Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 792

Search results for: hardware impairment

792 Secrecy Analysis in Downlink Cellular Networks in the Presence of D2D Pairs and Hardware Impairment

Authors: Mahdi Rahimi, Mohammad Mahdi Mojahedian, Mohammad Reza Aref


In this paper, a cellular communication scenario with a transmitter and an authorized user is considered to analyze its secrecy in the face of eavesdroppers and the interferences propagated unintentionally through the communication network. It is also assumed that some D2D pairs and eavesdroppers are randomly located in the cell. Assuming hardware impairment, perfect connection probability is analytically calculated, and upper bound is provided for the secrecy outage probability. In addition, a method based on random activation of D2Ds is proposed to improve network security. Finally, the analytical results are verified by simulations.

Keywords: physical layer security, stochastic geometry, device-to-device, hardware impairment

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791 A Systematic Review of Quality of Life in Older Adults with Sensory Impairments

Authors: Ya-Chuan Tseng, Hsin-Yi Liu, Meei-Fang Lou, Guey-Shiun Huang


Purpose: Sensory impairments are common in older adults. Hearing and visual impairments affect their physical and mental health and quality of life (QOL) adversely. However, systematic reviews of the relationship between hearing impairment, visual impairment, dual sensory impairment and quality of life are scarce. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the relationship between hearing impairment, visual impairment, dual sensory impairment and quality of life. Methods: Searches of EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Airiti Library were conducted between January 2006 and December 2017 using the keywords ‘quality of life,’ ‘life satisfaction,’ ‘well-being,’ ‘hearing impairment’ and ‘visual impairment’ Two authors independently assessed methodologic quality using a modified Downs and Black tool. Data were extracted by the first author and then cross-checked by the second author. Results: Twenty-three studies consisting mostly of community-dwelling older adults were included in our review. Sensory impairment was found to be in significant association with quality of life, with an increase in hearing impairment or visual impairment severity resulting in a lower quality of life. Quality of life for dual sensory impairment was worse than for hearing impairment or visual impairment individually. Conclusions: A significant association was confirmed between hearing impairment, visual impairment, dual sensory impairment and quality of life. Our review can be used to enhance health care personnel’s understanding of sensory impairment in older adults and enable healthcare personnel to actively assess older adults’ sensory functions so that they can help alleviate the negative impact of sensory impairments on QOL in older adults.

Keywords: nursing, older adults, quality of life, systematic review, hearing impairment, visual impairment

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790 A Comparison of Anger State and Trait Anger Among Adolescents with and without Visual Impairment

Authors: Sehmus Aslan, Sibel Karacaoglu, Cengiz Sevgin, Ummuhan Bas Aslan


Objective: Anger expression style is an important moderator of the effects on the person and person’s environment. Anger and anger expression have become important constructs in identifying individuals at high risk for psychological difficulties. To our knowledge, there is no information about anger and anger expression of adolescents with visual impairment. The aim of this study was to compare anger and anger expression among adolescents with and without visual impairment. Methods: Thirty-eight adolescents with visual impairment (18 female, 20 male) and 44 adolescents without visual impairment (22 female, 24 male), in totally 84 adolescents aged between 12 to 15 years, participated in the study. Anger and anger expression of the participants assessed with The State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS). STAS, a self-report questionnaire, is designed to measure the experience and expression of anger. STAS has four subtitles including continuous anger, anger in, anger out and anger control. Reliability and validity of the STAS have been well established among adolescents. Mann-Whitney U Test was used for statistical analysis. Results: No significant differences were found in the scores of continuous anger and anger out between adolescents with and without visual impairment (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there were differences in scores of anger control and anger in between adolescents with and without visual impairment (p>0.05). The score of anger control in adolescents with visual impairment were higher compared with adolescents without visual impairment. Meanwhile, the adolescents with visual impairment had lower score for anger in compared with adolescents without visual impairment. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that there is no difference in anger level among adolescents with and without visual impairment meanwhile there is difference in anger expression.

Keywords: adolescent, anger, impaired, visual

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789 Visual Impairment Through Contextualized Lived Experiences: The Story of James

Authors: Jentel Van Havermaet, Geert Van Hove, Elisabeth De Schauwer


This study re-conceptualizes visual impairment in the interdependent context of James, his family, and allies. Living with a visual impairment is understood as an entanglement of assemblages, dynamics, disablism, systems… We narrated this diffractively into two meaningful events: decisions and processes on (inclusive) education and hinderances in connecting with others. We entangled and (un)raveled lived experiences in assemblages in which the contextualized meaning of visual impairment became more clearly. The contextualized narrative of James interwove complex intra-actions; showed the complexity and contextualization of entangled relationalities.

