Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 842

Search results for: spent catalyst

842 Comparision of Bioleaching of Metals from Spent Petroleum Catalyst Using Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans and Acidthiobacillus Thiooxidans

Authors: Haragobinda Srichandan, Ashish Pathak, Dong Jin Kim, Seoung-Won Lee

Abstract:

The present investigation deals with bioleaching of spent petroleum catalyst using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. The spent catalyst used in the present study was pretreated with acetone to remove the oily hydrocarbons. FESEM and XPS analysis indicated the presence of metals in sulfide and oxide forms in spent catalyst. Both At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans were found to be highly effective in producing the acid. Bioleaching with At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans led to higher recovery of metals compare to control. During bioleaching similar recoveries of metals were obtained using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. This might be due to the presence of metals as soluble oxides and sulphides in the spent catalyst. At the end of bioleaching, about 87-90% Ni, 34% Al, 65-73% Mo and 92-97% V were leached using above bacteria. It is elucidated that bioleaching with At. thiooxidans is comparatively more advantageous due to lower cost of sulphur.

Keywords: At. ferrooxidans, bioleaching, metal recovery, spent catalyst

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841 Refining Waste Spent Hydroprocessing Catalyst and Their Metal Recovery

Authors: Meena Marafi, Mohan S. Rana

Abstract:

Catalysts play an important role in producing valuable fuel products in petroleum refining; but, due to feedstock’s impurities catalyst gets deactivated with carbon and metal deposition. The disposal of spent catalyst falls under the category of hazardous industrial waste that requires strict agreement with environmental regulations. The spent hydroprocessing catalyst contains Mo, V and Ni at high concentrations that have been found to be economically significant for recovery. Metal recovery process includes deoiling, decoking, grinding, dissolving and treatment with complexing leaching agent such as ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA). The process conditions have been optimized as a function of time, temperature and EDTA concentration in presence of ultrasonic agitation. The results indicated that optimum condition established through this approach could recover 97%, 94% and 95% of the extracted Mo, V and Ni, respectively, while 95% EDTA was recovered after acid treatment.

Keywords: atmospheric residue desulfurization (ARDS), deactivation, hydrotreating, spent catalyst

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840 Effect of Substrate Concentration and Pulp Density on Bioleaching of Metals from as Received Spent Refinery Catalyst

Authors: Haragobinda Srichandan, Ashish Pathak, Dong Jin Kim, Seoung-Won Lee

Abstract:

The present investigation deals with bioleaching of spent refinery catalyst (as received) using At. thiooxidans. The effect of substrate concentration and pulp density was studied. XPS analysis concluded that the metals in spent catalyst were present as both sulfide and oxides. The dissolution behavior of metals during bioleaching was different. During bioleaching, higher dissolution of Ni and lower dissolution of Mo, V and Al was observed. An increase in pulp density from 1% to 10% led to a decrease in leaching yields of all the metals. This was due to the substantial increase in medium pH at higher pulp densities. The maximum negative impact of pulp density was observed on the leaching yield of V. An increase in sulfur concentration from 0.5% to 2.5% didn’t bring positive impact on metal leaching yield. 0.5% sulfur was found to be the optimum above which no significant increase in leaching yields of metals was observed.

Keywords: At. thiooxidans, pulp density, spent catalyst, bioleaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
839 Two Step Biodiesel Production from High Free Fatty Acid Spent Bleaching Earth

Authors: Rajiv Arora

Abstract:

Biodiesel may be economical if produced from inexpensive feedstock which commonly contains high level of free fatty acids (FFA) as an inhibitor in production of methyl ester. In this study, a two-step process for biodiesel production from high FFA spent bleach earth oil in a batch reactor is developed. Oil sample extracted from spent bleaching earth (SBE) was utilized for biodiesel process. In the first step, FFA of the SBE oil was reduced to 1.91% through sulfuric acid catalyzed esterification. In the second step, the product prepared from the first esterification process was carried out transesterification with an alkaline catalyst. The influence of four variables on conversion efficiency to methyl ester, i.e., methanol/ SBE oil molar ratio, catalyst amount, reaction temperature and reaction time, was studied in the second stage. The optimum process variables in the transesterification were methanol/oil molar ratio 6:1, heterogeneous catalyst conc. 5 wt %, reaction temperature 65 °C and reaction time 60 minutes to produce biodiesel. Major fuel properties of SBE biodiesel were measured to comply with ASTM and EN standards. Therefore, an optimized process for production of biodiesel from a low-cost high FFA source was accomplished.

Keywords: biodiesel, esterification, free fatty acids, residual oil, spent bleaching earth, transesterification

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838 Reuse of Spent Lithium Battery for the Production of Environmental Catalysts

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Chih-Shiang You, Jie-Shian Cheng

Abstract:

This study aims to recycle and reuse of spent lithium-cobalt battery and lithium-iron battery in the production of environmental catalysts. The characteristics and catalytic activities of synthesized catalysts for different air pollutants are analyzed and tested. The results show that the major metals in spent lithium-cobalt batteries are lithium 5%, cobalt 50%, nickel 3%, manganese 3% and the major metals in spent lithium-iron batteries are lithium 4%, iron 27%, and copper 4%. The catalytic activities of metal powders in the anode of spent lithium batteries are bad. With using the precipitation-oxidation method to prepare the lithium-cobalt catalysts from spent lithium-cobalt batteries, their catalytic activities for propane decomposition, CO oxidation, and NO reduction are well improved and excellent. The conversion efficiencies of the regenerated lithium-cobalt catalysts for those three gas pollutants are all above 99% even at low temperatures 200-300 °C. However, the catalytic activities of regenerated lithium-iron catalysts from spent lithium-iron batteries are unsatisfied.

