Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1428

Search results for: glass fibers

1428 Enhanced Dimensional Stability of Rigid PVC Foams Using Glass Fibers

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Murtatha M. Jamel, Parisa Khoshnoud, Subhashini Gunashekar

Abstract:

Two types of glass fibers having different lengths (1/16" and 1/32") were added into rigid PVC foams to enhance the dimensional stability of extruded rigid Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) foam at different concentrations (0-20 phr) using a single screw profile extruder. PVC foam-glass fiber composites (PVC-GF) were characterized for their dimensional stability, structural, thermal, and mechanical properties. Experimental results show that the dimensional stability, heat resistance, and storage modulus were enhanced without compromising the tensile and flexural strengths of the composites. Overall, foam composites which were prepared with longer glass fibers exhibit better mechanical and thermal properties than those prepared with shorter glass fibers due to higher interlocking between the fibers and the foam cells, which result in better load distribution in the matrix.

Keywords: polyvinyl chloride, PVC foam, PVC composites, polymer composites, glass fiber composites, reinforced polymers

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1427 Improvement of Frictional Coefficient of Modified Shoe Soles onto Icy and Snowy Road by Tilting of Added Glass Fibers into Rubber

Authors: Wakayama Shunya, Okubo Kazuya, Fujii Toru, Sakata Daisuke, Kado Noriyuki, Furutachi Hiroshi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to propose an effective method to improve frictional coefficient of modified shoe rubber soles with added glass fibers onto the icy and snowy road surfaces in order to prevent slip-and-fall accidents by the users. Added fibers in the rubber were uniformly tilted to the perpendicular direction of the frictional surface, where tilting angle was -60, -30, +30, +60, 90 degrees and 0 for usual specimen, respectively. It was found that horizontal arraignment was effective to improve the frictional coefficient when glass fibers were embedded in the shoe rubber, while the standing in normal direction of the embedded glass fibers on the shoe surface was also effective to do that once after they were exposed from the shoe rubber with its abrasion. These improvements were explained by the increase of stiffness against the shear deformation of the rubber at the critical frictional state and the enlargement of resistance force for extracting exposed fibers from the ice and snow, respectively. Current study suggested that effective arraignments in the tilting angle of the added fibers should be applied in designing rubber shoe soles to keep the safeties for uses in regions of cold climates.

Keywords: frictional coefficient, shoe soles, icy and snowy road, glass fibers, tilting angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
1426 Effect of Volume Fraction of Fibre on the Mechanical Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced E-Glass-Epoxy Composites

Authors: K. Krushnamurty, D. Rasmitha, I. Srikanth, K. Ramji, Ch. Subrahmanyam

Abstract:

E-glass-epoxy laminated composites having different fiber volume fractions (40, 50, 60 and 70) were fabricated with and without the addition of nanoclay. Flexural strength and tensile strength of the composite laminates were determined. It was observed that, with increasing the fiber volume fraction (Vf) of fiber from 40 to 60, the ability of nanoclay to enhance the tensile and flexural strength of E-glass-epoxy composites decreases significantly. At 70Vf, the tensile and flexural strength of the nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy were found to be lowest when compared to the E-glass-epoxy composite made without the addition of nanoclay. Based on the obtained data and microstructure of the tested samples, plausible mechanism for the observed trends has been proposed. The enhanced mechanical properties for nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy composites for 40-60 Vf, due to higher interface toughness coupled with strong interfilament bonding may have ensured the homogeneous load distribution across all the glass fibers. Results in the decrease in mechanical properties at 70Vf, may be due to the inability of the matrix to bind the nanoclay and glass-fibers.

Keywords: e-glass-epoxy composite laminates, fiber volume fraction, e-glass fiber, mechanical properties, delamination

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
1425 Processing and Evaluation of Jute Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Composites

Authors: Mohammad W. Dewan, Jahangir Alam, Khurshida Sharmin

Abstract:

Synthetic fibers (carbon, glass, aramid, etc.) are generally utilized to make composite materials for better mechanical and thermal properties. However, they are expensive and non-biodegradable. In the perspective of Bangladesh, jute fibers are available, inexpensive, and comprising good mechanical properties. The improved properties (i.e., low cost, low density, eco-friendly) of natural fibers have made them a promising reinforcement in hybrid composites without sacrificing mechanical properties. In this study, jute and e-glass fiber reinforced hybrid composite materials are fabricated utilizing hand lay-up followed by a compression molding technique. Room temperature cured two-part epoxy resin is used as a matrix. Approximate 6-7 mm thick composite panels are fabricated utilizing 17 layers of woven glass and jute fibers with different fiber layering sequences- only jute, only glass, glass, and jute alternatively (g/j/g/j---) and 4 glass - 9 jute – 4 glass (4g-9j-4g). The fabricated composite panels are analyzed through fiber volume calculation, tensile test, bending test, and water absorption test. The hybridization of jute and glass fiber results in better tensile, bending, and water absorption properties than only jute fiber-reinforced composites, but inferior properties as compared to only glass fiber reinforced composites. Among different fiber layering sequences, 4g-9j-4g fibers layering sequence resulted in better tensile, bending, and water absorption properties. The effect of chemical treatment on the woven jute fiber and chopped glass microfiber infusion are also investigated in this study. Chemically treated jute fiber and 2 wt. % chopped glass microfiber infused hybrid composite shows about 12% improvements in flexural strength as compared to untreated and no micro-fiber infused hybrid composite panel. However, fiber chemical treatment and micro-filler do not have a significant effect on tensile strength.

Keywords: compression molding, chemical treatment, hybrid composites, mechanical properties

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1424 Manufacturing Process of S-Glass Fiber Reinforced PEKK Prepregs

Authors: Nassier A. Nassir, Robert Birch, Zhongwei Guan

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the fundamental science/technology related to novel S-glass fiber reinforced polyether- ketone-ketone (GF/PEKK) composites and to gain insight into bonding strength and failure mechanisms. Different manufacturing techniques to make this high-temperature pre-impregnated composite (prepreg) were conducted i.e. mechanical deposition, electrostatic powder deposition, and dry powder prepregging techniques. Generally, the results of this investigation showed that it was difficult to control the distribution of the resin powder evenly on the both sides of the fibers within a specific percentage. Most successful approach was by using a dry powder prepregging where the fibers were coated evenly with an adhesive that served as a temporary binder to hold the resin powder in place onto the glass fiber fabric.

Keywords: sry powder technique, PEKK, S-glass, thermoplastic prepreg

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
1423 Investigation Particle Behavior in Gas-Solid Filtration with Electrostatic Discharge in a Hybrid System

Authors: Flávia M. Oliveira, Marcos V. Rodrigues, Mônica L. Aguiar

Abstract:

Synthetic fibers are widely used in gas filtration. Previous attempts to optimize the filtration process have employed mixed fibers as the filter medium in gas-solid separation. Some of the materials most frequently used this purpose are composed of polyester, polypropylene, and glass fibers. In order to improve the retention of cement particles in bag filters, the present study investigates the use of synthetic glass fiber filters and polypropylene fiber for particle filtration, with electrostatic discharge of 0 to -2 kV in cement particles. The filtration curves obtained showed that charging increased the particle collection efficiency and lowered the pressure drop. Particle diameter had a direct influence on the formation of the dust cake, and the application of electrostatic discharge to the particles resulted in the retention of more particles, hence increasing the lifetime of fabric filters.

Keywords: glass fiber filter, particle, electrostatic discharge, cement

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1422 Green Prossesing of PS/Nanoparticle Fibers and Studying Morphology and Properties

Authors: M. Kheirandish, S. Borhani

Abstract:

In this experiment Polystyrene/Zinc-oxide (PS/ZnO) nanocomposite fibers were produced by electrospinning technique using limonene as a green solvent. First, the morphology of electrospun pure polystyrene (PS) and PS/ZnO nanocomposite fibers investigated by SEM. Results showed the PS fiber diameter decreased by increasing concentration of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) results showed thermal stability of nanocomposites increased by increasing ZnO NPs in PS electrospun fibers. Considering Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) thermograms for electrospun PS fibers indicated that introduction of ZnO NPs into fibers affects the glass transition temperature (Tg) by reducing it. Also, UV protection properties of nanocomposite fibers were increased by increasing ZnO concentration. Evaluating the effect of metal oxide NPs amount on mechanical properties of electrospun layer showed that tensile strength and elasticity modulus of the electrospun layer of PS increased by addition of ZnO NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of nanopcomposite fibers confirmed the presence of NPs in the samples.