Keywords: disability studies, contextualization, visual impairment, assemblage, entanglement, lived experiences

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788 Relationship between Functionality and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adult Women from the Southeast of Mexico

Authors: Estrella C. Damaris, Ingrid A. Olais, Gloria P. Uicab


This study explores the relationship between the level of functionality and cognitive impairment in older adult women from the south-east of Mexico. It is a descriptive, cross-sectional study; performed with 172 participants in total who attended a health institute and live in Merida, Yucatan Mexico. After a non-probabilistic sampling, Barthel and Pfeiffer scales were applied. The results show statistically significant correlation between the cognitive impairment (Pfeiffer) and the levels of independence and function (Barthel) (r =0.489; p =0.001). Both determine a dependence level so they need either a little or a lot of help. Society needs that the older woman be healthy and that the professionals of mental health develop activities to prevent and rehabilitate because cognitive impairment and function are directly related with the quality of life.

Keywords: functionality, cognition, routine activities, cognitive impairment

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787 Relationship among Mild Cognitive Impairment, Loneliness and Depression among Old People Living in Old Age Home and Family Home Residence

Authors: Jawaria Zafaror, Najma Iqbal Malik


The present study has been undertaken to explore the relationship among mild cognitive impairment, loneliness and depression among a convenient sample of old people (N = 100) living in old age homes (n = 50) and family home residence (n = 50). Mild Cognitive Impairment Questionnaire, Depression Subscale of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and UCLA Loneliness Scales were used. Results revealed that Mild cognitive impairment had a significant positive relationship with depression and loneliness among old people both living in old age homes and family home residences. Results also showed that loneliness was the significant positive predictor of depression. However, t-test analysis revealed that old females had higher depression as compared to old males, but old males suffered a significantly high level of cognitive distortions and loneliness as compared to old females. Mediation analysis suggests that loneliness was the partial mediator between mild cognitive impairment and loneliness among old people. Limitations, suggestions and implications were also discussed.

Keywords: loneliness, mild cognitive impairment, depression, old age

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786 Protective Effect of Levetiracetam on Aggravation of Memory Impairment in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy by Phenytoin

Authors: Asher John Mohan, Krishna K. L.


Objectives: (1) To assess the extent of memory impairment induced by Phenytoin (PHT) at normal and reduced dose on temporal lobe epileptic mice. (2) To evaluate the protective effect of Levetiracetam (LEV) on aggravation of memory impairment in temporal lobe epileptic mice by PHT. Materials and Methods: Albino mice of either sex (n=36) were used for the study for a period of 64 days. Convulsions were induced by intraperitoneal administration of pilocarpine 280 mg/kg on every 6th day. Radial arm maze (RAM) was employed to evaluate the memory impairment activity on every 7th day. The anticonvulsant and memory impairment activity were assessed in PHT normal and reduced doses both alone and in combination with LEV. RAM error scores and convulsive scores were the parameters considered for this study. Brain acetylcholine esterase and glutamate were determined along with histopathological studies of frontal cortex. Results: Administration of PHT for 64 days on mice has shown aggravation of memory impairment activity on temporal lobe epileptic mice. Although the reduction in PHT dose was found to decrease the degree of memory impairment the same decreased the anticonvulsant potency. The combination with LEV not only brought about the correction of impaired memory but also replaced the loss of potency due to the reduction of the dose of the antiepileptic drug employed. These findings were confirmed with enzyme and neurotransmitter levels in addition to histopathological studies. Conclusion: This study thus builds a foundation in combining a nootropic anticonvulsant with an antiepileptic drug to curb the adverse effect of memory impairment associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. However further extensive research is a must for the practical incorporation of this approach into disease therapy.

Keywords: anti-epileptic drug, Phenytoin, memory impairment, Pilocarpine

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785 Barriers to Marital Expectation among Individuals with Hearing Impairment in Oyo State

Authors: Adebomi M. Oyewumi, Sunday Amaize


The study was designed to examine the barriers to marital expectations among unmarried persons with hearing impairment in Oyo State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. Purposive sampling technique was used to select one hundred participants made up forty-four (44) males and fifty-six (56) females, all with varying degrees of hearing impairment. Eight research questions were raised and answered. The instrument used was Marital Expectations Scale with reliability coefficient of 0.86. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics tools of frequency count and simple percentage as well as inferential statistics tools of T-TEST and ANOVA. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship existing among the main identified barriers (environmental barrier, communication barrier, hearing loss, unemployment and poor sexuality education) to the marital expectations of unmarried persons with hearing impairment. The joint contribution of the independent variables (identified barriers) to the dependent variable (marital expectations) was significant, F = 5.842, P < 0.05, accounting for about 89% of the variance. The relative contribution of the identified barriers to marital expectations of unmarried persons with hearing impairment is as follows: environmental barrier (β = 0.808, t = 5.176, P < 0.05), communication barrier (β = 0.533, t = 3.305, P < 0.05), hearing loss (β = 0.550, t = 2.233, P < 0.05), unemployment (β = 0.431, t = 2.102, P < 0.05), poor sexuality education (β = 0.361, t = 1.985, P < 0.05). Environmental barrier proved to be the most potent contributor to the poor marital expectations among unmarried persons with hearing impairment. Therefore, it is recommended that society dismantles the nagging environmental barrier through positive identification with individuals suffering from hearing impairment. In this connection, members of society should change their negative attitudes and do away with all the wrong notions about the marital ability of individuals with hearing impairment.

