Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16987

Search results for: lead time

16987 Execution Time Optimization of Workflow Network with Activity Lead-Time

Authors: Xiaoping Qiu, Binci You, Yue Hu


The executive time of the workflow network has an important effect on the efficiency of the business process. In this paper, the activity executive time is divided into the service time and the waiting time, then the lead time can be extracted from the waiting time. The executive time formulas of the three basic structures in the workflow network are deduced based on the activity lead time. Taken the process of e-commerce logistics as an example, insert appropriate lead time for key activities by using Petri net, and the executive time optimization model is built to minimize the waiting time with the time-cost constraints. Then the solution program-using VC++6.0 is compiled to get the optimal solution, which reduces the waiting time of key activities in the workflow, and verifies the role of lead time in the timeliness of e-commerce logistics.

Keywords: electronic business, execution time, lead time, optimization model, petri net, time workflow network

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
16986 Analysis of Lead Time Delays in Supply Chain: A Case Study

Authors: Abdel-Aziz M. Mohamed, Nermeen Coutry


Lead time is an important measure of supply chain performance. It impacts both customer satisfactions as well as the total cost of inventory. This paper presents the result of a study on the analysis of the customer order lead-time for a multinational company. In the study, the lead time was divided into three stages: order entry, order fulfillment, and order delivery. A sample of size 2,425 order lines from the company records were considered for this study. The sample data includes information regarding customer orders from the time of order entry until order delivery. Data regarding the lead time of each sage for different orders were also provided. Summary statistics on lead time data reveals that about 30% of the orders were delivered after the scheduled due date. The result of the multiple linear regression analysis technique revealed that component type, logistics parameter, order size and the customer type have significant impact on lead time. Data analysis on the stages of lead time indicates that stage 2 consumes over 50% of the lead time. Pareto analysis was made to study the reasons for the customer order delay in each of the 3 stages. Recommendation was given to resolve the problem.

Keywords: lead time reduction, customer satisfaction, service quality, statistical analysis

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16985 Lead-Time Estimation Approach Using the Process Capability Index

Authors: Abdel-Aziz M. Mohamed


This research proposes a methodology to estimate the customer order lead time in the supply chain based on the process capability index. The cases when the process output is normally distributed and when it is not are considered. The relationships between the system capability indices in both service and manufacturing applications, delivery system reliability and the percentages of orders delivered after their promised due dates are presented. The proposed method can be used to examine the current process capability to deliver the orders before the promised lead-time. If the system was found to be incapable, the method can be used to help revise the current lead-time to a proper value according to the service reliability level selected by the management. Numerical examples and a case study describing the lead time estimation methodology and testing the system capability of delivering the orders before their promised due date are illustrated.

Keywords: lead-time estimation, process capability index, delivery system reliability, statistical analysis, service achievement index, service quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 475
16984 Transport Mode Selection under Lead Time Variability and Emissions Constraint

Authors: Chiranjit Das, Sanjay Jharkharia


This study is focused on transport mode selection under lead time variability and emissions constraint. In order to reduce the carbon emissions generation due to transportation, organization has often faced a dilemmatic choice of transport mode selection since logistic cost and emissions reduction are complementary with each other. Another important aspect of transportation decision is lead-time variability which is least considered in transport mode selection problem. Thus, in this study, we provide a comprehensive mathematical based analytical model to decide transport mode selection under emissions constraint. We also extend our work through analysing the effect of lead time variability in the transport mode selection by a sensitivity analysis. In order to account lead time variability into the model, two identically normally distributed random variables are incorporated in this study including unit lead time variability and lead time demand variability. Therefore, in this study, we are addressing following questions: How the decisions of transport mode selection will be affected by lead time variability? How lead time variability will impact on total supply chain cost under carbon emissions? To accomplish these objectives, a total transportation cost function is developed including unit purchasing cost, unit transportation cost, emissions cost, holding cost during lead time, and penalty cost for stock out due to lead time variability. A set of modes is available to transport each node, in this paper, we consider only four transport modes such as air, road, rail, and water. Transportation cost, distance, emissions level for each transport mode is considered as deterministic and static in this paper. Each mode is having different emissions level depending on the distance and product characteristics. Emissions cost is indirectly affected by the lead time variability if there is any switching of transport mode from lower emissions prone transport mode to higher emissions prone transport mode in order to reduce penalty cost. We provide a numerical analysis in order to study the effectiveness of the mathematical model. We found that chances of stock out during lead time will be higher due to the higher variability of lead time and lad time demand. Numerical results show that penalty cost of air transport mode is negative that means chances of stock out zero, but, having higher holding and emissions cost. Therefore, air transport mode is only selected when there is any emergency order to reduce penalty cost, otherwise, rail and road transport is the most preferred mode of transportation. Thus, this paper is contributing to the literature by a novel approach to decide transport mode under emissions cost and lead time variability. This model can be extended by studying the effect of lead time variability under some other strategic transportation issues such as modal split option, full truck load strategy, and demand consolidation strategy etc.