Keywords: electrospininng, nanoparticle, polystyrene, ZnO

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
1421 Effect of Hollow and Solid Recycled-Poly Fibers on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Short-Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

Authors: S. Kerakra, S. Bouhelal, M. Poncot

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to give a comprehensive overview of the effect of short hollow and solid recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers in different breaking tenacities reinforced isotactic polypropylene (iPP) composites on the mechanical and morphological properties. Composites of iPP/3, 7and 10 wt% of solid and hollow recycled PET fibers were prepared by batched melt mixing in a Brabender. The incorporation of solid recycled-PET fibers in isotactic polypropylene increase Young’s modulus of iPP relatively, meanwhile it increased proportionally with hollow fibers content. An improvement of the storage modulus, and a shift up in glass transition temperatures of hollow fibers/iPP composites was determined by DMA results. The morphology of composites was determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical polarized microscopy (OM) showing a good dispersion of the hollow fibers. Also, their flexible aspect (folding, bending) was observed. But, one weak interaction between the polymer/fibers phases was shown. Polymers can be effectively reinforced with short hollow recycled PET fibers due to their characteristics like recyclability, lightweight and the flexible aspect, which allows the absorbance of the energy of a striker with a minimum damage of the matrix. Aiming to improve the affinity matrix–recycled hollow PET fibers, it is suggested the addition of compatibilizers, as maleic anhydride.

Keywords: isotactic polypropylene, hollow recycled PET fibers, solid recycled-PET fibers, composites, short fiber, scanning electron microscope

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
1420 Investigation of Mechanical Properties on natural fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Gopi Kerekere Rangaraju, Madhu Puttegowda

Abstract:

Natural fibres composites include coir, jute, bagasse, cotton, bamboo, and hemp. Natural fibers come from plants. These fibers contain lingo cellulose in nature. Natural fibers are eco-friendly; lightweight, strong, renewable, cheap, and biodegradable. The natural fibers can be used to reinforce both thermosetting and thermoplastic matrices. Thermosetting resins such as epoxy, polyester, polyurethane, and phenolic are commonly used composites requiring higher performance applications. They provide sufficient mechanical properties, in particular, stiffness and strength at acceptably low-price levels. Recent advances in natural fibers development are genetic engineering. The composites science offers significant opportunities for improved materials from renewable resources with enhanced support for global sustainability. Natural fibers composites are attractive to industry because of their low density and ecological advantages over conventional composites. These composites are gaining importance due to their non-carcinogenic and bio-degradable nature. Natural fibers composites are a very costeffective material, especially in building and construction, packaging, automobile and railway coach interiors, and storage devices. These composites are potential candidates for the replacement of high- cost glass fibers for low load bearing applications. Natural fibers have the advantages of low density, low cost, and biodegradability

Keywords: PMC, basalt, coir, carbon fibers

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1419 A Numerical Study on Micromechanical Aspects in Short Fiber Composites

Authors: I. Ioannou, I. M. Gitman

Abstract:

This study focused on the contribution of micro-mechanical parameters on the macro-mechanical response of short fiber composites, namely polypropylene matrix reinforced by glass fibers. In the framework of this paper, an attention has been given to the glass fibers length, as micromechanical parameter influences the overall macroscopic material’s behavior. Three dimensional numerical models were developed and analyzed through the concept of a Representative Volume Element (RVE). Results of the RVE-based approach were compared with analytical Halpin-Tsai’s model.

Keywords: effective properties, homogenization, representative volume element, short fiber reinforced composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
1418 Preparation and Characterization of Titania-Coated Glass Fibrous Filters Using Aqueous Peroxotitanium Acid Solution

Authors: Ueda Honoka, Yasuo Hasegawa, Fumihiro Nishimura, Jae-Ho Kim, Susumu Yonezawa

Abstract:

Aqueous peroxotitanium acid solution prepared from the TiO₂ fluorinated by F₂ gas was used for the TiO₂ coating on glass fibrous filters in this study. The coating of TiO₂ on the surface of glass fibers was carried out at 120℃ and for 15 min ~ 24 h with aqueous peroxotitanium acid solution using a hydrothermal synthesis autoclave reactor. The morphology TiO₂ coating layer was largely dependent on the reaction time, as shown in the results of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Increasing the reaction times, the TiO₂ layer on the glass expanded uniformly. Moreover, the surface fluorination of glass fibers can promote the formation of the TiO₂ layer on the surface. The photocatalytic activity of prepared titania-coated glass fibrous filters was investigated by both the degradation test of methylene blue (MB) and the decomposition test of gaseous acetaldehyde. The MB decomposition ratio with fluorinated samples was about 95% for 30 min of UV irradiation time, and it was much higher than that (70%) with the untreated thing. The decomposition ratio (50%) of gaseous acetaldehyde with fluorinated samples was also higher than that (30%) with the untreated thing. Consequently, photocatalytic activity is enhanced by surface fluorination.