Keywords: catalyst, lithium-cobalt battery, lithium-iron battery, recycle and reuse

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837 Influence of MgO Physically Mixed with Tungsten Oxide Supported Silica Catalyst on Coke Formation

Authors: Thidaya Thitiapichart

Abstract:

The effect of additional magnesium oxide (MgO) was investigated by using the tungsten oxide supported on silica catalyst (WOx/SiO2) physically mixed with MgO in a weight ratio 1:1. The both fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by FT-Raman spectrometer, UV-Vis spectrometer, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). The results indicated that the additional MgO could enhance the conversion of trans-2-butene due to isomerization reaction. However, adding MgO would increase the amount of coke deposit on the WOx/SiO2 catalyst. The TPO profile presents two peaks when the WOx/SiO2 catalyst was physically mixed with MgO. The further peak was suggested to be coming from the coke precursor that could be produced by isomerization reaction of the undesired product. Then, the occurred coke precursor could deposit and form coke on the acid catalyst.

Keywords: coke formation, metathesis, magnesium oxide, physically mix

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836 Recycling of Spent Mo-Co Catalyst for the Recovery of Molybdenum Using Cyphos IL 104

Authors: Harshit Mahandra, Rashmi Singh, Bina Gupta

Abstract:

Molybdenum is widely used in thermocouples, anticathode of X-ray tubes and in the production of alloys of steels. Molybdenum compounds are extensively used as a catalyst in petroleum-refining industries for hydrodesulphurization. Activity of the catalysts decreases gradually with time and are dumped as hazardous waste due to contamination with toxic materials during the process. These spent catalysts can serve as a secondary source for metal recovery and help to sort out environmental and economical issues. In present study, extraction and separation of molybdenum from a Mo-Co spent catalyst leach liquor containing 0.870 g L⁻¹ Mo, 0.341 g L⁻¹ Co, 0.422 ×10⁻¹ g L⁻¹ Fe and 0.508 g L⁻¹ Al in 3 mol L⁻¹ HCl has been investigated using solvent extraction technique. The extracted molybdenum has been finally recovered as molybdenum trioxide. Leaching conditions used were- 3 mol L⁻¹ HCl, 90°C temperature, solid to liquid ratio (w/v) of 1.25% and reaction time of 60 minutes. 96.45% molybdenum was leached under these conditions. For the extraction of molybdenum from leach liquor, Cyphos IL 104 [trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate] in toluene was used as an extractant. Around 91% molybdenum was extracted with 0.02 mol L⁻¹ Cyphos IL 104, and 75% of molybdenum was stripped from the loaded organic phase with 2 mol L⁻¹ HNO₃ at A/O=1/1. McCabe Thiele diagrams were drawn to determine the number of stages required for the extraction and stripping of molybdenum. According to McCabe Thiele plots, two stages are required for both extraction and stripping of molybdenum at A/O=1/1 which were also confirmed by countercurrent simulation studies. Around 98% molybdenum was extracted in two countercurrent extraction stages with no co-extraction of cobalt and aluminum. Iron was removed from the loaded organic phase by scrubbing with 0.01 mol L⁻¹ HCl. Quantitative recovery of molybdenum is achieved in three countercurrent stripping stages at A/O=1/1. Trioxide of molybdenum was obtained from strip solution and was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX techniques. Molybdenum trioxide due to its distinctive electrochromic, thermochromic and photochromic properties is used as a smart material for sensors, lubricants, and Li-ion batteries. Molybdenum trioxide finds application in various processes such as methanol oxidation, metathesis, propane oxidation and in hydrodesulphurization. It can also be used as a precursor for the synthesis of MoS₂ and MoSe₂.

Keywords: Cyphos IL 104, molybdenum, spent Mo-Co catalyst, recovery

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835 A Hydrometallurgical Route for the Recovery of Molybdenum from Spent Mo-Co Catalyst

Authors: Bina Gupta, Rashmi Singh, Harshit Mahandra

Abstract:

Molybdenum is a strategic metal and finds applications in petroleum refining, thermocouples, X-ray tubes and in making of steel alloy owing to its high melting temperature and tensile strength. The growing significance and economic value of molybdenum has increased interest in the development of efficient processes aiming its recovery from secondary sources. Main secondary sources of Mo are molybdenum catalysts which are used for hydrodesulphurisation process in petrochemical refineries. The activity of these catalysts gradually decreases with time during the desulphurisation process as the catalysts get contaminated with toxic material and are dumped as waste which leads to environmental issues. In this scenario, recovery of molybdenum from spent catalyst is significant from both economic and environmental point of view. Recently ionic liquids have gained prominence due to their low vapour pressure, high thermal stability, good extraction efficiency and recycling capacity. The present study reports recovery of molybdenum from Mo-Co spent leach liquor using Cyphos IL 102[trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bromide] as an extractant. Spent catalyst was leached with 3.0 mol/L HCl, and the leach liquor containing Mo-870 ppm, Co-341 ppm, Al-508 ppm and Fe-42 ppm was subjected to extraction step. The effect of extractant concentration on the leach liquor was investigated and almost 85% extraction of Mo was achieved with 0.05 mol/L Cyphos IL 102. Results of stripping studies revealed that 2.0 mol/L HNO3 can effectively strip 94% of the extracted Mo from the loaded organic phase. McCabe- Thiele diagrams were constructed to determine the number of stages required for quantitative extraction and stripping of molybdenum and were confirmed by countercurrent simulation studies. According to McCabe- Thiele extraction and stripping isotherms, two stages are required for quantitative extraction and stripping of molybdenum at A/O= 1:1. Around 95.4% extraction of molybdenum was achieved in two-stage counter current at A/O= 1:1 with the negligible extraction of Co and Al. However, iron was coextracted and removed from the loaded organic phase by scrubbing with 0.01 mol/L HCl. Quantitative stripping (~99.5 %) of molybdenum was achieved with 2.0 mol/L HNO₃ in two stages at O/A=1:1. Overall ~95.0% molybdenum with 99 % purity was recovered from Mo-Co spent catalyst. From the strip solution, MoO₃ was obtained by crystallization followed by thermal decomposition. The product obtained after thermal decomposition was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX techniques. XRD peaks of MoO₃ correspond to molybdite Syn-MoO₃ structure. FE-SEM depicts the rod-like morphology of synthesized MoO₃. EDX analysis of MoO₃ shows 1:3 atomic percentage of molybdenum and oxygen. The synthesised MoO₃ can find application in gas sensors, electrodes of batteries, display devices, smart windows, lubricants and as a catalyst.