Keywords: carbon emissions, inventory theoretic model, lead time variability, transport mode selection

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16983 Changes in Behavior and Learning Ability of Rats Intoxicated with Lead

Authors: A. Goma Amira, U. E. Mahrous


Measuring the effect of perinatal lead exposure on learning ability of offspring is considered as a sensitive and selective index for providing an early marker for central nervous system damage produced by this toxic metal. A total of 35 Sprague-Dawley adult rats were used to investigate the effect of lead acetate toxicity on behavioral patterns of adult female rats and learning ability of offspring. Rats were allotted into 4 groups, group one received 1g/l lead acetate (n=10), group two received 1.5g/l lead acetate (n=10), group three received 2g/l lead acetate in drinking water (n=10), and control group did not receive lead acetate (n=5) from 8th day of pregnancy till weaning of pups. The obtained results revealed a dose-dependent increase in the feeding time, drinking frequency, licking frequency, scratching frequency, licking litters, nest building, and retrieving frequencies, while standing time increased significantly in rats treated with 1.5g/l lead acetate than other treated groups and control. On the contrary, lying time decreased gradually in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, movement activities were higher in rats treated with 1g/l lead acetate than other treated groups and control. Furthermore, time spent in closed arms was significantly lower in rats given 2g/l lead acetate than other treated groups, while they spent significantly much time spent in open arms than other treated groups which could be attributed to occurrence of adaptation. Furthermore, number of entries in open arms was-dose dependent. However, the ratio between open/closed arms revealed a significant decrease in rats treated with 2g/l lead acetate than the control group.

Keywords: lead toxicity, rats, learning ability, behavior

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16982 Agile Project Management: A Real Application in a Multi-Project Research and Development Center

Authors: Aysegul Sarac


The aim of this study is to analyze the impacts of integrating agile development principles and practices, in particular to reduce project lead time in a multi-project environment. We analyze Arçelik Washing Machine R&D Center in which multiple projects are conducted by shared resources. In the first part of the study, we illustrate the current waterfall model system by using a value stream map. We define all activities starting from the first idea of the project to the customer and measure process time and lead time of projects. In the second part of the study we estimate potential improvements and select a set of these improvements to integrate agile principles. We aim to develop a future state map and analyze the impacts of integrating lean principles on project lead time. The main contribution of this study is that we analyze and integrate agile product development principles in a real multi-project system.

Keywords: agile project management, multi project system, project lead time, product development

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
16981 The Effect on Lead Times When Normalizing a Supply Chain Process

Authors: Bassam Istanbouli


Organizations are living in a very competitive and dynamic environment which is constantly changing. In order to achieve a high level of service, the products and processes of these organizations need to be flexible and evolvable. If the supply chains are not modular and well designed, changes can bring combinatorial effects to most areas of a company from its management, financial, documentation, logistics and its information structure. Applying the normalized system’s concept to segments of the supply chain may help in reducing those ripple effects, but it may also increase lead times. Lead times are important and can become a decisive element in gaining customers. Industries are always under the pressure in providing good quality products, at competitive prices, when and how the customer wants them. Most of the time, the customers want their orders now, if not yesterday. The above concept will be proven by examining lead times in a manufacturing example before and after applying normalized systems concept to that segment of the chain. We will then show that although we can minimize the combinatorial effects when changes occur, the lead times will be increased.

Keywords: supply chain, lead time, normalization, modular

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
16980 Association between a Forward Lag of Historical Total Accumulated Gasoline Lead Emissions and Contemporary Autism Prevalence Trends in California, USA

Authors: Mark A. S. Laidlaw, Howard W. Mielke


In California between the late 1920’s and 1986 the lead concentrations in urban soils and dust climbed rapidly following the deposition of greater than 387,000 tonnes of lead emitted from gasoline. Previous research indicates that when children are lead exposed around 90% of the lead is retained in their bones and teeth due to the substitution of lead for calcium. Lead in children’s bones has been shown to accumulate over time and is highest in inner-city urban areas, lower in suburban areas and lowest in rural areas. It is also known that women’s bones demineralize during pregnancy due to the foetus's high demand for calcium. Lead accumulates in women’s bones during childhood and the accumulated lead is subsequently released during pregnancy – a lagged response. This results in calcium plus lead to enter the blood stream and cross the placenta to expose the foetus with lead. In 1970 in the United States, the average age of a first‐time mother was about 21. In 2008, the average age was 25.1. In this study, it is demonstrated that in California there is a forward lagged relationship between the accumulated emissions of lead from vehicle fuel additives and later autism prevalence trends between the 1990’s and current time period. Regression analysis between a 24 year forward lag of accumulated lead emissions and autism prevalence trends in California are associated strongly (R2=0.95, p=0.00000000127). It is hypothesized that autism in genetically susceptible children may stem from vehicle fuel lead emission exposures of their mothers during childhood and that the release of stored lead during subsequent pregnancy resulted in lead exposure of foetuses during a critical developmental period. It is furthermore hypothesized that the 24 years forward lag between lead exposures has occurred because that is time period is the average length for women to enter childbearing age. To test the hypothesis that lead in mothers bones is associated with autism, it is hypothesized that retrospective case-control studies would show an association between the lead in mother’s bones and autism. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that the forward lagged relationship between accumulated historical vehicle fuel lead emissions (or air lead concentrations) and autism prevalence trends will be similar in cities at the national and international scale. If further epidemiological studies indicate a strong relationship between accumulated vehicle fuel lead emissions (or accumulated air lead concentrations) and lead in mother’s bones and autism rates, then urban areas may require extensive soil intervention to prevent the development of autism in children.