Keywords: environmental barrier, hearing impairment, marriage, marital expectations

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784 On-Chip Sensor Ellipse Distribution Method and Equivalent Mapping Technique for Real-Time Hardware Trojan Detection and Location

Authors: Longfei Wang, Selçuk Köse


Hardware Trojan becomes great concern as integrated circuit (IC) technology advances and not all manufacturing steps of an IC are accomplished within one company. Real-time hardware Trojan detection is proven to be a feasible way to detect randomly activated Trojans that cannot be detected at testing stage. On-chip sensors serve as a great candidate to implement real-time hardware Trojan detection, however, the optimization of on-chip sensors has not been thoroughly investigated and the location of Trojan has not been carefully explored. On-chip sensor ellipse distribution method and equivalent mapping technique are proposed based on the characteristics of on-chip power delivery network in this paper to address the optimization and distribution of on-chip sensors for real-time hardware Trojan detection as well as to estimate the location and current consumption of hardware Trojan. Simulation results verify that hardware Trojan activation can be effectively detected and the location of a hardware Trojan can be efficiently estimated with less than 5% error for a realistic power grid using our proposed methods. The proposed techniques therefore lay a solid foundation for isolation and even deactivation of hardware Trojans through accurate location of Trojans.

Keywords: hardware trojan, on-chip sensor, power distribution network, power/ground noise

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783 Numerical Solution Speedup of the Laplace Equation Using FPGA Hardware

Authors: Abbas Ebrahimi, Mohammad Zandsalimy


The main purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) chips as alternatives for the conventional CPUs to accelerate the numerical solution of the Laplace equation. FPGA is an integrated circuit that contains an array of logic blocks, and its architecture can be reprogrammed and reconfigured after manufacturing. Complex circuits for various applications can be designed and implemented using FPGA hardware. The reconfigurable hardware used in this paper is an SoC (System on a Chip) FPGA type that integrates both microprocessor and FPGA architectures into a single device. In the present study the Laplace equation is implemented and solved numerically on both reconfigurable hardware and CPU. The precision of results and speedups of the calculations are compared together. The computational process on FPGA, is up to 20 times faster than a conventional CPU, with the same data precision. An analytical solution is used to validate the results.

Keywords: accelerating numerical solutions, CFD, FPGA, hardware definition language, numerical solutions, reconfigurable hardware

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782 School and Family Impairment Associated with Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Examining Differences in Parent and Child Report

Authors: Melissa K. Hord, Stephen P. Whiteside


Impairment in functioning is a requirement for diagnosing psychopathology, identifying individuals in need of treatment, and documenting improvement with treatment. Further, identifying different types of functional impairment can guide educators and treatment providers. However, most assessment tools focus on symptom severity and few measures assess impairment associated with childhood anxiety disorders. The child- and parent-report versions of the Child Sheehan Disability Scale (CSDS) are measures that may provide useful information regarding impairment. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether children diagnosed with different anxiety disorders have greater impairment in school or home functioning based on self or parent report. The sample consisted of 844 children ages 5 to 19 years of age (mean 13.43, 61% female, 90.9% Caucasian), including 281 children diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), 200 with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 176 with social phobia, 83 with separation anxiety, 61 with anxiety not otherwise specified (NOS), 30 with panic disorder, and 13 with panic with agoraphobia. To assess whether children and parents reported greater impairment in school or home functioning, a multivariate analysis of variance was conducted. (The assumptions of independence and homogeneity of variance were checked and met). A significant difference was found, Pillai's trace = .143, F (4, 28) = 4.19, p < .001, partial eta squared = .04. Post hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test indicated that children report significantly greater impairment in school with panic disorder (M=5.18, SD=3.28), social phobia (M=4.95, SD=3.20), and OCD (M=4.62, SD=3.32) compared to other diagnoses; whereas parents endorse significantly greater school impairment when their child has a social phobia (M=5.70, SD=3.39) diagnosis. Interestingly, both children and parents reported greater impairment in family functioning for an OCD (child report M=5.37, SD=3.20; parent report M=5.59, SD=3.38) diagnosis compared to other anxiety diagnoses. (Additional findings for the anxiety disorders associated with less impairment will also be presented). The results of the current study have important implications for educators and treatment providers who are working with anxious children. First, understanding that differences exist in how children and parents view impairment related to childhood anxiety can help those working with these families to be more sensitive during interactions. Second, evidence suggests that difficulties in one environment do not necessarily translate to another environment, thus caregivers may benefit from careful explanation of observations obtained by educators. Third, results support the use of the CSDS measure by treatment providers to identify impairment across environments in order to more effectively target interventions.

Keywords: anxiety, childhood, impairment, school functioning

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781 Cortex-M3 Based Virtual Platform Implementation for Software Development

Authors: Jun Young Moon, Hyeonggeon Lee, Jong Tae Kim


In this paper, we present Cortex-M3 based virtual platform which can virtualize wearable hardware platform and evaluate hardware performance. Cortex-M3 is very popular microcontroller in wearable devices, hardware sensors and display devices. This platform can be used to implement software layer for specific hardware architecture. By using the proposed platform the software development process can be parallelized with hardware development process. We present internal mechanism to implement the proposed virtual platform and describe how to use the proposed platform to develop software by using case study which is low cost wearable device that uses Cortex-M3.

