

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2 Studies on Radio Frequency Sputtered Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide Absorber Layers for Thin Film Solar Cells

Authors: G. Balaji, R. Balasundaraprabhu, S. Prasanna, M. D. Kannan, K. Sivakumaran, David Mcilroy

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Copper Zin tin sulphide (Cu2ZnSnS4 or CZTS) is found to be better alternative to Copper Indium gallium diselenide as absorber layers in thin film based solar cells due to the utilisation of earth-abundant materials in the midst of lower toxicity. In the present study, Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films were prepared on soda lime glass using (CuS, ZnS, SnS) targets and were deposited by three different stacking orders, using RF Magnetron sputtering. The substrate temperature was fixed at 300 °C during the depositions. CZTS thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. All the samples exhibited X-ray peaks pertaining to (112) kesterite phase of CZTS, along with the presence of a predominant wurtzite CZTS phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of all the elements in all the samples. The change in stacking order clearly shows that it affects the structural and phase properties of the films. Relative atomic concentrations of Zn, Cu, Sn and S, which are determined by high-resolution XPS core level spectra integrated peak areas revealed that the CZTS films exhibit inhomogeneity in both stoichiometry and elemental composition. Raman spectroscopy studies on the film showed the presence of CZTS phase. The energy band gap of the CZTS thin films was found to be in the range of 1.5 eV to 1.6 eV. The films were then annealed at 450 °C for 5 hrs and it was found that the predominant nature of the X-ray peaks has transformed from Wurtzite to Kesterite phase which is highly desirable for absorber layers in thin film solar cells. The optimized CZTS layer was used as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. ZnS and CdS were used as buffer layers which in turn prepared by Hot wall epitaxy technique. Gallium doped Zinc oxide was used as a transparent conducting oxide. The solar cell structure Glass/Mo/CZTS/CdS or ZnS/GZO has been fabricated, and solar cell parameters were measured.

Keywords: earth-abundant, Kesterite, RF sputtering, thin film solar cells

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1 Regional Barriers and Opportunities for Developing Innovation Networks in the New Media Industry: A Comparison between Beijing and Bangalore Regional Innovation Systems

Authors: Cristina Chaminade, Mandar Kulkarni, Balaji Parthasarathy, Monica Plechero

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The characteristics of a regional innovation system (RIS) and the specificity of the knowledge base of an industry may contribute to create peculiar paths for innovation and development of firms’ geographic extended innovation networks. However, the relative empirical evidence in emerging economies remains underexplored. The paper aims to fill the research gap by means of some recent qualitative research conducted in 2016 in Beijing (China) and Bangalore (India). It analyzes cases studies of firms in the new media industry, a sector that merges different IT competences with competences from other knowledge domains and that is emerging in those RIS. The results show that while in Beijing the new media sector results to be more in line with the existing institutional setting and governmental goals aimed at targeting specific social aspects and social problems of the population, in Bangalore it remains a more spontaneous firms-led process. In Beijing what matters for the development of innovation networks is the governmental setting and the national and regional strategies to promote science and technology in this sector, internet and mass innovation. The peculiarities of recent governmental policies aligned to the domestic goals may provide good possibilities for start-ups to develop innovation networks. However, due to the specificities of those policies targeting the Chinese market, networking outside the domestic market are not so promoted. Moreover, while some institutional peculiarities, such as a culture of collaboration in the region, may be favorable for local networking, regulations related to Internet censorship may limit the use of global networks particularly when based on virtual spaces. Mainly firms with already some foreign experiences and contact take advantage of global networks. In Bangalore, the role of government in pushing networking for the new media industry at the present stage is quite absent at all geographical levels. Indeed there is no particular strategic planning or prioritizing in the region toward the new media industry, albeit one industrial organization has emerged to represent the animation industry interests. This results in a lack of initiatives for sustaining the integration of complementary knowledge into the local portfolio of IT specialization. Firms actually involved in the new media industry face institutional constrains related to a poor level of local trust and cooperation, something that does not allow for full exploitation of local linkages. Moreover, knowledge-provider organizations in Bangalore remain still a solid base for the IT domain, but not for other domains. Initiatives to link to international networks seem therefore more the result of individual entrepreneurial actions aimed at acquiring complementary knowledge and competencies from different domains and exploiting potentiality in different markets. From those cases, it emerges that role of government, soft institutions and organizations in the two RIS differ substantially in the creation of barriers and opportunities for the development of innovation networks and their specific aim.

Keywords: regional innovation system, emerging economies, innovation network, institutions, organizations, Bangalore, Beijing

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