Keywords: autism, bones, lead, gasoline, petrol, prevalence

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
16979 Designing Electronic Kanban in Assembly Line Tailboom at XYZ Corp to Reducing Lead Time

Authors: Nadhifah A. Nugraha, Dida D. Damayanti, Widia Juliani


Airplanes manufacturing is growing along with the increasing demand from consumers. The helicopter's tail called Tailboom is a product of the helicopter division at XYZ Corp, where the Tailboom assembly line is a pull system. Based on observations of existing conditions that occur at XYZ Corp, production is still unable to meet the demands of consumers; lead time occurs greater than the plan agreed upon by the consumers. In the assembly process, each work station experiences a lack of parts and components needed to assemble components. This happens because of the delay in getting the required part information, and there is no warning about the availability of parts needed, it makes some parts unavailable in assembly warehouse. The lack of parts and components from the previous work station causes the assembly process to stop, and the assembly line also stops at the next station. In its completion, the production time was late and not on the schedule. In resolving these problems, the controlling process is needed, which is controlling the assembly line to get all components and subassembly in the right amount and at the right time. This study applies one of Just In Time tools, namely Kanban and automation, should be added as efficiently and effectively communication line becomes electronic Kanban. The problem can be solved by reducing non-value added time, such as waiting time and idle time. The proposed results of controlling the assembly line of Tailboom result in a smooth assembly line without waiting, reduced lead time, and achieving production time according to the schedule agreed with the consumers.

Keywords: kanban, e-Kanban, lead time, pull system

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16978 Adsorption of Lead and Zinc Ions Onto Chemical Activated Millet Husk: Equilibrium and Kinetics Studies

Authors: Hilary Rutto, Linda Sibali


In this study, the adsorption of lead and zinc ions from aqueous solutions by modified millet husk has been investigated. The effects of different parameters, such as pH, adsorbent dosage, concentration, temperature, and contact time, have been investigated. The results of the experiments showed that the adsorption of both metal ions increased by increasing pH values up to 11. Adsorption process was initially fast. The adsorption rate decreased then until it reached to equilibrium time of 120 min for both lead and zinc ions. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), and thermodynamic models (Gibbs free energy) were used to determine the isotherm parameters associated with the adsorption process. The positive values of Gibbs free energy change indicated that reaction is not spontaneous. Experimental data were also evaluated in terms of kinetic characteristics of adsorption, and it was found that adsorption process for both metal ions followed pseudo-first order for zinc and pseudo-second-order for lead.

Keywords: zinc, lead, adsorption, millet husks

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16977 Inventory Control for Purchased Part under Long Lead Time and Uncertain Demand: MRP vs Demand-Driven MRP Approach

Authors: M. J. Shofa, A. Hidayatno, O. M. Armand


MRP as a production control system is appropriate for the deterministic environment. Unfortunately, most production systems such as customer demands are stochastic. Demand-Driven MRP (DDMRP) is a new approach for inventory control system, and it deals with demand uncertainty. The objective of this paper is to compare the MRP and DDMRP work for a long lead time and uncertain demand in terms of on-hand inventory levels. The evaluation is conducted through a discrete event simulation using purchased part data from an automotive company. The result is MRP gives 50,759 pcs / day while DDMRP gives 34,835 pcs / day (reduce 32%), it means DDMRP is more effective inventory control than MRP in terms of on-hand inventory levels.

Keywords: Demand-Driven MRP, long lead time, MRP, uncertain demand

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
16976 Optical Characterization of Lead Sulphide Thin Films Grown by Chemical Bath Deposition

Authors: Ekpekpo Arthur


Thin films can either be conductive or dielectric (non-conductive). It is formed through atom/molecules state or formed after decomposing the materials into atomic/molecular scale by physical or chemical processes. In this study, thin films of Lead Sulphide were deposited on glass substrate prepared from lead acetate and thiourea solution using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The glass slides were subjected to the pretreatment by soaking them in a solution of 50% sulphuric acid and 50% nitric acid. Lead sulphide was deposited at different parameters such as deposition time and temperature. The optical properties of the thin films were determined from spectroscopy measurements of absorbance and reflectance. Optical studies show that the band gap of lead sulphide ranges between 0.41 eV to 300K.