Keywords: aqueous peroxotitanium acid solution, titania-coated glass fibrous filters, photocatalytic activity, surface fluorination

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1417 Effects of CFRP Confinement on PCC and Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Muhammad Jahangeer Munir, Liaqat Ali Qureshi, Junaid Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper presents the investigation regarding use of glass fibers in structural concrete members and determining the behavior of normal PCC, GFRC and retrofitted GFRC under different tests performed in the laboratory. Effect of retrofitting on the GFRC & PCC was investigated by using three patterns of CFRP wrapping. Properties like compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of normal GFRC and retrofitted GFRC were investigated and compared with their PCC counterparts. It was found that GFRC has more compressive strength as compared to PCC. At lower confinement pressures PCC behaves better than GFRC. Confinement efficiency was lower in GFRC as compared to PCC in terms of Split tensile strength. In case of GFRC all the patterns of wrapped CFRP strips showed more strength than their PCC counterparts.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced polymers, confinement, glass fibers, retrofitting

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1416 Visco - Plastic Transition and Transfer of Plastic Material with SGF in case of Linear Dry Friction Contact on Steel Surfaces

Authors: Lucian Capitanu, Virgil Florescu

Abstract:

Often for the laboratory studies, modeling of specific tribological processes raises special problems. One such problem is the modeling of some temperatures and extremely high contact pressures, allowing modeling of temperatures and pressures at which the injection or extrusion processing of thermoplastic materials takes place. Tribological problems occur mainly in thermoplastics materials reinforced with glass fibers. They produce an advanced wear to the barrels and screws of processing machines, in short time. Obtaining temperatures around 210 °C and higher, as well as pressures around 100 MPa is very difficult in the laboratory. This paper reports a simple and convenient solution to get these conditions, using friction sliding couples with linear contact, cylindrical liner plastic filled with glass fibers on plate steel samples, polished and super-finished. C120 steel, which is a steel for moulds and Rp3 steel, high speed steel for tools, were used. Obtaining the pressure was achieved by continuous request of the liner in rotational movement up to its elasticity limits, when the dry friction coefficient reaches or exceeds the hardness value of 0.5 HB. By dissipation of the power lost by friction on flat steel sample, are reached contact temperatures at the metal surface that reach and exceed 230 °C, being placed in the range temperature values of the injection. Contact pressures (in load and materials conditions used) ranging from 16.3-36.4 MPa were obtained depending on the plastic material used and the glass fibers content.

Keywords: plastics with glass fibers, dry friction, linear contact, contact temperature, contact pressure, experimental simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
1415 Experimental and Computational Analysis of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Beams with Piezoelectric Fibers

Authors: Selin Kunc, Srinivas Koushik Gundimeda, John A. Gallagher, Roselita Fragoudakis

Abstract:

This study investigates the behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) laminated beams additionally reinforced with piezoelectric fibers. The electromechanical behavior of piezoelectric materials coupled with high strength/low weight GFRP laminated beams can have significant application in a wide range of industries. Energy scavenging through mechanical vibrations is the focus of this study, and possible applications can be seen in the automotive industry. This study examines the behavior of such composite laminates using Classical Lamination Theory (CLT) under three-point bending conditions. Fiber orientation is optimized for the desired stiffness and deflection that yield maximum energy output. Finite element models using ABAQUS/CAE are verified through experimental testing. The optimum stacking sequences examined are [0o]s, [ 0/45o]s, and [45/-45o]s. Results show the superiority of the stacking sequence [0/45o]s, providing higher strength at a lower weight, and maximum energy output. Furthermore, laminated GFRP beams additionally reinforced with piezoelectric fibers can be used under bending to not only replace metallic component while providing similar strength at a lower weight but also provide an energy output.

Keywords: classical lamination theory (CLT), energy scavenging, glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP), piezoelectric fibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
1414 Physical Properties of Alkali Resistant-Glass Fibers in Continuous Fiber Spinning Conditions

Authors: Ji-Sun Lee, Soong-Keun Hyun, Jin-Ho Kim

Abstract:

In this study, a glass fiber is fabricated using a continuous spinning process from alkali resistant (AR) glass with 4 wt% zirconia. In order to confirm the melting properties of the marble glass, the raw material is placed into a Pt crucible and melted at 1650 ℃ for 2 h, and then annealed. In order to confirm the transparency of the clear marble glass, the visible transmittance is measured, and the fiber spinning condition is investigated by using high temperature viscosity measurements. A change in the diameter is observed according to the winding speed in the range of 100–900 rpm; it is also verified as a function of the fiberizing temperature in the range of 1200–1260 ℃. The optimum winding speed and spinning temperature are 500 rpm and 1240 ℃, respectively. The properties of the prepared spinning fiber are confirmed using optical microscope, tensile strength, modulus, and alkali-resistant tests.

