Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 68

Search results for: reusability

68 Cellulose Supported Heterogeneous Pd(II) Catalyst for Synthesis of Biaryls

Authors: Talat Baran

Abstract:

The Suzuki C(sp2)-C(sp2) coupling reaction is considered to be one of the best ways for the synthesis of biaryl compounds. There are many studies reporting the catalytic performance of palladium catalyst in Suzuki coupling reactions. Natural biopolymer (such as zeolite, carbon, silica, and chitosan) supporting catalysts have been lately attracted interest because of their low-cost, nontoxicity, and eco-friendliness. One of the most important natural biopolymer is cellulose, which is widely considered as an eco-friendly biopolymer due to its biodegradable, non-toxic and renewable nature. In this study, (1) cellulose supported Pd(II) catalyst was synthesized (2) its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR, SEM/EDAX, XRD, TG-DTG, ICP-OES techniques (3) to investigate the performance of the catalyst in Suzuki coupling reactions by using microwave irradiation technique (4) reusability of the catalyst was done under optimum conditions. This cellulose supported Pd(II) catalyst exhibited high selectivity and efficiency in Suzuki coupling reactions under mild conditions (50°C). High TON and TOF values were recorded for the catalyst. Also, the reusability tests showed the catalysts could be used for several times in consequence of reusability tests.

Keywords: palladium, cellulose, Schiff base, reusability

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67 Reframing Service Oriented Architecture Design Principles in Software Design Quality

Authors: Purnomo Yustianto, Robin Doss, Novianto B. Kurniawan Suhardi

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Since its inception, the design activities of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has been guided with aspects from the Service Design Principles (SDP), such as cohesion, granularity, loose coupling, discoverability, and autonomy, etc. The goal of this paper is two folds. The first is to examine the position of SDP within the context of software quality, and the second is to reframe the aspects of SDP into a more concise terms and relations. This paper is divided into four parts, in which after the introduction, a review on related software quality is provided to determine the quality context of SDP. The third part reviews the original SDP and offers a relation model among the SDP aspects. The fourth part explores the design quality metrics available for SOA and proposes a relationship representing the design quality. Among the aspects of design principles, the cohesion and coupling aspect is determined to be the two important aspects for achieving reusability of a service.

Keywords: SOA, software quality, service design principle, reusability, cohesion, coupling

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
66 Bacteria Immobilized Electrospun Fibrous Biocomposites for Cr (VI) Remediation in Water

Authors: Omer Faruk Sarioglu, Asli Celebioglu, Turgay Tekinay, Tamer Uyar

Abstract:

Fibrous biocomposites were developed by immobilization of a Cr(VI) reducing bacterial strain, morganella morganii STB5, on electrospun polystyrene (PS) and polysulfone (PSU) webs. Cr(VI) removal characteristics of STB5/PS and STB5/PSU fibrous biocomposites were determined at 25 mg L-1 of initial Cr(VI) and 70.41% and 68.27% of removal were observed within 72 h, respectively. Reusability test results indicate that both biocomposites are potentially reusable and can be used for at least 5 cycles. After storage test results suggest that the biocomposites can be stored awhile without losing their Cr(VI) bioremoval capabilities. SEM images of STB5 immobilized PS and PSU webs after the reusability test exhibit strong attachment of bacterial biofilms onto fibrous surfaces. Our results are quite promising and suggesting that reusable bacteria immobilized electrospun fibrous biocomposites might be applicable for Cr(VI) remediation in water systems.

Keywords: electrospinning, polystyrene, polysulfone, Cr(VI) bioremoval, environmental sustainability

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65 Component Based Testing Using Clustering and Support Vector Machine

Authors: Iqbaldeep Kaur, Amarjeet Kaur

Abstract:

Software Reusability is important part of software development. So component based software development in case of software testing has gained a lot of practical importance in the field of software engineering from academic researcher and also from software development industry perspective. Finding test cases for efficient reuse of test cases is one of the important problems aimed by researcher. Clustering reduce the search space, reuse test cases by grouping similar entities according to requirements ensuring reduced time complexity as it reduce the search time for retrieval the test cases. In this research paper we proposed approach for re-usability of test cases by unsupervised approach. In unsupervised learning we proposed k-mean and Support Vector Machine. We have designed the algorithm for requirement and test case document clustering according to its tf-idf vector space and the output is set of highly cohesive pattern groups.