Keywords: lead sulphide, spectroscopy, absorbance, reflectance

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16975 Gambusia an Excellent Indicator of Metals Stress

Authors: W. Khati, Y. Guasmi


The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was studied in freshwater fish exposed to two heavy metals lead and cadmium. Measurements were made after short exposures (4 and 7 days) at concentrations of 1, 5, and 7μg/L cadmium and 1.25, 2.25, and 5 mg/L of lead. Cadmium induced no significant increases in activity of AChE in the gills for the lowest dose. Except significant inhibition on 7 days. In muscle of Gambusia, under stress of metallic lead, the activity increases compared to the control are noted at 4 days of treatment and inhibitions to 7 days of exposure. The analysis of variance (time, treatment) indicates only a very significant time effect (p<0.05), and as for cadmium, a significant body effect (p<0.01) is recorded. This small fish sedentary, colonizing particularly quiet environments, polluted, can only be the ideal bioindicator of contamination and bioaccumulation of metals. The presence of lead and cadmium in the bodies of fish is a risk factor not only for the lives of these aquatic species, but also for the man who is the top predator at the end of the food chain.

Keywords: biomarkers, bioindicator, environmenlal health, metals

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
16974 Hybrid Nano Material of Ground Egg Shells with Metal Oxide for Lead Removal

Authors: A. Threepanich, S. Youngme, P. Praipipat


Although ground egg shells had the ability to eliminate lead in water, their efficiency may decrease in a case of contaminating of other cations such as Na⁺, Ca²⁺ in the water. The development of ground egg shells may solve this problem in which metal oxides are a good choice for this case since they have the ability to remove any heavy metals including lead in the water. Therefore, this study attempts to use this advantage for improving ground egg shells for the specific lead removal efficiency in the water. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique was used for the chemical element contents analysis of ground egg shells (GES) and ground egg shells with metal oxide (GESM), and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) technique was used to examine the material sizes. The batch test studies were designed to investigate the factor effects on dose (5, 10, 15 grams), pH (5, 7, 9), and settling time (1, 3, 5 hours) for the lead removal efficiency in the water. The XRF analysis results showed GES contained calcium (Ca) 91.41% and Silicon (Si) 4.03% and GESM contained calcium (Ca) 91.41%, Silicon (Si) 4.03%, and Iron (Fe) 3.05%. TEM results confirmed the sizes of GES and GESM in the range of 1-20 nm. The batch test studies showed the best optimum conditions for the lead removal in the water of GES and GESM in dose, pH, and settling time were 10 grams, pH 9, 5 hours and 5 grams, pH 9, 3 hours, respectively. The competing ions (Na⁺ and Ca²⁺) study reported GESM had the higher % lead removal efficiency than GES at 90% and 60%, respectively. Therefore, this result can confirm that adding of metal oxide to ground egg shells helps to improve the lead removal efficiency in the water.

Keywords: nano material, ground egg shells, metal oxide, lead

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16973 Removal of Lead (Pb) by the Microorganism Isolated from the Effluent of Lead Acid Battery Scrap

Authors: Harikrishna Yadav Nanganuru, Narasimhulu Korrapati


The demand for the lead (Pb) in the battery industry has been growing for last twenty years. On an average about 2.35 million tons of lead is used in the battery industry. According to the survey of supply and demand battery industry is using 75% of lead produced every year. Due to the increase in battery scrap, secondary lead production has been increasing in this decade. Europe and USA together account for 75% of the world’s secondary lead production. The effluent from used battery scrap consists of high concentrations of lead. Unauthorized disposal of spent batteries, which contain intolerable concentration of lead, into landfills or municipal water canals causes release of Pb into the environment. Lead is one of the toxic heavy metals that have large damaging effects on the human health. Due to its persistence and toxicity, the presence of Pb in drinking water is considered as a special concern. Accumulation of Pb in the human body for long period of time can result in the malfunctioning of some organs. Many technologies have been developed for the removal of lead using microorganisms. In this paper, effluent was taken from the spent battery scrap and was characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Microorganisms play an important role in removal of lead from the contaminated sites. So, the bacteria were isolated from the effluent. Optimum conditions for the microbial growth and applied for the lead removal. These bacterial cells were immobilized and used for the removal of Pb from the known concentration of metal solution. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies were shown that the Pb was efficiently adsorbed by the immobilized bacteria. From the results of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), 83.40 percentage of Pb was removed in a batch culture.