Keywords: cyphos Il 102, extraction, spent mo-co catalyst, recovery

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834 A Hydrometallurgical Route for the Recovery of Molybdenum from Mo-Co Spent Catalyst

Authors: Bina Gupta, Rashmi Singh, Harshit Mahandra

Abstract:

Molybdenum is a strategic metal and finds applications in petroleum refining, thermocouples, X-ray tubes and in making of steel alloy owing to its high melting temperature and tensile strength. The growing significance and economic value of molybdenum have increased interest in the development of efficient processes aiming its recovery from secondary sources. Main secondary sources of Mo are molybdenum catalysts which are used for hydrodesulphurisation process in petrochemical refineries. The activity of these catalysts gradually decreases with time during the desulphurisation process as the catalysts get contaminated with toxic material and are dumped as waste which leads to environmental issues. In this scenario, recovery of molybdenum from spent catalyst is significant from both economic and environmental point of view. Recently ionic liquids have gained prominence due to their low vapour pressure, high thermal stability, good extraction efficiency and recycling capacity. Present study reports recovery of molybdenum from Mo-Co spent leach liquor using Cyphos IL 102[trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bromide] as an extractant. Spent catalyst was leached with 3 mol/L HCl and the leach liquor containing Mo-870 ppm, Co-341 ppm, Al-508 ppm and Fe-42 ppm was subjected to extraction step. The effect of extractant concentration on the leach liquor was investigated and almost 85% extraction of Mo was achieved with 0.05 mol/L Cyphos IL 102. Results of stripping studies revealed that 2 mol/L HNO3 can effectively strip 94% of the extracted Mo from the loaded organic phase. McCabe-Thiele diagrams were constructed to determine the number of stages required for quantitative extraction and stripping of molybdenum and were confirmed by counter current simulation studies. According to McCabe-Thiele extraction and stripping isotherms, two stages are required for quantitative extraction and stripping of molybdenum at A/O= 1:1. Around 95.4% extraction of molybdenum was achieved in two stage counter current at A/O= 1:1 with negligible extraction of Co and Al. However, iron was coextracted and removed from the loaded organic phase by scrubbing with 0.01 mol/L HCl. Quantitative stripping (~99.5 %) of molybdenum was achieved with 2.0 mol/L HNO3 in two stages at O/A=1:1. Overall ~95.0% molybdenum with 99 % purity was recovered from Mo-Co spent catalyst. From the strip solution, MoO3 was obtained by crystallization followed by thermal decomposition. The product obtained after thermal decomposition was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX techniques. XRD peaks of MoO3correspond to molybdite Syn-MoO3 structure. FE-SEM depicts the rod like morphology of synthesized MoO3. EDX analysis of MoO3 shows 1:3 atomic percentage of molybdenum and oxygen. The synthesised MoO3 can find application in gas sensors, electrodes of batteries, display devices, smart windows, lubricants and as catalyst.

Keywords: cyphos IL 102, extraction, Mo-Co spent catalyst, recovery

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833 Bioleaching of Metals Contained in Spent Catalysts by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM 26636

Authors: Andrea M. Rivas-Castillo, Marlenne Gómez-Ramirez, Isela Rodríguez-Pozos, Norma G. Rojas-Avelizapa

Abstract:

Spent catalysts are considered as hazardous residues of major concern, mainly due to the simultaneous presence of several metals in elevated concentrations. Although hydrometallurgical, pyrometallurgical and chelating agent methods are available to remove and recover some metals contained in spent catalysts; these procedures generate potentially hazardous wastes and the emission of harmful gases. Thus, biotechnological treatments are currently gaining importance to avoid the negative impacts of chemical technologies. To this end, diverse microorganisms have been used to assess the removal of metals from spent catalysts, comprising bacteria, archaea and fungi, whose resistance and metal uptake capabilities differ depending on the microorganism tested. Acidophilic sulfur oxidizing bacteria have been used to investigate the biotreatment and extraction of valuable metals from spent catalysts, namely Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans, as they present the ability to produce leaching agents such as sulfuric acid and sulfur oxidation intermediates. In the present work, the ability of A. thiooxidans DSM 26636 for the bioleaching of metals contained in five different spent catalysts was assessed by growing the culture in modified Starkey mineral medium (with elemental sulfur at 1%, w/v), and 1% (w/v) pulp density of each residue for up to 21 days at 30 °C and 150 rpm. Sulfur-oxidizing activity was periodically evaluated by determining sulfate concentration in the supernatants according to the NMX-k-436-1977 method. The production of sulfuric acid was assessed in the supernatants as well, by a titration procedure using NaOH 0.5 M with bromothymol blue as acid-base indicator, and by measuring pH using a digital potentiometer. On the other hand, Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometry was used to analyze metal removal from the five different spent catalysts by A. thiooxidans DSM 26636. Results obtained show that, as could be expected, sulfuric acid production is directly related to the diminish of pH, and also to highest metal removal efficiencies. It was observed that Al and Fe are recurrently removed from refinery spent catalysts regardless of their origin and previous usage, although these removals may vary from 9.5 ± 2.2 to 439 ± 3.9 mg/kg for Al, and from 7.13 ± 0.31 to 368.4 ± 47.8 mg/kg for Fe, depending on the spent catalyst proven. Besides, bioleaching of metals like Mg, Ni, and Si was also obtained from automotive spent catalysts, which removals were of up to 66 ± 2.2, 6.2±0.07, and 100±2.4, respectively. Hence, the data presented here exhibit the potential of A. thiooxidans DSM 26636 for the simultaneous bioleaching of metals contained in spent catalysts from diverse provenance.

Keywords: bioleaching, metal removal, spent catalysts, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

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832 Progressive Loading Effect of Co Over SiO2/Al2O3 Catalyst for Cox Free Hydrogen and Carbon Nanotubes Production via Catalytic Decomposition of Methane

Authors: Sushil Kumar Saraswat, K. K. Pant

Abstract:

Co metal supported on SiO2 and Al2O3 catalysts with a metal loading varied from 30 of 70 wt.% were evaluated for decomposition of methane to CO/CO2 free hydrogen and carbon nano materials. The catalytic runs were carried out from 550-800 oC under atmospheric pressure using fixed bed vertical flow reactor. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by BET surface area analyzer, TPR, XRD, SEM, TEM, and TG analysis. The data showed that 50% Co/Al2O3 catalyst exhibited remarkable higher activity and stability up to 10 h time-on-stream at 750 oC with respect to H2 production compared to rest of the catalysts. However, the catalytic activity and durability was greatly declined at a higher temperature. The main reason for the catalytic inhibition of Co containing SiO2 catalysts is the higher reduction temperature of Co2SiO4. TEM images illustrate that the carbon materials with various morphologies, carbon nanofibers (CNFs), helical-shaped CNFs, and branched CNFs depending on the catalyst composition and reaction temperature, were obtained. The TG data showed that a higher yield of MWCNTs was achieved over 50% Co/Al2O3 catalyst compared to other catalysts.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cobalt, hydrogen production, methane decomposition

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831 Oxidation of Alcohols Types Using Nano-Graphene Oxide (NGO) as Heterogeneous Catalyst

Authors: Ali Gharib, Leila Vojdanifard, Nader Noroozi Pesyan, Mina Roshani

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We describe an efficient method for oxidation of alcohols to related aldehydes and ketones by hydrogen peroxide as oxidizing agent, under reflux conditions. Nano-graphene oxide (NGO) as a heterogeneous catalyst was used and had their activity compared with other various catalysts. This catalyst was found to be an excellent catalyst for oxidation of alcohols. The effects of various parameters, including catalyst type, nature of the substituent in the alcohols and temperature, on the yield of the carboxylic acids were studied. Nano-graphene oxide was synthesized by the oxidation of graphite powders. This nanocatalyst was found to be highly efficient in this reaction and products were obtained in good to excellent yields. The recovered nano-catalyst was successfully reused for several runs without significant loss in its catalytic activity.

Keywords: nano-graphene oxide, oxidation, aldehyde, ketone, catalyst

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830 The Effect of Spent Mushroom Substrate on Blood Metabolites in Kurdish Male Lambs

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Shahab Ehtesham, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran

Abstract:

The objective of this study was use different levels of spent mushroom substrate as a suitable substitute for wheat straw in the ration of male lambs. In this study 20 male lambs with the age of 90 days and initial average weight of 33± 1.7 kg were used. The animals were divided separately into single boxes with four treatments (control treatment, spent mushroom substrate 15%, spent mushroom substrate 25% and spent mushroom substrate 35%) and five replications. The experiment period was 114 days being 14 days adaptation and 90 days for breeding. On the days 36 and 94, blood samples were taken from the jugular vein. In order to carry out the trial, 20 male lambs received the four experimental diets in completely randomized design. The statistical analyses were carried out by using the GLM procedure of SAS 9.1. Means among treatments were compared by Tukey test. The results of the study showed that there was no significant differences between the serum biochemical and hematological contents of the lambs in the four treatments (p>0.05). It was concluded that spent mushroom substrate consumption has no harmful effect on the blood parameters of Kurdish male lambs.

Keywords: alternative food, nutrition, sheep performance, spent mushroom substrate

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829 Characterization of Fish Bone Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Sarina Sulaiman, N.Khairudin , P.Jamal, M.Z. Alam, Zaki Zainudin, S. Azmi

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In this study, fish bone waste was used as a new catalyst for biodiesel production. Instead of discarding the fish bone waste, it will be utilized as a source for catalyst that can provide significant benefit to the environment. Also, it can be substitute as a calcium oxide source instead of using eggshell, crab shell and snail shell. The XRD and SEM analysis proved that calcined fish bone contains calcium oxide, calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD).