Keywords: software testing, reusability, clustering, k-mean, SVM

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64 Using of TFC Polysulfone Electrospun Nanofiber Mats in Oil-Water Separation

Authors: Nasser A. M. Barakat

Abstract:

Membrane technology is the most promising process for oil-water separation operation if the hydrophilicity, fouling and reusability properties could be improved. In this study, novel effective and reusable membrane for oil-water separation process is introduced based on modification of polysulfone (PSF) electrospun nanofiber mats. The modification process was achieved by incorporation of NaOH nanoparticles inside the PSF nanofibers, and formation of a thin layer from a polyamide polymer on the surface of the electrospun mat. Typically, solutions composed of PSF and NaOH (twelve solutions were prepared based on different PSF concentrations; 15, 18 and 20 wt%, and various NaOH content; 1.5, 1.7 and 2.5 wt%) have been electrospun, then the dried nanofiber mats were treated by m-phenylenediamine and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl chloride to form polyamide thin layer on the surface of the mats. The results indicated that incorporation of NaOH and the formed polyamide could decrease the water contact angle from ~ 130˚ to 13˚ for the nanofiber mats obtained from 20 wt% PSF solutions containing 1.7 wt% sodium hydroxide powders. Interestingly, the membrane having the lowest contact angle could separate oil-water mixture for three successive cycles and 100% removal of the oil with relatively high water flux; 5.5 m3/m2.day. Overall, simplicity of the manufacturing technique, and effectiveness and reusability of the produced nanofiber mats open new avenue for the introduced as promising membranes for the oil-water separation process.

Keywords: electrospinning, oil-water separation, hydrophilic membrane, nanofibers

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63 Design an Algorithm for Software Development in CBSE Envrionment Using Feed Forward Neural Network

Authors: Amit Verma, Pardeep Kaur

Abstract:

In software development organizations, Component based Software engineering (CBSE) is emerging paradigm for software development and gained wide acceptance as it often results in increase quality of software product within development time and budget. In component reusability, main challenges are the right component identification from large repositories at right time. The major objective of this work is to provide efficient algorithm for storage and effective retrieval of components using neural network and parameters based on user choice through clustering. This research paper aims to propose an algorithm that provides error free and automatic process (for retrieval of the components) while reuse of the component. In this algorithm, keywords (or components) are extracted from software document, after by applying k mean clustering algorithm. Then weights assigned to those keywords based on their frequency and after assigning weights, ANN predicts whether correct weight is assigned to keywords (or components) or not, otherwise it back propagates in to initial step (re-assign the weights). In last, store those all keywords into repositories for effective retrieval. Proposed algorithm is very effective in the error correction and detection with user base choice while choice of component for reusability for efficient retrieval is there.

Keywords: component based development, clustering, back propagation algorithm, keyword based retrieval

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62 Phosphate Capture from Sewage by Hafnium-Modified Fe₃O₄@SiO₂ Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles: Adsorption Capacity, Selectivity, Reusability Analysis and Mechanistic Insights

Authors: Qian Zhao

Abstract:

With global increasing demand for phosphorus and intensively depleting reserves, it is urgent need to explore innovative approaches towards capturing phosphate from sewage, which is also an effective way to reduce phosphate contamination and avoid eutrophication of water bodies. In the present article, the superparamagnetic nano-sorbents containing Fe₃O₄ core and hafnium-modified MgAl/MgFe layered double hydroxides shell (abbreviated as MgAlHf-NP and MgFeHf-NP) was developed using a simple and low-cost synthesis protocol. The obtained Hf-coated nano-materials showed well-defined crystal structure and sufficient saturation magnetization and exhibited higher adsorption capacity for phosphate. Meanwhile, high selectivity was also confirmed since coexisting foreign anions and biomacromolecules showed little competitive effect on phosphate adsorption. The enhancement via doping with Hf should be explained by the stronger ligand complexation built by the pair of hard acid Hf ion and hard base phosphate that matched up the bonding preferences. Sufficient OH⁻ concentration and clear pH shift during the desorption/regeneration allowed for regeneration rate of higher than 90% after 5 cycles of adsorption desorption. This article attempts to provide a competitive candidate for phosphate-capture, which is highly effective, easily separable and repeatedly usable.