Keywords: glass composition, fiber diameter, continuous filament fiber, continuous spinning, physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
1413 XANES Studies on the Oxidation States of Copper Ion in Silicate Glass

Authors: R. Buntem, K. Samkongngam

Abstract:

The silicate glass was prepared using rice husk as the source of silica. The base composition of glass sample is composed of SiO2 (from rice husk ash), Na2CO3, K2CO3, ZnO, H3BO3, CaO, Al2O3 or Al, and CuO. Aluminum is used in place of Al2O3 in order to reduce Cu2+ to Cu+. The red color of Cu2O in the glass matrix was observed when the Al was added into the glass mixture. The expansion coefficients of the copper doped glass are in the range of 1.2 x 10-5-1.4x10-5 (ºC -1) which is common for the silicate glass. The finger prints of the bond vibrations were studied using IR spectroscopy. While the oxidation state and the coordination information of the copper ion in the glass matrix were investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. From the data, Cu+ and Cu2+ exist in the glass matrix. The red particles of Cu2O can be formed in the glass matrix when enough aluminum was added.

Keywords: copper in glass, coordination information, silicate glass, XANES spectrum

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1412 Development and Characterization of Wear Properties of Aluminum 8011 Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites

Authors: H. K. Shivanand, A. Yogananda

Abstract:

The objective of present investigation is to study the effect of reinforcements on the wear properties of E-Glass short fibers and Flyash reinforced Al 8011 hybrid metal matrix composites. The alloy of Al 8011 reinforced with E-glass and fly ash particulates are prepared by simple stir casting method. The MMC is obtained for different composition of E-glass and flyash particulates (varying E-glass with constant fly ash and varying flyash with constant E-glass percentage). The wear results of ascast hybrid composites with different compositions of reinforcements at varying sliding speeds and different loads are discussed. The results reveals that as the percentage of reinforcement increases wear rate will decrease.

Keywords: metal matrix composites, aluminum alloy 8011, stir casting, wear test

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
1411 Study of Composite Materials for Aisha Containment Chamber

Authors: G. Costa, F. Noto, L. Celona, F. Chines, G. Ciavola, G. Cuttone, S. Gammino, O. Leonardi, S. Marletta, G. Torrisi

Abstract:

The ion sources for accelerators devoted to medical applications must provide intense ion beams, with high reproducibility, stability and brightness. AISHa (Advanced Ion Source for Hadron-therapy) is a compact ECRIS whose hybrid magnetic system consists of a permanent Halbach-type hexapole magnet and a set of independently energized superconducting coils. These coils will be enclosed in a compact cryostat with two cryocoolers for LHe-free operation. The AISHa ion source has been designed by taking into account the typical requirements of hospital-based facilities, where the minimization of the mean time between failures (MTBF) is a key point together with the maintenance operations which should be fast and easy. It is intended to be a multipurpose device, operating at 18 GHz, in order to achieve higher plasma densities. It should provide enough versatility for future needs of the hadron therapy, including the ability to run at larger microwave power to produce different species and highly charged ion beams. The source is potentially interesting for any hadrontherapy center using heavy ions. In the paper, we designed an innovative solution for the plasma containment chamber that allows us to solve our isolation and structural problems. We analyzed the materials chosen for our aim (glass fibers and carbon fibers) and we illustrated the all process (spinning, curing and machining) of the assembly of our chamber. The glass fibers and carbon fibers are used to reinforce polymer matrices and give rise to structural composites and composites by molding.

Keywords: hadron-therapy, carbon fiber, glass fiber, vacuum-bag, ECR, ion source

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
1410 Effect of Water Absorption on the Fatigue Behavior of Glass/Polyester Composite

Authors: Djamel Djeghader, Bachir Redjel

Abstract:

The composite materials of glass fibers can be used as a repair material for damage elements under repeated stresses, and in various environments. A cyclic bending characterization of a glass/polyester composite material was carried out with consideration of the period of immersion in water. These tests describe the behavior of materials and identify the mechanical fatigue characteristics using the Wohler Curve for different immersion time: 0, 90, 180 and 270 days in water. These curves are characterized by a dispersion in the lifetimes were modeled by straight whose intercepts are very similar and comparable to the static strength. This material deteriorates fatigue at a constant rate, which increases with increasing immersion time in water at a constant speed. The endurance limit seems to be independent of the immersion time in the water.