Keywords: calcinations, fish bone, transesterification, waste catalyst

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828 Qualitative and Quantitative Characterization of Generated Waste in Nouri Petrochemical Complex, Assaluyeh, Iran

Authors: L. Heidari, M. Jalili Ghazizade

Abstract:

In recent years, different petrochemical complexes have been established to produce aromatic compounds. Among them, Nouri Petrochemical Complex (NPC) is the largest producer of aromatic raw materials in the world, and is located in south of Iran. Environmental concerns have been raised in this region due to generation of different types of solid waste generated in the process of aromatics production, and subsequently, industrial waste characterization has been thoroughly considered. The aim of this study is qualitative and quantitative characterization of industrial waste generated in the aromatics production process and determination of the best method for industrial waste management. For this purpose, all generated industrial waste during the production process was determined using a checklist. Four main industrial wastes were identified as follows: spent industrial soil, spent catalyst, spent molecular sieves and spent N-formyl morpholine (NFM) solvent. The amount of heavy metals and organic compounds in these wastes were further measured in order to identify the nature and toxicity of such a dangerous compound. Then industrial wastes were classified based on lab analysis results as well as using different international lists of hazardous waste identification such as EPA, UNEP and Basel Convention. Finally, the best method of waste disposal is selected based on environmental, economic and technical aspects. 

Keywords: aromatic compounds, industrial soil, molecular sieve, normal formyl morpholine solvent

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827 Production of Renewable and Clean Bio-Fuel (DME) from Biomethanol over Copper Modified Alumina Catalyst

Authors: Ahmed I. Osman, Jehad K. Abu-Dahrieh, David W. Rooney, Jillian Thompson

Abstract:

The effect of loading of copper on the catalytic performance of different alumina support during the dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) was performed in a fixed bed reactor. There are two levels of loading; low loading (1, 2, 4 and 6% Cu wt/wt) and high loading (10 and 15% Cu wt/wt) on both AC350 (alumina catalyst calcined at 350) and AC550 (alumina catalyst calcined at 550), to study the effect of loading and the effect of the support during methanol dehydration to DME (MTD). The catalysts were characterized by TGA, XRD, BET, TPD-NH3, TEM and DRIFT-Pyridine. Under reaction conditions where the temperature ranged from 180-300˚C with a WHSV= 12.1 h-1 it was found that all the catalysts calcined at 550˚C showed higher activity than those calcined at 350˚C. In this study, the optimum catalyst was 6% Cu/AC550. This catalyst showed a high degree of stability, had one half activity of the pure catalyst (AC550) and double the activity of the optimum catalyst calcined at 350˚C (6% Cu/AC350). So, we recommended 6% Cu/AC550 for the production of DME from methanol.

Keywords: bio-fuel, nano composite catalyst, DME, Cu-Al2O3

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826 Optimization of Catalyst Parameters to Get Chlorine Free Bimetallic Catalysts

Authors: Noreen Sajjad Ghulam Hussain

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Catalysts are prepared by simple physical mixing and thermal treatment of support and metal acetate precursors.The effect of metal ratio and metal loading to produce highly active catalyst for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol are studied.

Keywords: catalyst, acetates, benzyl alcohols

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825 Preparation and Characterization of Modified ZnO Incorporated into Mesoporous MCM-22 Catalysts and Their Catalytic Performances of Crude Jatropha Oil to Biodiesel

Authors: Bashir Abubakar Abdulkadir, Anita Ramli, Lim Jun Wei, Yoshimitsu Uemura

Abstract:

In this study, the ZnO/MCM-22 catalyst with different ZnO loading were prepared using conventional wet impregnation process and the catalyst activity was tested for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil. The effects of reaction parameters with regards to catalyst activity were investigated. The synthesized catalysts samples were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) for crystal phase, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) for surface area, pore volume and pore size, Field Emission Scanning electron microscope attached to energy dispersive x-ray (FESEM/EDX) for morphology and elemental composition and TPD (NH3 and CO2) for basic and acidic properties of the catalyst. The XRD spectra couple with the EDX result shows the presence of ZnO in the catalyst confirming the positive intercalation of the metal oxide into the mesoporous MCM-22. The synthesized catalyst was confirmed to be mesoporous according to BET findings. Also, the catalysts can be considered as a bifunctional catalyst based on TPD outcomes. Transesterification results showed that the synthesized catalyst was highly efficient and effective to be used for biodiesel production from low grade oil such as Jatropha oil and other industrial application where the high fatty acid methyl ester (FAMEs) yield was achieved at moderate reaction conditions. It was also discovered that the catalyst can be used more than five (5) runs with little deactivation confirming the catalyst to be highly active and stable to the heat of reaction.

Keywords: MCM-22, synthesis, transesterification, ZnO

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824 Oxidation Activity of Platinum-Ruthenium-Tin Ternary Alloy Catalyst on Bio-Alcohol

Authors: An-Ya Lo, Yi-Chen Chung, Yun-Chi Hsu, Chuan-Ming Tseng, Chiu-Yue Lin

Abstract:

In this study, the ternary alloy catalyst Pt20RuxSny (where 20, x, y represent mass fractions of Pt, Ru, and Sn, respectively) was optimized for the preliminary study of bio-ethanol fuel cells (BAFC). The morphology, microstructure, composition, phase-structures, and electrochemical properties of Pt20RuxSny catalyst were examined by SEM, TEM, EDS-mapping, XRD, and potentiostat. The effect of Sn content on electrochemical active surface (EAS) and oxidation activity were discussed. As a result, the additional Sn greatly improves the efficiency of Pt20RuxSny, either x=0 or 10. Through discussing the difference between ethanol and glycol oxidations, the mechanism of tolerance against poisoning has been proved. Overall speaking, the catalytic activity are in the order of Pt20RuxSny > Pt20Rux > Pt20Sny in both ethanol and glycol systems. Finally, Pt20Ru10Sn15 catalyst was successfully applied to demonstrate the feasibility of using bio-alcohol.