Keywords: adsorption, effluent, immobilization, lead (Pb)

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16972 Lead in The Soil-Plant System Following Aged Contamination from Ceramic Wastes

Authors: F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, G. Petruzzelli, M. Barbafieri, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa


Lead contamination of agricultural land mainly vegetated with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) has been investigated. The metal derived from the discharge of sludge from a ceramic industry in the past had used lead paints. The results showed very high values of lead concentration in many soil samples. In order to assess the lead soil contamination, a sequential extraction with H2O, KNO3, EDTA was performed, and the chemical forms of lead in the soil were evaluated. More than 70% of lead was in a potentially bioavailable form. Analysis of Lolium perenne showed elevated lead concentration. A Freundlich-like model was used to describe the transferability of the metal from the soil to the plant.

Keywords: bioavailability, Freundlich-like equation, sequential extraction, soil lead contamination

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16971 Lead Removal by Using the Synthesized Zeolites from Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

Authors: Sirirat Jangkorn, Pornsawai Praipipat


Sugarcane bagasse ash of sugar factories is solid wastes that the richest source of silica. The alkali fusion method, quartz particles in material can be dissolved and they can be used as the silicon source for synthesizing silica-based materials such as zeolites. Zeolites have many advantages such as catalyst to improve the chemical reactions and they can also remove heavy metals in the water including lead. Therefore, this study attempts to synthesize zeolites from the sugarcane bagasse ash, investigate their structure characterizations and chemical components to confirm the happening of zeolites, and examine their lead removal efficiency through the batch test studies. In this study, the sugarcane bagasse ash was chosen as the silicon source to synthesize zeolites, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) were used to verify the zeolite pattern structures and element compositions, respectively. The batch test studies in dose (0.05, 0.1, 0.15 g.), contact time (1, 2, 3), and pH (3, 5, 7) were used to investigate the lead removal efficiency by the synthesized zeolite. XRD analysis result showed the crystalline phase of zeolite pattern, and XRF result showed the main element compositions of the synthesized zeolite that were SiO₂ (50%) and Al₂O₃ (30%). The batch test results showed the best optimum conditions of the synthesized zeolite for lead removal were 0.1 g, 2 hrs., and 5 of dose, contact time, and pH, respectively. As a result, this study can conclude that the zeolites can synthesize from the sugarcane bagasse ash and they can remove lead in the water.

Keywords: sugarcane bagasse ash, solid wastes, zeolite, lead

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16970 Designing Inventory System with Constrained by Reducing Ordering Cost, Lead Time and Lost Sale Rate and Considering Random Disturbance in Ordering Quantity

Authors: Arezoo Heidary, Abolfazl Mirzazadeh, Aref Gholami-Qadikolaei


In the business environment it is very common that a lot received may not be equal to quantity ordered. in this work, a random disturbance in a received quantity is considered. It is assumed a maximum allowable limit for storage space and inventory investment.The impact of lead time and ordering cost reductions once they act dependently is also investigated. Further, considering a mixture of back order and lost sales for allowable shortage system, the effect of investment on reducing lost sale rate is analyzed. For the proposed control system, a Lagrangian method is applied in order to solve the problem and an algorithmic procedure is utilized to achieve optimal solution with the global minimum expected cost. Finally, proves on concavity and convexity of the model in the decision variables are shown.

Keywords: stochastic inventory system, lead time, ordering cost, lost sale rate, inventory constraints, random disturbance

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16969 Lead in The Blood and Hypertension in Indonesia: A Systematic Review

Authors: Ainia Nurul Aqida


Lead is one of the sources of air pollution. The use of lead on motor vehicle fuels resulted in the increasing contamination of lead in the air. The polluted air that has been inhaled by many people, especially guards and sellers of retail gasoline filling stations. The impact is increased levels of lead in blood. One result is an increase in blood pressure that causes hypertension. This research would like to know the relationship between blood lead levels in the incidence of hypertension in Indonesia. The method used in this study is a systematic review of the three journals have been published in the year 2007 to the year 2010 with the total sample is 312 samples. Odd ratio values obtained in the first article was OR = 6.50 pvalue = 0.000, CI = 95 % (2.89 to 14.60), and the second article was obtained OR 2.619 (95 % CI: 0.944 to 7.625) pvalue = 0.028, and the third article was obtained 0.002 r = 0.324 R2 = 10.5 %. Over all, there is a relationship between blood lead levels with the incidence of hypertension in Indonesia.