Keywords: fatigue, composite, glass, polyester, immersion, wohler

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1409 A Critical Study of the Performance of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) Using Locally Supplied Materials in Bahrain

Authors: A. Umar, A. Tamimi

Abstract:

Development of new types of concrete with improved performance is a very important issue for the whole building industry. The development is based on the optimization of the concrete mix design, with an emphasis not only on the workability and mechanical properties but also to the durability and the reliability of the concrete structure in general. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a high-performance material designed to flow into formwork under its own weight and without the aid of mechanical vibration. At the same time it is cohesive enough to fill spaces of almost any size and shape without segregation or bleeding. Construction time is shorter and production of SCC is environmentally friendly (no noise, no vibration). Furthermore, SCC produces a good surface finish. Despite these advantages, SCC has not gained much local acceptance though it has been promoted in the Middle East for the last ten to twelve years. The reluctance in utilizing the advantages of SCC, in Bahrain, may be due to lack of research or published data pertaining to locally produced SCC. Therefore, there is a need to conduct studies on SCC using locally available material supplies. From the literature, it has been observed that the use of viscosity modifying admixtures (VMA), micro silica and glass fibers have proved to be very effective in stabilizing the rheological properties and the strength of fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Therefore, in the present study, it is proposed to carry out investigations of SCC with combinations of various dosages of VMAs with and without micro silica and glass fibers and to study their influence on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, viscosity modifying admixture, micro silica, glass fibers

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1408 A Thermal Analysis Based Approach to Obtain High Carbonaceous Fibers from Chicken Feathers

Authors: Y. Okumuş, A. Tuna, A. T. Seyhan, H. Çelebi

Abstract:

Useful carbon fibers were derived from chicken feathers (PCFs) based on a two-step pyrolysis method. The collected PCFs were cleaned and categorized as black, white and brown. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) were systemically used to design the pyrolysis steps. Depending on colors, feathers exhibit different glass transition (Tg) temperatures. Long-time heat treatment applied to the feathers emerged influential on the surface quality of the resulting carbon fibers. Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR) examination revealed that the extent of disulfide bond cleavage is highly associated with the feather melting stability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations were employed to evaluate the morphological changes of feathers after pyrolysis. Of all, brown feathers were found to be the most promising to turn into useful carbon fibers without any trace of melting and shape distortion when pyrolysis was carried out at 230°C for 24 hours and at 450°C for 1 hour.

Keywords: poultry chicken feather, keratin protein fiber, pyrolysis, high carbonaceous fibers

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1407 Physical Properties and Elastic Studies of Fluoroaluminate Glasses Based on Alkali

Authors: C. Benhamideche

Abstract:

Fluoroaluminate glasses have been reported as the earliest heavy metal fluoride glasses. By comparison with flurozirconate glasses, they offer a set of similar optical features, but also some differences in their elastic and chemical properties. In practice they have been less developed because their stability against devitrification is smaller than that of the most stable fluoroziconates. The purpose of this study was to investigate glass formation in systems AlF3-YF3-PbF2-MgF2-MF2 (M= Li, Na, K). Synthesis was implemented at room atmosphere using the ammonium fluoride processing. After fining, the liquid was into a preheated brass mold, then annealed below the glass transition temperature for several hours. The samples were polished for optical measurements. Glass formation has been investigated in a systematic way, using pseudo ternary systems in order to allow parameters to vary at the same time. We have chosen the most stable glass compositions for the determination of the physical properties. These properties including characteristic temperatures, density and proprieties elastic. Glass stability increases in multicomponent glasses. Bulk samples have been prepared for physical characterization. These glasses have a potential interest for passive optical fibers because they are less sensitive to water attack than ZBLAN glass, mechanically stronger. It is expected they could have a larger damage threshold for laser power transmission.