Keywords: Pt-Sn alloy catalyst, Pt-Ru-Sn alloy catalyst, fuel cell, ethanol, ethylene glycol

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823 Synthesis of α-Diimin Nickel(II) Catalyst Supported on Graphene and Graphene Oxide for Ethylene Slurry Polymerization

Authors: Mehrji Khosravan, Mostafa Fathali-Sianib, Davood Soudbar, Sasan Talebnezhad, Mohammad-Reza Ebrahimi

Abstract:

The late transition metal catalyst of the end group of transition metals in the periodic table as Ni, Fe, Co, and Pd was grown up rapidly in polyolefin industries recently. These metals with suitable ligands exhibited special characteristic properties and appropriate activities in the production of polyolefins. The ligand 1,4-bis (2,6-diisopropyl phenyl) acenaphthene was synthesized by reaction of 2,6-diisopropyl aniline and acenaphthenequinone. The ligand was added to nickel (II) dibromide salt for synthesis the 1,4-bis (2,6 diisopropylphenyl) acenaphthene nickel (II) dibromide catalyst. The structure of the ligand characterized by IR technique. The catalyst then deposited on graphene and graphene oxide by vander walss-attachment for use in Ethylene slurry polymerization process in the presence of catalyst activator such as methylaluminoxane (MAO) in hexane solvent. The structure of the catalyst characterized by IR and TEM techniques and some of the polymers were characterized by DSC. The highest activity was achieved at 600 C for catalyst.

Keywords: α-diimine nickel (II) complex, graphene as supported catalyst, late transition metal, ethylene polymerization

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822 Cellulose Supported Heterogeneous Pd(II) Catalyst for Synthesis of Biaryls

Authors: Talat Baran

Abstract:

The Suzuki C(sp2)-C(sp2) coupling reaction is considered to be one of the best ways for the synthesis of biaryl compounds. There are many studies reporting the catalytic performance of palladium catalyst in Suzuki coupling reactions. Natural biopolymer (such as zeolite, carbon, silica, and chitosan) supporting catalysts have been lately attracted interest because of their low-cost, nontoxicity, and eco-friendliness. One of the most important natural biopolymer is cellulose, which is widely considered as an eco-friendly biopolymer due to its biodegradable, non-toxic and renewable nature. In this study, (1) cellulose supported Pd(II) catalyst was synthesized (2) its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR, SEM/EDAX, XRD, TG-DTG, ICP-OES techniques (3) to investigate the performance of the catalyst in Suzuki coupling reactions by using microwave irradiation technique (4) reusability of the catalyst was done under optimum conditions. This cellulose supported Pd(II) catalyst exhibited high selectivity and efficiency in Suzuki coupling reactions under mild conditions (50°C). High TON and TOF values were recorded for the catalyst. Also, the reusability tests showed the catalysts could be used for several times in consequence of reusability tests.

Keywords: palladium, cellulose, Schiff base, reusability

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821 Characterization of the Microorganisms Associated with Pleurotus ostractus and Pleurotus tuber-Regium Spent Mushroom Substrate

Authors: Samuel E. Okere, Anthony E. Ataga

Abstract:

Introduction: The microbial ecology of Pleurotus osteratus and Pleurotus tuber–regium spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were characterized to determine other ways of its utilization. Materials and Methods: The microbiological properties of the spent mushroom substrate were determined using standard methods. This study was carried out at the Microbiology Laboratory University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Results: Quantitative microbiological analysis revealed that Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS) contained 7.9x10⁵ and 1.2 x10³ cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria and total fungi count respectively while Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) contained 1.38x10⁶ and 9.0 x10² cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria count and total fungi count respectively. The fungi species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) include Aspergillus and Cladosporum species, while Aspergillus and Penicillium species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). However, the bacteria species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate include Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Actinobacter, and Pseudomonas species while Bacillus, Actinobacteria, Aeromonas, Lactobacillus and Aerococcus species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). Conclusion: Therefore based on the findings from this study, it can be concluded that spent mushroom substrate contain microorganisms that can be utilized both in bioremediation of oil-polluted soils as they contain important hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms such as Penicillium, Aspergillus and Bacillus species and also as sources of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus species which can induce resistance on plants. However, further studies are recommended, especially to molecularly characterize these microorganisms.

Keywords: characterization, microorganisms, mushroom, spent substrate

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820 Dependence of Ionomer Loading on the Hydrogen Generation Rate of a Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer

Authors: Yingjeng James Li, Chih Chi Hsu, Chiao-Chih Hu

Abstract:

Membrane electrode assemblies MEAs for proton exchange membrane PEM water electrolyzers were prepared by employing 175um perfluorosulfonic acid PFSA membranes as the PEM, onto which iridium oxide catalyst was coated on one side as the anode and platinum catalyst was coated on the other side as the cathode. The cathode catalyst ink was prepared so that the weight ratio of the catalyst powder to ionomer was 75:25, 70:30, 65:35, 60:40, and 55:45, respectively. Whereas, the ratio of catalyst powder to ionomer of the anode catalyst ink keeps constant at 50:50. All the MEAs have a catalyst coated area of 5cm*5cm. The test cell employs a platinum plated titanium grid as anode gas diffusion media; whereas, carbon paper was employed as the cathode gas diffusion media. The measurements of the MEA gases production rate were carried out by holding the cell voltage ranging from 1.6 to 2.8 volts at room temperature. It was found that the MEA with cathode catalyst to ionomer ratio of 65:35 gives the largest hydrogen production rate which is 2.8mL/cm2*min.