Keywords: electronic system level design, software development, virtual platform, wearable device

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780 Some Issues of Measurement of Impairment of Non-Financial Assets in the Public Sector

Authors: Mariam Vardiashvili


The economic value of the asset impairment process is quite large. Impairment reflects the reduction of future economic benefits or service potentials itemized in the asset. The assets owned by public sector entities bring economic benefits or are used for delivery of the free-of-charge services. Consequently, they are classified as cash-generating and non-cash-generating assets. IPSAS 21 - Impairment of non-cash-generating assets, and IPSAS 26 - Impairment of cash-generating assets, have been designed considering this specificity.  When measuring impairment of assets, it is important to select the relevant methods. For measurement of the impaired Non-Cash-Generating Assets, IPSAS 21 recommends three methods: Depreciated Replacement Cost Approach, Restoration Cost Approach, and  Service Units Approach. Impairment of Value in Use of Cash-Generating Assets (according to IPSAS 26) is measured by discounted value of the money sources to be received in future. Value in use of the cash-generating asserts (as per IPSAS 26) is measured by the discounted value of the money sources to be received in the future. The article provides classification of the assets in the public sector  as non-cash-generating assets and cash-generating assets and, deals also with the factors which should be considered when evaluating  impairment of assets. An essence of impairment of the non-financial assets and the methods of measurement thereof evaluation are formulated according to IPSAS 21 and IPSAS 26. The main emphasis is put on different methods of measurement of the value in use of the impaired Cash-Generating Assets and Non-Cash-Generation Assets and the methods of their selection. The traditional and the expected cash flow approaches for calculation of the discounted value are reviewed. The article also discusses the issues of recognition of impairment loss and its reflection in the financial reporting. The article concludes that despite a functional purpose of the impaired asset, whichever method is used for measuring the asset, presentation of realistic information regarding the value of the assets should be ensured in the financial reporting. In the theoretical development of the issue, the methods of scientific abstraction, analysis and synthesis were used. The research was carried out with a systemic approach. The research process uses international standards of accounting, theoretical researches and publications of Georgian and foreign scientists.

Keywords: cash-generating assets, non-cash-generating assets, recoverable (usable restorative) value, value of use

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779 Gender-Specific Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cognitive Impairment among Adults: A Population-based UK Biobank Study

Authors: Ke Qiu, Minzi Mao, Jianjun Ren, Yu Zhao


Although much has been done to investigate the influence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on cognitive function, little attention has been paid to the role which gender differences play in this association. In the present study, we aim to explore the gender-specific association between OSA and cognitive impairment. Participants from UK biobank who have completed at least one of the five baseline cognitive tests (visuospatial memory, prospective memory, fluid intelligence, short numeric memory and reaction time) were included and were further categorized into three groups: (1) OSA, (2) self-reported snoring but without OSA, and (3) healthy controls (without OSA or snoring). Multivariable regression analysis was performed to examine the associations among snoring, OSA and performance of each of the five cognitive domains. A total of 267,889 participants (47% male, mean age: 57 years old) were included in our study. In the multivariable regression analysis, female participants in the OSA group had a higher risk of having poor prospective memory (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.02~1.50, p = 0.03). Meanwhile, among female participants, OSA were inversely associated with the performances of fluid intelligence (β: -0.29, 95% CI: -0.46~-0.13, p < 0.001) and short-numeric memory (β: -0.14, 95% CI: -0.35~0.08, p = 0.02). In contrast, among male participants, no significant association was observed between OSA and impairment of the five cognitive domains. Overall, OSA was significantly associated with cognitive impairment in female participants rather than in male participants, indicating that more special attention and timely interventions should be given to female OSA patients to prevent further cognitive impairment.

Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), cognitive impairment, gender-specific association, UK biobank

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778 Multi-Impairment Compensation Based Deep Neural Networks for 16-QAM Coherent Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing System

Authors: Ying Han, Yuanxiang Chen, Yongtao Huang, Jia Fu, Kaile Li, Shangjing Lin, Jianguo Yu


In long-haul and high-speed optical transmission system, the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal suffers various linear and non-linear impairments. In recent years, researchers have proposed compensation schemes for specific impairment, and the effects are remarkable. However, different impairment compensation algorithms have caused an increase in transmission delay. With the widespread application of deep neural networks (DNN) in communication, multi-impairment compensation based on DNN will be a promising scheme. In this paper, we propose and apply DNN to compensate multi-impairment of 16-QAM coherent optical OFDM signal, thereby improving the performance of the transmission system. The trained DNN models are applied in the offline digital signal processing (DSP) module of the transmission system. The models can optimize the constellation mapping signals at the transmitter and compensate multi-impairment of the OFDM decoded signal at the receiver. Furthermore, the models reduce the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted OFDM signal and the bit error rate (BER) of the received signal. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for 16-QAM Coherent Optical OFDM signal and demonstrate and analyze transmission performance in different transmission scenarios. The experimental results show that the PAPR and BER of the transmission system are significantly reduced after using the trained DNN. It shows that the DNN with specific loss function and network structure can optimize the transmitted signal and learn the channel feature and compensate for multi-impairment in fiber transmission effectively.