Keywords: fluoride glass, aluminium fluoride, thermal properties, density, proprieties elastic

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1406 Role of Amount of Glass Fibers in PAEK Composites to Control Mechanical and Tribological Properties

Authors: Jitendra Narayan Panda, Jayashree Bijwe, Raj K. Pandey

Abstract:

PAEK (Polyaryl ether ketone) being a high-performance polymer, is currently being explored for its tribo-potential by incorporating various fibers, solid lubricants. In this work, influence of amount (30 and 40 %) of short glass fibers (GF) in two composites containing PAEK (60 and 50 %) and synthetic graphite (10 %) on mechanical and tribological behaviour was studied. The composites were developed by injection molding and evaluated in adhesive wear mode (pin on disc configuration) against mild steel disc. The load and speed were selected as variable input parameters while coefficient of friction (µ), specific wear rate (K0) and PVlimit (pressure × velocity) values were selected as output parameters for performance evaluation. Although higher amount of GF lead to better mechanical properties, tribological properties were not in tune to this. Overall, µ and K0 for both composites were in the range 0.04-0.08 and 3-8x 10-16 m3/Nm respectively and decreased with increase in applied PV values till failure was observed. PVlimit was indicated by 112 and 100 MPa m/s. Such high PVlimit values are not reported for any polymer composites running in dry conditions in the literature. The mechanical properties of the C40 composite (40 % GF) proved superior to C30 composite (30 % GF). However, all tribological properties of C40 were inferior to C30. It exhibited higher µ, higher K0 and slightly lower PVlimit value. The higher % fibers proved detrimental for tribo-performance and worn surface analysis by SEM & EDAX was done on the discs & pins to understand wear mechanisms.

Keywords: PAEK composites, pin-on-disk, PV limit, friction

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1405 Investigating Optical Properties of Unsaturated Polyurethane Matrix and Its Glass Fiber Composite Under Extreme Temperatures

Authors: Saad Ahmed, Sanjeev Khannaa

Abstract:

Glass fiber reinforced polymers are widely used in structural systems as load-bearing elements at both high and low temperatures. This investigation presents the evaluation of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyurethane under harsh conditions of changing temperature and moisture content. This study Explores how these parameters affect the optical properties of the polymer matrix and the composite. Using the hand layup method, the polyurethane resin was modified by E-glass fibers (15 vol. %) to manufacture fiber-reinforced composite. This work includes the preparation of glass-like polyurethane resin sheets and estimates all light transmittance properties at high and very low temperatures and wet conditions. All-optical properties were retested to evaluate the level of improvement or failure. The results found that when comprising reinforced composite fiber to the unreinforced specimens, the reinforced composite shows a fair optical property at high temperatures and good performance at low temperatures.

Keywords: unsaturated polyurethane, extreme temperatures, light transmittance, haze number

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
1404 Influence of Stacking Sequence on Properties of Sheep-Wool/Glass Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites

Authors: G. B. Manjunatha

Abstract:

Natural fibers have been considerable demand in recent years due to their ecofriendly and renewable nature. The advantages of low density, acceptable specific properties, better thermal and insulate properties with low cost.In the present study, hybrid composite associating Sheep wool fiber and glass fiber reinforced with epoxy were developed and investigated the effect of stacking sequence on physical and chemical properties. The hybrid composite was designed for engineering applications as an alternative material to glass fiber composites. The hybrid composite laminates were fabricated by using hand lay-up technique at total fiber volume fraction of 60% (Sheep wool fiber 30% and Glass fiber 30%) and 40% reinforcement. The specimen preparation and testing were conducted as per American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Three different stacking are used. The result shows that tensile and bending tests of sequence of glass fiber between sheep wool fiber have high strength and maximum bending compared to other sequence of composites. At the same time better moisture and chemical absorption were observed.

Keywords: hybrid composites, mechanical properties, polymer composites, stacking sequence

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1403 An Investigation of Foam Glass Production from Sheet Glass Waste and SiC Foaming Agent

Authors: Aylin Sahin, Recep Artir, Mustafa Kara

Abstract:

Foam glass is a remarkable material with having incomparable properties like low weight, rigidity, high thermal insulation capacity and porous structure. In this study, foam glass production was investigated with using glass powder from sheet glass waste and SiC powder as foaming agent. Effects of SiC powders and sintering temperatures on foaming process were examined. It was seen that volume expansions (%), cellular structures and pore diameters of obtained foam glass samples were highly depending on composition ratios and sintering temperature. The study showed that various foam glass samples having with homogenous closed porosity, low weight and low thermal conductivity were achieved by optimizing composition ratios and sintering temperatures.