Keywords: lead, blood, air pollution, hypertension

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
16968 The Effect of Improvement Programs in the Mean Time to Repair and in the Mean Time between Failures on Overall Lead Time: A Simulation Using the System Dynamics-Factory Physics Model

Authors: Marcel Heimar Ribeiro Utiyama, Fernanda Caveiro Correia, Dario Henrique Alliprandini


The importance of the correct allocation of improvement programs is of growing interest in recent years. Due to their limited resources, companies must ensure that their financial resources are directed to the correct workstations in order to be the most effective and survive facing the strong competition. However, to our best knowledge, the literature about allocation of improvement programs does not analyze in depth this problem when the flow shop process has two capacity constrained resources. This is a research gap which is deeply studied in this work. The purpose of this work is to identify the best strategy to allocate improvement programs in a flow shop with two capacity constrained resources. Data were collected from a flow shop process with seven workstations in an industrial control and automation company, which process 13.690 units on average per month. The data were used to conduct a simulation with the System Dynamics-Factory Physics model. The main variables considered, due to their importance on lead time reduction, were the mean time between failures and the mean time to repair. The lead time reduction was the output measure of the simulations. Ten different strategies were created: (i) focused time to repair improvement, (ii) focused time between failures improvement, (iii) distributed time to repair improvement, (iv) distributed time between failures improvement, (v) focused time to repair and time between failures improvement, (vi) distributed time to repair and between failures improvement, (vii) hybrid time to repair improvement, (viii) hybrid time between failures improvements, (ix) time to repair improvement strategy towards the two capacity constrained resources, (x) time between failures improvement strategy towards the two capacity constrained resources. The ten strategies tested are variations of the three main strategies for improvement programs named focused, distributed and hybrid. Several comparisons among the effect of the ten strategies in lead time reduction were performed. The results indicated that for the flow shop analyzed, the focused strategies delivered the best results. When it is not possible to perform a large investment on the capacity constrained resources, companies should use hybrid approaches. An important contribution to the academy is the hybrid approach, which proposes a new way to direct the efforts of improvements. In addition, the study in a flow shop with two strong capacity constrained resources (more than 95% of utilization) is an important contribution to the literature. Another important contribution is the problem of allocation with two CCRs and the possibility of having floating capacity constrained resources. The results provided the best improvement strategies considering the different strategies of allocation of improvement programs and different positions of the capacity constrained resources. Finally, it is possible to state that both strategies, hybrid time to repair improvement and hybrid time between failures improvement, delivered best results compared to the respective distributed strategies. The main limitations of this study are mainly regarding the flow shop analyzed. Future work can further investigate different flow shop configurations like a varying number of workstations, different number of products or even different positions of the two capacity constrained resources.

Keywords: allocation of improvement programs, capacity constrained resource, hybrid strategy, lead time, mean time to repair, mean time between failures

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16967 A Multi-Criteria Model for Scheduling of Stochastic Single Machine Problem with Outsourcing and Solving It through Application of Chance Constrained

Authors: Homa Ghave, Parmis Shahmaleki


This paper presents a new multi-criteria stochastic mathematical model for a single machine scheduling with outsourcing allowed. There are multiple jobs processing in batch. For each batch, all of job or a quantity of it can be outsourced. The jobs have stochastic processing time and lead time and deterministic due dates arrive randomly. Because of the stochastic inherent of processing time and lead time, we use the chance constrained programming for modeling the problem. First, the problem is formulated in form of stochastic programming and then prepared in a form of deterministic mixed integer linear programming. The objectives are considered in the model to minimize the maximum tardiness and outsourcing cost simultaneously. Several procedures have been developed to deal with the multi-criteria problem. In this paper, we utilize the concept of satisfaction functions to increases the manager’s preference. The proposed approach is tested on instances where the random variables are normally distributed.

Keywords: single machine scheduling, multi-criteria mathematical model, outsourcing strategy, uncertain lead times and processing times, chance constrained programming, satisfaction function

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16966 A Turn-on Fluorescent Sensor for Pb(II)

Authors: Ece Kök Yetimoğlu, Soner Çubuk, Neşe Taşci, M. Vezir Kahraman


Lead(II) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants in the world, due to its high toxicity and non-biodegradability. Lead exposure causes severe risks to human health such as central brain damages, convulsions, kidney damages, and even death. To determine lead(II) in environmental or biological samples, scientists use atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), fluorescence spectrometry and electrochemical techniques. Among these systems the fluorescence spectrometry and fluorescent chemical sensors have attracted considerable attention because of their good selectivity and high sensitivity. The fluorescent polymers usually contain covalently bonded fluorophores. In this study imidazole based UV cured polymeric film was prepared and designed to act as a fluorescence chemo sensor for lead (II) analysis. The optimum conditions such as influence of pH value and time on the fluorescence intensity of the sensor have also been investigated. The sensor was highly sensitive with a detection limit as low as 1.87 × 10−8 mol L-1 and it was successful in the determination of Pb(II) in water samples.