Keywords: coherent optical OFDM, deep neural network, multi-impairment compensation, optical transmission

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777 Identifying Children at Risk for Specific Language Impairment Using a Wordless Picture Narrative: A Study on Hindi, an Indian Language

Authors: Yozna Gurung


This paper presents preliminary findings from an on-going study on the use of Internal State Terms (IST) in the production of narratives of Hindi-English bilinguals in an attempt to identify children at risk for Specific Language Impairment. Narratives were examined for macrostructure (story structure and story complexity) and internal state terms or mental state terms (IST/MST). 31 students generated stories based on six pictures that were matched for content and story structure in L1 (Hindi) and L2 (English) using a wordless picture narrative. From 30 sample population, 2 students are at risk of Specific Language Impairment, according to this study i.e 6.45%. They showed least development in story grammar as well as IST in both their languages.

Keywords: internal state terms, macrostructure, specific language impairment, wordless picture narrative

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776 Need for E-Learning: An Effective Method in Educating the Persons with Hearing Impairment Using Sign Language

Authors: S. Vijayakumar, S. B. Rathna Kumar, Navnath D Jagadale


Learning and teaching are the challenges ahead in the education of the students with hearing impairment using sign language (SHISL). Either the students or teachers face difficulties in the process of learning/teaching. Communication is one of the main barriers while teaching SHISL. Further, the courses of study or the subjects are limited to SHISL at least in countries like India. Students with hearing impairment mainly opt for sign language as a communication mode. Subjects like physics, chemistry, advanced mathematics etc. are not available in the curriculum for the SHISL since their content and ideas are complex. In India, exemption for language papers is being given for the students with hearing impairment. It may give opportunity to them to secure secondary/ higher secondary qualifications. It is a known fact that students with hearing impairment are facing difficulty in their future carrier. They secure neither a higher study nor a good employment opportunity. Vocational training in various trades will land them in few jobs with few bucks in pocket. However, not all of them are blessed with higher positions in government or private sectors in competitive fields or where the technical knowledge is required. E learning with sign language instructions can be used for teaching languages and science subjects. Computer Based Instruction (CBI), Computer Based Training (CBT), and Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) are now part-and-parcel of Modern Education. It will also include signed video clip corresponding to the topic. Learning language subjects will improve the understanding of concepts in different subjects. Learning other science subjects like their hearing counterparts will enable the SHISL to go higher in studies and increase their height to pluck a fruit of the tree of employment.

Keywords: students with hearing impairment using sign language, hearing impairment, language subjects, science subjects, e-learning

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775 Perfectionism, Self-Compassion, and Emotion Dysregulation: An Exploratory Analysis of Mediation Models in an Eating Disorder Sample

Authors: Sarah Potter, Michele Laliberte


As eating disorders are associated with high levels of chronicity, impairment, and distress, it is paramount to evaluate factors that may improve treatment outcomes in this group. Individuals with eating disorders exhibit elevated levels of perfectionism and emotion dysregulation, as well as reduced self-compassion. These variables are related to eating disorder outcomes, including shape/weight concerns and psychosocial impairment. Thus, these factors may be tenable targets for treatment within eating disorder populations. However, the relative contributions of perfectionism, emotion dysregulation, and self-compassion to the severity of shape/weight concerns and psychosocial impairment remain largely unexplored. In the current study, mediation analyses were conducted to clarify how perfectionism, emotion dysregulation, and self-compassion are linked to shape/weight concerns and psychosocial impairment. The sample was comprised of 85 patients from an outpatient eating disorder clinic. The patients completed self-report measures of perfectionism, self-compassion, emotion dysregulation, eating disorder symptoms, and psychosocial impairment. Specifically, emotion dysregulation was assessed as a mediator in the relationships between (1) perfectionism and shape/weight concerns, (2) self-compassion and shape/weight concerns, (3) perfectionism and psychosocial impairment, and (4) self-compassion and psychosocial impairment. It was postulated that emotion dysregulation would significantly mediate relationships in the former two models. An a priori hypothesis was not constructed in reference to the latter models, as these analyses were preliminary and exploratory in nature. The PROCESS macro for SPSS was utilized to perform these analyses. Emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relationships between perfectionism and eating disorder outcomes. In the link between self-compassion and psychosocial impairment, emotion dysregulation partially mediated this relationship. Finally, emotion dysregulation did not significantly mediate the relationship between self-compassion and shape/weight concerns. The results suggest that emotion dysregulation and self-compassion may be suitable targets to decrease the severity of psychosocial impairment and shape/weight concerns in individuals with eating disorders. Further research is required to determine the stability of these models over time, between diagnostic groups, and in nonclinical samples.