Keywords: phosphate recovery, nanoparticles, superparamagnetic, adsorption, reusability

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61 Low-Cost Reusable Thermal Energy Storage Particle for Concentrating Solar Power

Authors: Kyu Bum Han, Eunjin Jeon, Kimberly Watts, Brenda Payan Medina

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Gen3 Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) high-temperature thermal systems have the potential to lower the cost of a CSP system. When compared to the other systems (chloride salt blends and supercritical fluids), the particle transport system can avoid many of the issues associated with high fluid temperature systems at high temperature because of its ability to operate at ambient pressure with limited corrosion or thermal stability risk. Furthermore, identifying and demonstrating low-cost particles that have excellent optical properties and durability can significantly reduce the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of particle receivers. The currently available thermal transfer particle in the study and market is oxidized at about 700oC, which reduces its durability, generates particle loss by high friction loads, and causes the color change. To meet the CSP SunShot goal, the durability of particles must be improved by identifying particles that are less abrasive to other structural materials. Furthermore, the particles must be economically affordable and the solar absorptance of the particles must be increased while minimizing thermal emittance. We are studying a novel thermal transfer particle, which has low cost, high durability, and high solar absorptance at high temperatures. The particle minimizes thermal emittance and will be less abrasive to other structural materials. Additionally, the particle demonstrates reusability, which significantly lowers the LCOE. This study will contribute to two principal disciplines of energy science: materials synthesis and manufacturing. Developing this particle for thermal transfer will have a positive impact on the ceramic study and industry as well as the society.

Keywords: concentrating solar power, thermal energy storage, particle, reusability, economics

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60 HCIO4-SiO2 Nanoparticles as an Efficient Catalyst for Three-Component Synthesis of Triazolo[1,2-A]Indazole-Triones

Authors: Hossein Anaraki-Ardakani, Tayebe Heidari-Rakati

Abstract:

An environmentally benign protocol for the one-pot, three-component synthesis of Triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-1,3,8-trione derivatives by condensation of dimedone, urazole and aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by HClO4/SiO2 NPS as an ecofriendly catalyst with high catalytic activity and reusability at 100 ºC under solvent-free conditions is reported. The reaction proceeds to completion within 20-30 min in 77-86 % yield.

Keywords: one-pot reaction, dimedone, triazoloindazole, urazole

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59 Embedded Test Framework: A Solution Accelerator for Embedded Hardware Testing

Authors: Arjun Kumar Rath, Titus Dhanasingh

Abstract:

Embedded product development requires software to test hardware functionality during development and finding issues during manufacturing in larger quantities. As the components are getting integrated, the devices are tested for their full functionality using advanced software tools. Benchmarking tools are used to measure and compare the performance of product features. At present, these tests are based on a variety of methods involving varying hardware and software platforms. Typically, these tests are custom built for every product and remain unusable for other variants. A majority of the tests goes undocumented, not updated, unusable when the product is released. To bridge this gap, a solution accelerator in the form of a framework can address these issues for running all these tests from one place, using an off-the-shelf tests library in a continuous integration environment. There are many open-source test frameworks or tools (fuego. LAVA, AutoTest, KernelCI, etc.) designed for testing embedded system devices, with each one having several unique good features, but one single tool and framework may not satisfy all of the testing needs for embedded systems, thus an extensible framework with the multitude of tools. Embedded product testing includes board bring-up testing, test during manufacturing, firmware testing, application testing, and assembly testing. Traditional test methods include developing test libraries and support components for every new hardware platform that belongs to the same domain with identical hardware architecture. This approach will have drawbacks like non-reusability where platform-specific libraries cannot be reused, need to maintain source infrastructure for individual hardware platforms, and most importantly, time is taken to re-develop test cases for new hardware platforms. These limitations create challenges like environment set up for testing, scalability, and maintenance. A desirable strategy is certainly one that is focused on maximizing reusability, continuous integration, and leveraging artifacts across the complete development cycle during phases of testing and across family of products. To get over the stated challenges with the conventional method and offers benefits of embedded testing, an embedded test framework (ETF), a solution accelerator, is designed, which can be deployed in embedded system-related products with minimal customizations and maintenance to accelerate the hardware testing. Embedded test framework supports testing different hardwares including microprocessor and microcontroller. It offers benefits such as (1) Time-to-Market: Accelerates board brings up time with prepacked test suites supporting all necessary peripherals which can speed up the design and development stage(board bring up, manufacturing and device driver) (2) Reusability-framework components isolated from the platform-specific HW initialization and configuration makes the adaptability of test cases across various platform quick and simple (3) Effective build and test infrastructure with multiple test interface options and preintegrated with FUEGO framework (4) Continuos integration - pre-integrated with Jenkins which enabled continuous testing and automated software update feature. Applying the embedded test framework accelerator throughout the design and development phase enables to development of the well-tested systems before functional verification and improves time to market to a large extent.