Keywords: fluorescence, lead(II), photopolymerization, polymeric sensor

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16965 Biosorption of Lead (II) from Lead Acid Battery Industry Wastewater by Immobilized Dead Isolated Bacterial Biomass

Authors: Harikrishna Yadav Nanganuru, Narasimhulu Korrapati


Over the past many years, many sites in the world have been contaminated with heavy metals, which are the largest class of contaminants. Lead is one of the toxic heavy metals contaminated in the environment. Lead is not biodegradable, that’s why it is accumulated in the human body and impacts all the systems of the human body when it has been taken by humans. The accumulation of lead in the water environment has been showing adverse effects on the public health. So the removal of lead from the water environment by the biosorption process, which is emerged as a potential method for the lead removal, is an efficient approach. This work was focused to examine the removal of Lead [Pb (II)] ions from aqueous solution and effluent from battery industry. Lead contamination in water is a widespread problem throughout the world and mainly results from lead acid battery manufacturing effluent. In this work, isolated bacteria from wastewater of lead acid battery industry has been utilized for the removal of lead. First effluent from the lead acid battery industry was characterized by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP – AES). Then the bacteria was isolated from the effluent and used it’s immobilized dead mass for the biosorption of lead. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies clearly suggested that the Lead (Pb) was adsorbed efficiently. The adsorbed percentage of lead (II) from waste was 97.40 the concentration of lead (II) is measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). From the result of AAS it can be concluded that immobilized isolated dead mass was well efficient and useful for biosorption of lead contaminated waste water.

Keywords: biosorption, ICP-AES, lead (Pb), SEM

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16964 Detection of Parkinsonian Freezing of Gait

Authors: Sang-Hoon Park, Yeji Ho, Gwang-Moon Eom


Fast and accurate detection of Freezing of Gait (FOG) is desirable for appropriate application of cueing which has been shown to ameliorate FOG. Utilization of frequency spectrum of leg acceleration to derive the freeze index requires much calculation and it would lead to delayed cueing. We hypothesized that FOG can be reasonably detected from the time domain amplitude of foot acceleration. A time instant was recognized as FOG if the mean amplitude of the acceleration in the time window surrounding the time instant was in the specific FOG range. Parameters required in the FOG detection was optimized by simulated annealing. The suggested time domain methods showed performances comparable to those of frequency domain methods.

Keywords: freezing of gait, detection, Parkinson's disease, time-domain method

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16963 Order Optimization of a Telecommunication Distribution Center through Service Lead Time

Authors: Tamás Hartványi, Ferenc Tóth


European telecommunication distribution center performance is measured by service lead time and quality. Operation model is CTO (customized to order) namely, a high mix customization of telecommunication network equipment and parts. CTO operation contains material receiving, warehousing, network and server assembly to order and configure based on customer specifications. Variety of the product and orders does not support mass production structure. One of the success factors to satisfy customer is to have a proper aggregated planning method for the operation in order to have optimized human resources and highly efficient asset utilization. Research will investigate several methods and find proper way to have an order book simulation where practical optimization problem may contain thousands of variables and the simulation running times of developed algorithms were taken into account with high importance. There are two operation research models that were developed, customer demand is given in orders, no change over time, customer demands are given for product types, and changeover time is constant.

Keywords: CTO, aggregated planning, demand simulation, changeover time

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16962 Removal of Lead from Aqueous Solutions by Biosorption on Pomegranate Skin: Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamics

Authors: Y. Laidani, G. Henini, S. Hanini, A. Labbaci, F. Souahi


In this study, pomegranate skin, a material suitable for the conditions in Algeria, was chosen as adsorbent material for removal of lead in an aqueous solution. Biosorption studies were carried out under various parameters such as mass adsorbent particle, pH, contact time, the initial concentration of metal, and temperature. The experimental results show that the percentage of biosorption increases with an increase in the biosorbent mass (0.25 g, 0.035 mg/g; 1.25 g, 0.096 mg/g). The maximum biosorption occurred at pH value of 8 for the lead. The equilibrium uptake was increased with an increase in the initial concentration of metal in solution (Co = 4 mg/L, qt = 1.2 mg/g). Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.995) and a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 0.85 mg/g for lead. The adsorption of the lead was exothermic in nature (ΔH° = -17.833 kJ/mol for Pb (II). The reaction was accompanied by a decrease in entropy (ΔS° = -0.056 kJ/K. mol). The Gibbs energy (ΔG°) increased from -1.458 to -0.305 kJ/mol, respectively for Pb (II) when the temperature was increased from 293 to 313 K.

Keywords: biosorption, Pb (+II), pomegranate skin, wastewater

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16961 Annealing Process Study at Galvanizing Line: Characterization and Implication Inherent to Lead Entrainment

Authors: Marcelo Franzkowiak Stahlschmidt


This paper discusses the experiments carried out based on the wire drawing process analysis and later annealing on lead furnace on a galvanizing line. Using Design of Experiments methodology, the aim of this work is to understand the occurrence of lead entrainment originating from the annealed wires in order to decrease this problem. Wire samples were collected from wire drawing machines and galvanizing line and submitted to surface roughness analysis and its implications on lead drag out based on wire speed, wire diameter, lead bath temperature, thermal capacity of the lead kettle, wire surface condition, wire roughness and wire superficial cleanliness. Proposals to decrease lead drag out were made in order to increase wire drawing machines and galvanizing line performance.