Keywords: eating disorders, emotion dysregulation, perfectionism, self-compassion

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774 Analysis of Lightweight Register Hardware Threat

Authors: Yang Luo, Beibei Wang


In this paper, we present a design methodology of lightweight register transfer level (RTL) hardware threat implemented based on a MAX II FPGA platform. The dynamic power consumed by the toggling of the various bit of registers as well as the dynamic power consumed per unit of logic circuits were analyzed. The hardware threat was designed taking advantage of the differences in dynamic power consumed per unit of logic circuits to hide the transfer information. The experiment result shows that the register hardware threat was successfully implemented by using different dynamic power consumed per unit of logic circuits to hide the key information of DES encryption module. It needs more than 100000 sample curves to reduce the background noise by comparing the sample space when it completely meets the time alignment requirement. In additional, an external trigger signal is playing a very important role to detect the hardware threat in this experiment.

Keywords: side-channel analysis, hardware Trojan, register transfer level, dynamic power

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773 Hardware for Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Fariborz Ahmadi, Reza Tati


Genetic algorithm is a soft computing method that works on set of solutions. These solutions are called chromosome and the best one is the absolute solution of the problem. The main problem of this algorithm is that after passing through some generations, it may be produced some chromosomes that had been produced in some generations ago that causes reducing the convergence speed. From another respective, most of the genetic algorithms are implemented in software and less works have been done on hardware implementation. Our work implements genetic algorithm in hardware that doesn’t produce chromosome that have been produced in previous generations. In this work, most of genetic operators are implemented without producing iterative chromosomes and genetic diversity is preserved. Genetic diversity causes that not only do not this algorithm converge to local optimum but also reaching to global optimum. Without any doubts, proposed approach is so faster than software implementations. Evaluation results also show the proposed approach is faster than hardware ones.

Keywords: hardware, genetic algorithm, computer science, engineering

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772 Functional Vision of Older People with Cognitive Impairment Living in Galician Nursing Homes

Authors: C. Vázquez, L. M. Gigirey, C. P. del Oro, S. Seoane


Poor vision is common among older people, and several studies show connections between visual impairment and cognitive function. 15 older adult live in Galician Government nursing homes, and cognitive decline is one of the main reasons of admission. Objectives: (1) To evaluate functional far and near vision of older people with cognitive impairment. (2) To determine connections between visual and cognitive state of “our” residents. Methodology: A total of 364 older adults (aged 65 years or more) underwent a visual and cognitive screening. We tested presenting visual acuity (binocular visual acuity with habitual correction if warn) for distance and near vision (E-Snellen, usual working distance for near vision). Binocular presenting visual acuity less than 0.3 was used as cut point for diagnosis of visual impairment. Exclusion criteria included immobilized residents unable to reach the USC Dual Sensory Loss Unit for visual screening. To screen cognition we employed the mini-mental examination test (Spanish version). Analysis of categorical variables was performed using chi-square tests. We utilized Pearson and Spearman correlation tests and the variance analysis to determine differences between groups of interest (SPSS 19.0 version). Results: the percentage of residents with cognitive decline reaches 32.2% Prevalence of visual impairment for distance and near vision increases among those subjects with cognitive impairment respect those with normal cognition. Shift correlation exists between distance visual acuity and mini-mental test (age and sex controlled), and moderate association was found in case of near vision (p<0.01). Conclusion: First results shows that people with cognitive impairment have poor functional distance and near vision than those with normal cognition. Next step will be to analyse the individual contribution of distance and near vision loss on cognition.

Keywords: visual impairment, cognition, aging, nursing homes

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771 A Low-Area Fully-Reconfigurable Hardware Design of Fast Fourier Transform System for 3GPP-LTE Standard

Authors: Xin-Yu Shih, Yue-Qu Liu, Hong-Ru Chou


This paper presents a low-area and fully-reconfigurable Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) hardware design for 3GPP-LTE communication standard. It can fully support 32 different FFT sizes, up to 2048 FFT points. Besides, a special processing element is developed for making reconfigurable computing characteristics possible, while first-in first-out (FIFO) scheduling scheme design technique is proposed for hardware-friendly FIFO resource arranging. In a synthesis chip realization via TSMC 40 nm CMOS technology, the hardware circuit only occupies core area of 0.2325 mm2 and dissipates 233.5 mW at maximal operating frequency of 250 MHz.

Keywords: reconfigurable, fast Fourier transform (FFT), single-path delay feedback (SDF), 3GPP-LTE

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770 A Case Study on Expanding Access to Higher Education of Students with Hearing Impairment

Authors: Afaf Manzoor, Abdul Hameed


Children with hearing impairment face several challenges in accessing primary and secondary education in general and higher education in particular in Pakistan. A large number of these children are excluded from formal education system through segregated special institutions. The enrollment rate of these children at school level is very low and it continues decreasing as they move on the ladder of education. Negligible number of students with hearing impairment gets any chance to be enrolled at tertiary or higher education institutes. The segregated system of education at primary and secondary level makes it even more difficult to adjust in an inclusive classroom at a higher level not only for students with hearing impairment but for their teachers and peers as well. A false belief of teachers and parents about low academic profile of students with hearing impairment is one of the major challenges to overcome for their participation at higher education. This case study was conducted to document an innovative step taken by the Department of Special Education Needs, University of Management & Technology, Lahore Pakistan. The prime objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction level of students with hearing impairment in BS 4 Years and MA Special Education programs at Lahore campus. Structured interviews were of 40 students with hearing impairment to assess the satisfaction on service delivery (admission process, classroom pedagogy, content, assessment/results, access to other services centers i.e. library, cafeteria, hostel, co-curricular activities) and campus life. Their peers without disabilities were also interviewed to assess their acceptance level. The findings of the study revealed positive results about their educational as well as social inclusion in the university. The students also shared their fears at the time of admission and how fear eventually faded out with the passage of time due to the proper academic support system. The findings of the study will be shared in detail with the audience during the presentation.