Keywords: board diagnostics software, embedded system, hardware testing, test frameworks

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58 Synthesis and Characterization of Zeolite/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite Material and Investigation of Its Catalytic Reaction

Authors: Mojgan Zendehdel, Safura Molla Mohammad Zamani

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In this paper, Fe3O4/NaY zeolite nanocomposite with different molar ratio were successfully synthesized and characterized using FT-IR, XRD, TGA, SEM and VSM techniques. The SEM graphs showed that much of Fe3O4 was successfully coated by the NaY zeolite layer. Also, the results show that the magnetism of the products is stable with added zeolite. The catalytic effect of nanocomposite investigated for esterification reaction under solvent-free conditions. Hence, the effect of the catalyst amount, reaction time, reaction temperature and reusability of catalyst were considered and nanocomposite that created from zeolite and 16.6 percent of Fe3O4 showed the highest yield. The catalyst can be easily separated from reaction with the magnet and it can also be used for several times.

Keywords: zeolite, magnetic, nanocompsite, esterification

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57 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Protein C Purification

Authors: Duygu Çimen, Nilay Bereli, Adil Denizli

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In this study is to synthesis magnetic nanoparticles for purify protein C. For this aim, N-Methacryloyl-(L)-histidine methyl ester (MAH) containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by using micro-emulsion polymerization technique for templating protein C via metal chelation. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta-size analysis and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. After that, they were used for protein C purification from aqueous solution to evaluate/optimize the adsorption condition. Hereby, the effecting factors such as concentration, pH, ionic strength, temperature, and reusability were evaluated. As the last step, protein C was determined with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Keywords: immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), magnetic nanoparticle, protein C, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)

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56 Issue Reorganization Using the Measure of Relevance

Authors: William Wong Xiu Shun, Yoonjin Hyun, Mingyu Kim, Seongi Choi, Namgyu Kim

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Recently, the demand of extracting the R&D keywords from the issues and using them in retrieving R&D information is increasing rapidly. But it is hard to identify the related issues or to distinguish them. Although the similarity between the issues cannot be identified, but with the R&D lexicon, the issues that always shared the same R&D keywords can be determined. In details, the R&D keywords that associated with particular issue is implied the key technology elements that needed to solve the problem of the particular issue. Furthermore, the related issues that sharing the same R&D keywords can be showed in a more systematic way through the issue clustering constructed from the perspective of R&D. Thus, sharing of the R&D result and reusable of the R&D technology can be facilitated. Indirectly, the redundancy of investment on the same R&D can be reduce as the R&D information can be shared between those corresponding issues and reusability of the related R&D can be improved. Therefore, a methodology of constructing an issue clustering from the perspective of common R&D keywords is proposed to satisfy the demands mentioned.

Keywords: clustering, social network analysis, text mining, topic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 484
55 Immobilization of Horseradish Peroxidase onto Bio-Linked Magnetic Particles with Allium Cepa Peel Water Extracts

Authors: Mirjana Petronijević, Sanja Panić, Aleksandra Cvetanović, Branko Kordić, Nenad Grba