Keywords: electrolyzer, membrane electrode assembly, proton exchange membrane, ionomer, hydrogen

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819 Molecular Characterization and Determination of Bioremediation Potentials of Some Bacteria Isolated from Spent Oil Contaminated Soil Mechanic Workshops in Kaduna Metropolis

Authors: David D. Adams, Ibrahim B. Bello

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Spent oil contaminated Soil from ten selected mechanic workshops were investigated for their bacteria and bioremediation potentials. The bacterial isolates were morphologically and molecularly identified as Enterobacter hormaechei, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella flexneri , Wesiella cibaria, Lactobacillus planetarium. The singles and a consortium of these bacteria incubated in the minimal salt medium incorporated with 1% engine oil exhibited various biodegradation rates, with the mixed consortium exhibiting the highest for this oil. The gene for the hydrocarbon enzyme Catechol 2, 3 dioxygenase (C2,30) was detected and amplified in Enterobacter hormaechei, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri using PCR and Agarose gel electrophoresis. The detection of the (C2,30) enzyme gene in, and the spent oil biodegradation activity exhibited by these bacteria suggest their possible possession of bioremediating potentials for the spent engine oil. It is therefore suggested that a pilot study on the field application of these bacteria for bioremediation and restoration of spent oil polluted environment should be done in mechanic workshops.

Keywords: spent engine oil, pollution, bacteria, enzyme, bioremediation, mechanic workshop

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818 Two-Dimensional Modeling of Spent Nuclear Fuel Using FLUENT

Authors: Imane Khalil, Quinn Pratt

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In a nuclear reactor, an array of fuel rods containing stacked uranium dioxide pellets clad with zircalloy is the heat source for a thermodynamic cycle of energy conversion from heat to electricity. After fuel is used in a nuclear reactor, the assemblies are stored underwater in a spent nuclear fuel pool at the nuclear power plant while heat generation and radioactive decay rates decrease before it is placed in packages for dry storage or transportation. A computational model of a Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assembly is modeled using FLUENT, the computational fluid dynamics package. Heat transfer simulations were performed on the two-dimensional 9x9 spent fuel assembly to predict the maximum cladding temperature for different input to the FLUENT model. Uncertainty quantification is used to predict the heat transfer and the maximum temperature profile inside the assembly.

Keywords: spent nuclear fuel, conduction, heat transfer, uncertainty quantification

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817 Waste Bone Based Catalyst: Characterization and Esterification Application

Authors: Amit Keshav

Abstract:

Waste bone, produced in large quantity (8-10 kg./day) from a slaughterhouse, could be a cheap (cost $0.20 per kg) substitute for commercial catalysts. In the present work, catalyst for esterification reaction was prepared from waste bone and characterized by various techniques. Bone was deoiled and then sulfonated. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of prepared catalyst predicted –OH vibration at 3416 and 1630 cm⁻¹, S-O stretching at 1124 cm⁻¹ and intense bands of hydroxypatite in a region between 500 and 700 cm⁻¹. X-ray diffraction (XRD) predicts peaks of hydroxyapatite, CaO, and tricalcium phosphate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was employed to reveal the presence of non-uniformity deposited fine particles on the catalyst surface that represents active acidic sites. The prepared catalyst was employed to study its performance on esterification reaction between acrylic acid and ethanol in a molar ratio of 1:1 at a set temperature of 60 °C. Results show an equilibrium conversion of 49% which is matched to the commercial catalysts employed in literature. Thus waste bone could be a good catalyst for acrylic acid removal from waste industrial streams via the process of esterification.Keywords— Heterogeneous catalyst, characterization, esterification, equilibrium conversion

Keywords: heterogeneous catalyst, characterization, esterification, equilibrium conversion

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816 Cotton Treated with Spent Coffee Extract for Realizing Functional Textiles

Authors: Kyung Hwa Hong

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of spent coffee extract to enhance the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of cotton fabrics. The emergence and spread of infectious diseases has raised a global interest in the antimicrobial substances. The safety of chemical agents, such as antimicrobials and dyes, which may irritate the skin, cause cellular and organ damage, and have adverse environmental impacts during their manufacturing, in relation to the human body has not been established. Nevertheless, there is a growing interest in natural antimicrobials that kill microorganisms or stop their growth without dangerous effects on human health. Spent coffee is the by-product of coffee brewing and amounted to 96,000 tons worldwide in 2015. Coffee components such as caffeine, melanoidins, and chlorogenic acid have been reported to possess multifunctional properties, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, the current study examined the possibility of applying spent coffee in functional textile finishing. Spent coffee was extracted with 60% methanol solution, and the major components of the extract were quantified. In addition, cotton fabrics treated with spent coffee extract through a pad-dry-cure process were investigated for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The cotton fabrics finished with the spent coffee extract showed an increase in yellowness, which is an unfavorable outcome from the fabric finishing process. However, the cotton fabrics finished with the spent coffee extract exhibited considerable antioxidant activity. In particular, the antioxidant ability significantly increased with increasing concentrations of the spent coffee extract. The finished cotton fabrics showed antimicrobial ability against S. aureus but relatively low antimicrobial ability against K. pneumoniae. Therefore, further investigations are needed to determine the appropriate concentration of spent coffee extract to inhibit the growth of various pathogenic bacteria.