Keywords: students with hearing impairment, higher education, inclusive education, marginalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
769 Individual Actuators of a Car-Like Robot with Back Trailer

Authors: Tarek El-Derini, Ahmed El-Shenawy


This paper presents the hardware implemented and validation for a special system to assist the unprofessional users of car with back trailers. The system consists of two platforms; the front car platform (C) and the trailer platform (T). The main objective is to control the Trailer platform using the actuators found in the front platform (c). The mobility of the platform (C) is investigated and inverse and forward kinematics model is obtained for both platforms (C) and (T). The system is simulated using Matlab M-file and the simulation examples results illustrated the system performance. The system is constructed with a hardware setup for the front and trailer platform. The hardware experimental results and the simulated examples outputs showed the validation of the hardware setup.

Keywords: kinematics, modeling, robot, MATLAB

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
768 Hardware Error Analysis and Severity Characterization in Linux-Based Server Systems

Authors: Nikolaos Georgoulopoulos, Alkis Hatzopoulos, Konstantinos Karamitsios, Konstantinos Kotrotsios, Alexandros I. Metsai


In modern server systems, business critical applications run in different types of infrastructure, such as cloud systems, physical machines and virtualization. Often, due to high load and over time, various hardware faults occur in servers that translate to errors, resulting to malfunction or even server breakdown. CPU, RAM and hard drive (HDD) are the hardware parts that concern server administrators the most regarding errors. In this work, selected RAM, HDD and CPU errors, that have been observed or can be simulated in kernel ring buffer log files from two groups of Linux servers, are investigated. Moreover, a severity characterization is given for each error type. Better understanding of such errors can lead to more efficient analysis of kernel logs that are usually exploited for fault diagnosis and prediction. In addition, this work summarizes ways of simulating hardware errors in RAM and HDD, in order to test the error detection and correction mechanisms of a Linux server.

Keywords: hardware errors, Kernel logs, Linux servers, RAM, hard disk, CPU

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767 Restructuring Cameroon's Educational System: The Value of Inclusive Education for Children with Visual Impairment

Authors: Samanta Tiague, Igor Michel Gachig


The practice of inclusive education within general education classrooms is becoming more prevalent in Cameroon. In this context, quality Education is an important driver of the development agenda in this era of global sustainable development. This requires that the Cameroon’s educational system be strategically restructured to provide every citizen with the needed quality education for sustainable development. This study thus examined the need for the restructuring of the Cameroon educational system towards inclusive education as a target of the Sustainable Development Goal #4 (Ensure Quality Education), from a critical disability theory perspective. Special focus was on the education of children with visual impairment in the early childhood classroom. This study is suggesting a model design of responsive and contextual inclusive education policies, and the provision of quality human, material and financial educational resources to support the improvement of curriculums and inclusive instructional strategies. This paper is therefore designed as a basic starting point for early childhood educators with limited to no experience in working with students having visual impairments. Ultimately, this work represents a contribution to early childhood educators toward understanding visual impairment challenges and innovative practices to approach accessibility in a meaningful way to students in Cameroon. This is important to achieve quality education due to the peculiar nature of the educational needs of children with visual impairment, toward attainment of the global sustainable development agenda.

Keywords: early childhood educators, inclusive education, sustainable development, visual impairment

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
766 Use of a Symptom Scale Based on Degree of Functional Impairment for Acute Concussion

Authors: Matthew T. McCarthy, Sarah Janse, Natalie M. Pizzimenti, Anthony K. Savino, Brian Crosser, Sean C. Rose


Concussion is diagnosed clinically using a comprehensive history and exam, supported by ancillary testing. Frequently, symptom checklists are used as part of the evaluation of concussion. Existing symptom scales are based on a subjective Likert scale, without relation of symptoms to clinical or functional impairment. This is a retrospective review of 133 patients under age 30 seen in an outpatient neurology practice within 30 days of a probable or definite concussion. Each patient completed 2 symptom checklists at the initial visit – the SCAT-3 symptom evaluation (22 symptoms, 0-6 scale) and a scale based on the degree of clinical impairment for each symptom (22 symptoms, 0-3 scale related to functional impact of the symptom). Final clearance date was determined by the treating physician. 60.9% of patients were male with mean age 15.7 years (SD 2.3). Mean time from concussion to first visit was 6.9 days (SD 6.2), and 101 patients had definite concussions (75.9%), while 32 were diagnosed as probable (24.1%). 94 patients had a known clearance date (70.7%) with mean clearance time of 20.6 days (SD 18.6) and median clearance time of 19 days (95% CI 16-21). Mean total symptom score was 27.2 (SD 22.9) on the SCAT-3 and 14.7 (SD 11.9) for the functional impairment scale. Pearson’s correlation between the two scales was 0.98 (p < 0.001). After adjusting for patient and injury characteristics, an equivalent increase in score on each scale was associated with longer time to clearance (SCAT-3 hazard ratio 0.885, 95%CI 0.835-0.938, p < 0.001; functional impairment scale hazard ratio 0.851, 95%CI 0.802-0.902, p < 0.001). A concussion symptom scale based on degree of functional impairment correlates strongly with the SCAT-3 scale and demonstrates a similar association with time to clearance. By assessing the degree of impact on clinical functioning, this symptom scale reflects a more intuitive approach to rating symptoms and can be used in the management of concussion.