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Enzyme peroxidases are biological catalysts and play a major role in phenolic wastewater treatments and other environmental applications. The most studied species from the peroxidases family is horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In environmental processes, HRP could be used in its free or immobilized form. Enzyme immobilization onto solid support is performed to improve the enzyme properties, prolong its lifespan and operational stability and allow its reuse in industrial applications. One of the enzyme supports of a newer generation is magnetic particles (MPs). Fe₃O₄ MPs are the most widely pursued immobilization of enzymes owing to their remarkable advantages of biocompatibility and non-toxicity. Also, MPs can be easily separated and recovered from the water by applying an external magnetic field. On the other hand, metals and metal oxides are not suitable for the covalent binding of enzymes, so it is necessary to perform their surface modification. Fe₃O₄ MPs functionalization could be performed during the process of their synthesis if it takes place in the presence of plant extracts. Extracts of plant material, such as wild plants, herbs, even waste materials of the food and agricultural industry (bark, shell, leaves, peel), are rich in various bioactive components such as polyphenols, flavonoids, sugars, etc. When the synthesis of magnetite is performed in the presence of plant extracts, bioactive components are incorporated into the surface of the magnetite, thereby affecting its functionalization. In this paper, the suitability of bio-magnetite as solid support for covalent immobilization of HRP across glutaraldehyde was examined. The activity of immobilized HRP at different pH values (4-9) and temperatures (20-80°C) and reusability were examined. Bio-MP was synthesized by co-precipitation method from Fe(II) and Fe(III) sulfate salts in the presence of water extract of the Allium cepa peel. The water extract showed 81% of antiradical potential (according to DPPH assay), which is connected with the high content of polyphenols. According to the FTIR analysis, the bio-magnetite contains oxygen functional groups (-OH, -COOH, C=O) suitable for binding to glutaraldehyde, after which the enzyme is covalently immobilized. The immobilized enzyme showed high activity at ambient temperature and pH 7 (30 U/g) and retained ≥ 80% of its activity at a wide range of pH (5-8) and temperature (20-50°C). The HRP immobilized onto bio-MPs showed remarkable stability towards temperature and pH variations compared to the free enzyme form. On the other hand, immobilized HRP showed low reusability after the first washing cycle enzyme retains 50% of its activity, while after the third washing cycle retains only 22%.

Keywords: bio-magnetite, enzyme immobilization, water extracts, environmental protection

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54 Passive Seismic Energy Dissipation Mechanisms for Smart Green Structural System (SGSS)

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi

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The design philosophy of building structure has been changing over time. The reason behind this is an increase in human interest regarding the improvements in building materials and technology that will affect how we live, the aim to speed up construction period, and the environmental effect which includes earthquakes and other natural disasters. One technique which takes into account the above case is using a prefabricable structural system, in which each and every structural element is designed and prefabricated and assembled on a site so that the construction speed is increased and the environmental impact is also enhanced. This system has immense advantages such as reduced construction cost, reusability, recyclability, faster construction period and less enviromental effect. In this study, some of the developed and evaluated structural elements of building structures are presented.

Keywords: eccentrically braced frame, natural disaster, prefabricable structural system, removable link, SGSS

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53 Approaches to Eco-Friendly Architecture: Modules Assembled Specially to Conserve

Authors: Arshleen Kaur, Sarang Barbarwar, Madhusudan Hamirwasia

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Sustainable architecture is going to be the soul of construction in the near future, with building material as a vital link connecting sustainability to construction. The priority in Architecture has shifted from having a lesser negative footprint to having a positive footprint on Earth. The design has to be eco-centric as well as anthro-centric so as to attain its true purpose. Brick holds the same importance like a cell holds in one’s body. The study focuses on this basic building block with an experimental material and technique known as Module Assembled Specially to Conserve (MASC). The study explores the usage and construction of these modules in the construction of buildings. It also shows the impact assessment of the modules on the environment and its significance in reducing the carbon footprint of the construction industry. The aspects like cost-effectiveness, ease of working and reusability of MASC have been studied as well.

Keywords: anthro-centric, carbon footprint, eco-centric, sustainable

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52 Creation of Processes for a Safety Element Out of Context for an Actuator Circuit Control Module

Authors: Hassan Noun, Christian Urban-Seelmann, Mohamed Abdelfattah, Guillaume Zeller, Rajesh G., Iryna Mozgova, Roland Lachmayer

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Several modules in automotive are usually modified and adapted for various project-specific applications. Due to a standardized safety concept, high reusability is accessible. A safety element out of context (SEooC) according to ISO 26262 can be a suitable approach. Based on the same safety concept and analysis, common modules can reach high usability. For developing according to a module out of context, an appropriate and detailed development approach is required. This paper shows how to derive these development processes for platform modules. Therefore, the detailed approach to the safety element out of context is derived. The aim is to create a detailed workflow for all phases of the development and integration of any kind of system modules. As an application example, an automotive project for an actuator control module is considered.