Keywords: spent coffee grounds, cotton, natural finishing agent, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity

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815 Catalytic Production of Hydrogen and Carbon Nanotubes over Metal/SiO2 Core-Shell Catalyst from Plastic Wastes Gasification

Authors: Wei-Jing Li, Ren-Xuan Yang, Kui-Hao Chuang, Ming-Yen Wey

Abstract:

Nowadays, plastic product and utilization are extensive and have greatly improved our life. Yet, plastic wastes are stable and non-biodegradable challenging issues to the environment. Waste-to-energy strategies emerge a promising way for waste management. This work investigated the co-production of hydrogen and carbon nanotubes from the syngas which was from the gasification of polypropylene. A nickel-silica core-shell catalyst was applied for syngas reaction from plastic waste gasification in a fixed-bed reactor. SiO2 were prepared through various synthesis solvents by Stöber process. Ni plays a role as modified SiO2 support, which were synthesized by deposition-precipitation method. Core-shell catalysts have strong interaction between active phase and support, in order to avoid catalyst sintering. Moreover, Fe or Co metal acts as promoter to enhance catalytic activity. The effects of calcined atmosphere, second metal addition, and reaction temperature on hydrogen production and carbon yield were examined. In this study, the catalytic activity and carbon yield results revealed that the Ni/SiO2 catalyst calcined under H2 atmosphere exhibited the best performance. Furthermore, Co promoted Ni/SiO2 catalyst produced 3 times more than Ni/SiO2 on carbon yield at long-term operation. The structure and morphological nature of the calcined and spent catalysts were examined using different characterization techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction. In addition, the quality and thermal stability of the nano-carbon materials were also evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.

Keywords: plastic wastes, hydrogen, carbon nanotube, core-shell catalysts

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814 Numerical Modeling and Prediction of Nanoscale Transport Phenomena in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Catalyst Layers by the Lattice Boltzmann Simulation

Authors: Seungho Shin, Keunwoo Choi, Ali Akbar, Sukkee Um

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In this study, the nanoscale transport properties and catalyst utilization of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) catalyst layers are computationally predicted by the three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann simulation based on the quasi-random nanostructural model in pursuance of fuel cell catalyst performance improvement. A series of catalyst layers are randomly generated with statistical significance at the 95% confidence level to reflect the heterogeneity of the catalyst layer nanostructures. The nanoscale gas transport phenomena inside the catalyst layers are simulated by the D3Q19 (i.e., three-dimensional, 19 velocities) lattice Boltzmann method, and the corresponding mass transport characteristics are mathematically modeled in terms of structural properties. Considering the nanoscale reactant transport phenomena, a transport-based effective catalyst utilization factor is defined and statistically analyzed to determine the structure-transport influence on catalyst utilization. The tortuosity of the reactant mass transport path of VACNT catalyst layers is directly calculated from the streaklines. Subsequently, the corresponding effective mass diffusion coefficient is statistically predicted by applying the pre-estimated tortuosity factors to the Knudsen diffusion coefficient in the VACNT catalyst layers. The statistical estimation results clearly indicate that the morphological structures of VACNT catalyst layers reduce the tortuosity of reactant mass transport path when compared to conventional catalyst layer and significantly improve consequential effective mass diffusion coefficient of VACNT catalyst layer. Furthermore, catalyst utilization of the VACNT catalyst layer is substantially improved by enhanced mass diffusion and electric current paths despite the relatively poor interconnections of the ion transport paths.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann method, nano transport phenomena, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, vertically aligned carbon nanotube

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813 Integrated Two Stage Processing of Biomass Conversion to Hydroxymethylfurfural Esters Using Ionic Liquid as Green Solvent and Catalyst: Synthesis of Mono Esters

Authors: Komal Kumar, Sreedevi Upadhyayula

Abstract:

In this study, a two-stage process was established for the synthesis of HMF esters using ionic liquid acid catalyst. Ionic liquid catalyst with different strength of the Bronsted acidity was prepared in the laboratory and characterized using 1H NMR, FT-IR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Solid acid catalyst from the ionic liquid catalyst was prepared using the immobilization method. The acidity of the synthesized acid catalyst was measured using Hammett function and titration method. Catalytic performance was evaluated for the biomass conversion to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and levulinic acid (LA) in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK)-water biphasic system. A good yield of 5-HMF and LA was found at the different composition of MIBK: Water. In the case of MIBK: Water ratio 10:1, good yield of 5-HMF was observed at ambient temperature 150˚C. Upgrading of 5-HMF into monoesters from the reaction of 5-HMF and reactants using biomass-derived monoacid were performed. Ionic liquid catalyst with -SO₃H functional group was found to be best efficient in comparative of a solid acid catalyst for the esterification reaction and biomass conversion. A good yield of 5-HMF esters with high 5-HMF conversion was found to be at 105˚C using the best active catalyst. In this process, process A was the hydrothermal conversion of cellulose and monomer into 5-HMF and LA using acid catalyst. And the process B was the esterification followed by using similar acid catalyst. All monoesters of 5-HMF synthesized here can be used in chemical, cross linker for adhesive or coatings and pharmaceutical industry. A theoretical density functional theory (DFT) study for the optimization of the ionic liquid structure was performed using the Gaussian 09 program to find out the minimum energy configuration of ionic liquid catalyst.

Keywords: biomass conversion, 5-HMF, Ionic liquid, HMF ester

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