Keywords: checklist, concussion, neurology, scale, sports, symptoms

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
765 Hardware-in-the-Loop Test for Automatic Voltage Regulator of Synchronous Condenser

Authors: Ha Thi Nguyen, Guangya Yang, Arne Hejde Nielsen, Peter Højgaard Jensen


Automatic voltage regulator (AVR) plays an important role in volt/var control of synchronous condenser (SC) in power systems. Test AVR performance in steady-state and dynamic conditions in real grid is expensive, low efficiency, and hard to achieve. To address this issue, we implement hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) test for the AVR of SC to test the steady-state and dynamic performances of AVR in different operating conditions. Startup procedure of the system and voltage set point changes are studied to evaluate the AVR hardware response. Overexcitation, underexcitation, and AVR set point loss are tested to compare the performance of SC with the AVR hardware and that of simulation. The comparative results demonstrate how AVR will work in a real system. The results show HiL test is an effective approach for testing devices before deployment and is able to parameterize the controller with lower cost, higher efficiency, and more flexibility.

Keywords: automatic voltage regulator, hardware-in-the-loop, synchronous condenser, real time digital simulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
764 An Investigation of the Determinants of Discount Rate Manipulation in Swedish and Finnish Listed Companies

Authors: Fredrik Hartwig, Peter Lindberg


In 2004, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) issued new accounting standards for impairment testing of goodwill. IFRS 3 Business Combinations and IAS 36 Impairment of Assets prohibited amortization of acquired goodwill and instead required companies to test goodwill for impairment annually or more often if necessary. The goodwill impairment test is based on management’s judgement and estimations, making the impairment-only-approach subjective and unreliable. Management can use the discretion opportunistically by managing goodwill impairments. The IASB’s remedy to the reliability problem has been to demand transparent financial reports. IAS 36 paragraph 134 requires detailed disclosures regarding the impairment test in order to make potentially unreasonable assumptions and estimations visible. The disclosure requirements should thus (in theory) make it more difficult for management to ‘choose’ assumptions and estimations that suit an agenda. Whether the requirement to disclose detailed disclosures regarding the impairment test leads to less opportunism is however an empirical question. This work analyses whether one of the required disclosures in IAS 36 paragraph 134, the reported discount rate, differs from an independently estimated risk-adjusted discount rate. Estimates of discount rates that are either lower or higher than the independently estimated discount rate are here defined as opportunism. In the former case - i.e. when the reported discount rate is lower - the objective may be to avoid profit reducing impairment charges. In the latter case - i.e. when the reported discount rate is higher - the objective may be to reduce profits or take ‘big baths’. This paper differs in one important respect from previous similar studies, the majority of which are based on purely descriptive statistics; we use multivariate regression analysis to analyze what factors affect deviations between disclosed discount rates and independently estimated discount rates. The sample consists of Swedish and Finnish listed companies. Swedish and Finnish listed companies are analysed since the accounting oversight bodies differ between the two countries. The results show that discount rate deviations in Swedish and Finnish listed companies are significantly related to accounting oversight, size and industry but not financial risk, business risk and goodwill intensity.

Keywords: discount rate, manipulation, goodwill impairment test, disclosures

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
763 Hardware Implementation of Local Binary Pattern Based Two-Bit Transform Motion Estimation

Authors: Seda Yavuz, Anıl Çelebi, Aysun Taşyapı Çelebi, Oğuzhan Urhan


Nowadays, demand for using real-time video transmission capable devices is ever-increasing. So, high resolution videos have made efficient video compression techniques an essential component for capturing and transmitting video data. Motion estimation has a critical role in encoding raw video. Hence, various motion estimation methods are introduced to efficiently compress the video. Low bit‑depth representation based motion estimation methods facilitate computation of matching criteria and thus, provide small hardware footprint. In this paper, a hardware implementation of a two-bit transformation based low-complexity motion estimation method using local binary pattern approach is proposed. Image frames are represented in two-bit depth instead of full-depth by making use of the local binary pattern as a binarization approach and the binarization part of the hardware architecture is explained in detail. Experimental results demonstrate the difference between the proposed hardware architecture and the architectures of well-known low-complexity motion estimation methods in terms of important aspects such as resource utilization, energy and power consumption.

Keywords: binarization, hardware architecture, local binary pattern, motion estimation, two-bit transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 231