Keywords: foam glass, foaming, waste glass, silicon carbide

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1402 Experimental and Comparative Study of Composite Thin Cylinder Subjected to Internal Pressure

Authors: Hakim S. Sultan Aljibori

Abstract:

An experimental procedure is developed to study the performance of composite thin wall cylinders subjected to internal pressure loading for investigations of stress distribution through the composite cylinders wall. Three types of fibers were used in this study are; woven roving glass fiber/epoxy, hybrid fiber/epoxy, and Kevlar fiber/epoxy composite specimens were fabricated and tested. All of these specimens subjected to uniformed pressure load using the hydraulic pump. Axial stress is identified, and values were found after collecting all the results. Comparison between the deferent types of specimens was done. Thus, the present investigation concludes the efficient and effective composite cylinder experimentally and provides a considerable advantage for using woven roving fibers in pressure vessels applications.

Keywords: stress distribution, composite material, internal pressure, glass fiber, hybrid fiber

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1401 Influence of Recycled Glass Content on the Properties of Concrete and Mortar

Authors: Bourmatte Nadjoua, Houari Hacène

Abstract:

The effect of replacement of fine aggregates with recycled glass on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete and mortar is studied. Percentages of replacement are 0–25% and 50% of aggregates with fine waste glass to produce concrete and percentage of replacement of 100% to produce mortar. As a result of the conducted study, the slump flow increased with the increase of recycled glass content. On the other hand, the compressive strength and tensile strength of recycled glass mixtures were decreased with the increase in the recycled glass content. The results showed that recycled glass aggregate can successfully be used with limited level for producing concrete. Mortar based on glass shows a compressive strength with 50% lower than that of control mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, mortar, recycled glass

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1400 Modulation of the Interphase in a Glass Epoxy System: Influence of the Sizing Chemistry on Adhesion and Interfacial Properties

Authors: S. Assengone Otogo Be, A. Fahs, L. Belec, T. A. Nguyen Tien, G. Louarn, J-F. Chailan

Abstract:

Glass fiber-reinforced composite materials have gradually developed in all sectors ranging from consumer products to aerospace applications. However, the weak point is most often the fiber/matrix interface, which can reduce the durability of the composite material. To solve this problem, it is essential to control the interphase and improve our understanding of the adhesion mechanism at the fibre/matrix interface. The interphase properties depend on the nature of the sizing applied on the surface of the glass fibers during their manufacture in order to protect them, facilitate their handling, and ensure fibre/matrix adhesion. The sizing composition, and in particular the nature of the coupling agent and the film-former affects the mechanical properties and the durability of composites. The aim of our study is, therefore, to develop and study composite materials with simplified sizing systems in order to understand how the main constituents modify the mechanical properties and the durability of composites from the nanometric to the macroscopic scale. Two model systems were elaborated: an epoxy matrix reinforced with simplified-sized glass fibres and an epoxy coating applied on glass substrates treated with the same sizings as fibres. For the sizing composition, two configurations were chosen. The first configuration possesses a chemical reactivity to link the glass and the matrix, and the second sizing contains non-reactive agents. The chemistry of the sized glass substrates and fibers was analyzed by FT-IR and XPS spectroscopies. The surface morphology was characterized by SEM and AFM microscopies. The observation of the surface samples reveals the presence of sizings which morphology depends on their chemistry. The evaluation of adhesion of coated substrates and composite materials show good interfacial properties for the reactive configuration. However, the non-reactive configuration exhibits an adhesive rupture at the interface of glass/epoxy for both systems. The interfaces and interphases between the matrix and the substrates are characterized at different scales. Correlations are made between the initial properties of the sizings and the mechanical performances of the model composites.

Keywords: adhesion, interface, interphase, materials composite, simplified sizing systems, surface properties

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1399 The Role of Nano Glass Flakes on Morphology, Dynamic-Mechanical Properties and Crystallization Behavior of Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate)

Authors: Fatemeh Alsadat Miri, Morteza Ehsani, Hossein Ali Khonakdar, Behjat Kavyani

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of nano glass flakes on morphology, dynamic-mechanical properties, and crystallization behavior of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The concentration of nano glass flakes was varied from 0.5, 1, 2, and 3% wt of the total formulation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed the poor distribution of nano-glass flake particles in PET, as well as low adhesion of particles to the polymer matrix. According to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the crystallization rate and crystallization temperature of PET were increased by the addition of nano glass flakes. The crystallization rate of PET was increased from 31.41% to 34.25% by the incorporation of 1%wt of nano glass flakes. Based on the results of the dynamic-mechanical analysis, the storage modulus of PET gets increased by adding nano glass flakes, especially below glass transition temperature (Tg). The glass transition of PET did not change remarkably with the addition of nano glass flakes. Moreover, the use of nano glass flakes reduced the impact strength of PET.

Keywords: PET, nano glass flakes, morphology, crystallization

Procedia PDF Downloads 52