Keywords: wire drawing process, galvanizing, heat treatment, lead

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16960 Determining Inventory Replenishment Policy for Major Component in Assembly-to-Order of Cooling System Manufacturing

Authors: Tippawan Nasawan


The objective of this study is to find the replenishment policy in Assembly-to-Order manufacturing (ATO) which some of the major components have lead-time longer than customer lead-time. The variety of products, independent component demand, and long component lead-time are the difficulty that has resulted in the overstock problem. In addition, the ordering cost is trivial when compared to the cost of material of the major component. A conceptual design of the Decision Supporting System (DSS) has introduced to assist the replenishment policy. Component replenishment by using the variable which calls Available to Promise (ATP) for making the decision is one of the keys. The Poisson distribution is adopted to realize demand patterns in order to calculate Safety Stock (SS) at the specified Customer Service Level (CSL). When distribution cannot identify, nonparametric will be applied instead. The test result after comparing the ending inventory between the new policy and the old policy, the overstock has significantly reduced by 46.9 percent or about 469,891.51 US-Dollars for the cost of the major component (material cost only). Besides, the number of the major component inventory is also reduced by about 41 percent which helps to mitigate the chance of damage and keeping stock.

Keywords: Assembly-to-Order, Decision Supporting System, Component replenishment , Poisson distribution

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16959 Fast Aerodynamic Evaluation of Transport Aircraft in Early Phases

Authors: Xavier Bertrand, Alexandre Cayrel


The early phase of an aircraft development is instrumental as it really drives the potential of a new concept. Any weakness in the high-level design (wing planform, moveable surfaces layout etc.) will be extremely difficult and expensive to recover later in the aircraft development process. Aerodynamic evaluation in this very early development phase is driven by two main criteria: a short lead-time to allow quick iterations of the geometrical design, and a high quality of the calculations to get an accurate & reliable assessment of the current status. These two criteria are usually quite contradictory. Actually, short lead time of a couple of hours from end-to-end can be obtained with very simple tools (semi-empirical methods for instance) although their accuracy is limited, whereas higher quality calculations require heavier/more complex tools, which obviously need more complex inputs as well, and a significantly longer lead time. At this point, the choice has to be done between accuracy and lead-time. A brand new approach has been developed within Airbus, aiming at obtaining quickly high quality evaluations of the aerodynamic of an aircraft. This methodology is based on a joint use of Surrogate Modelling and a lifting line code. The Surrogate Modelling is used to get the wing sections characteristics (e.g. lift coefficient vs. angle of attack), whatever the airfoil geometry, the status of the moveable surfaces (aileron/spoilers) or the high-lift devices deployment. From these characteristics, the lifting line code is used to get the 3D effects on the wing whatever the flow conditions (low/high Mach numbers etc.). This methodology has been applied successfully to a concept of medium range aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamics, lifting line, surrogate model, CFD

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16958 A Continuous Real-Time Analytic for Predicting Instability in Acute Care Rapid Response Team Activations

Authors: Ashwin Belle, Bryce Benson, Mark Salamango, Fadi Islim, Rodney Daniels, Kevin Ward


A reliable, real-time, and non-invasive system that can identify patients at risk for hemodynamic instability is needed to aid clinicians in their efforts to anticipate patient deterioration and initiate early interventions. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the clinical capabilities of a real-time analytic from a single lead of an electrocardiograph to correctly distinguish between rapid response team (RRT) activations due to hemodynamic (H-RRT) and non-hemodynamic (NH-RRT) causes, as well as predict H-RRT cases with actionable lead times. The study consisted of a single center, retrospective cohort of 21 patients with RRT activations from step-down and telemetry units. Through electronic health record review and blinded to the analytic’s output, each patient was categorized by clinicians into H-RRT and NH-RRT cases. The analytic output and the categorization were compared. The prediction lead time prior to the RRT call was calculated. The analytic correctly distinguished between H-RRT and NH-RRT cases with 100% accuracy, demonstrating 100% positive and negative predictive values, and 100% sensitivity and specificity. In H-RRT cases, the analytic detected hemodynamic deterioration with a median lead time of 9.5 hours prior to the RRT call (range 14 minutes to 52 hours). The study demonstrates that an electrocardiogram (ECG) based analytic has the potential for providing clinical decision and monitoring support for caregivers to identify at risk patients within a clinically relevant timeframe allowing for increased vigilance and early interventional support to reduce the chances of continued patient deterioration.

Keywords: critical care, early warning systems, emergency medicine, heart rate variability, hemodynamic instability, rapid response team

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