Keywords: functional safety, engineering processes, system engineering, electronic engineering

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51 Knowledge Based Automated Software Engineering Platform Used for the Development of Bulgarian E-Customs

Authors: Ivan Stanev, Maria Koleva

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Described are challenges to the Bulgarian e-Customs (BeC) related to low level of interoperability and standardization, inefficient use of available infrastructure, lack of centralized identification and authorization, extremely low level of software process automation, and insufficient quality of data stored in official registers. The technical requirements for BeC are prepared with a focus on domain independent common platform, specialized customs and excise components, high scalability, flexibility, and reusability. The Knowledge Based Automated Software Engineering (KBASE) Common Platform for Automated Programming (CPAP) is selected as an instrument covering BeC requirements for standardization, programming automation, knowledge interpretation and cloud computing. BeC stage 3 results are presented and analyzed. BeC.S3 development trends are identified.

Keywords: service oriented architecture, cloud computing, knowledge based automated software engineering, common platform for automated programming, e-customs

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50 Investigating the Systematic Implications of Plastic Waste Additions to Concrete Taking a Circular Approach

Authors: Christina Cheong, Naomi Keena

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In the face of growing urbanization the construction of new buildings is inevitable and with current construction methods leading to environmental degradation much questioning is needed around reducing the environmental impact of buildings. This paper explores the global environmental issue of concrete production in parallel with the problem of plastic waste, and questions if new solutions into plastic waste additions in concrete is a viable sustainable solution with positive systematic implications to living systems, both human and non-human. We investigate how certification programs can be used to access the sustainability of the new concrete composition. With this classification we look to the health impacts as well as reusability of such concrete in a second or third life cycle. We conclude that such an approach has benefits to the environment and that taking a circular approach to its development, in terms of the overall life cycle of the new concrete product, can help understand the nuances in terms of the material’s environmental and human health impacts.

Keywords: Concrete, Plastic waste additions to concrete, sustainability ratings, sustainable materials

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49 Minimalism in Product Packaging: Alternatives to Bubble Wrap

Authors: Anusha Chanda, Reenu Singh

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Packaging is one of the major contributors to global waste. While efforts are being made to switch to more sustainable types of packaging, such as switching from single use plastics to paper, not all polluting materials, have been rethought in terms of recycling. Minimalism in packaging design can help reduce the amount of waste produced greatly. While online companies have shifted to using cardboard boxes for packages, a large amount of waste in still generated from other materials affiliated with cardboard packaging, such as tape, bubble wrap, plastic wrap, among others. Minimalism also works by reducing extra packaging and increasing the reusability of the material. This paper looks at research related to minimalism in packaging design, minimalism, and sustainability. A survey was conducted in order to find out the different ways in which minimalism can be implemented in packaging design. Information gathered from the research and responses from the survey was used to ideate product design alternatives for sustainable substitutes for bubble wrap in packaging. This would help greatly reduce the amount of packaging waste and improve environmental quality.

Keywords: environment, minimalism, packaging, product design, sustainable

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48 Characterization of Poly(Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate-Glycidyl Methacrylate)-Imino Diacetic Acid Membrane to Adsorbing Leather Dye

Authors: Ahmet Aslan, Safiye Meric Acikel, Raziye Hilal Senay, Sinan Akgol

Abstract:

Different chemical substances and too much water are used during leather production. Therefore, the waste water load of the leather industry is harmful to the environment. One of the pollution sources is the production of leather coloring process is a further need to focus on the removal of dye waste waters subject. These water-soluble dyes have a small organic molecular size. Besides the environmental hazards, these dyes cannot be underestimated, they also have harmful effects on human health. In this study, poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) p(HEMA-GMA) hydrogel membranes were synthesized by UV polymerization method. The hydrogel synthesized is modified with imino diacetic acid (IDA) and then chelated with Cr (III) ions. The chelating capacity of the membranes was determined according to the time, pH and concentration parameters. Dynamic swelling test, elemental analysis, ninhydrin analysis and adsorption, desorption and reusability performances of membranes were also determined.

Keywords: adsorption, dye, leather, p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA

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47 Analysis of Backward Supply Chain in Beverages Industry of Pakistan

Authors: Faisal Mehmood

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In this globalization era, the supply chain management has acquired strategic importance in diverse business environments. In the current highly competitive business environment, the success of any business considerably depends on the efficiency of the supply chain. Management has now realized that due to the inefficiency of any member of supply chain, the profitability of the business will be affected. This paper proposes an analysis of backward supply chain in the beverages industry of Pakistan. Although reuse of products and materials is a common phenomenon, companies have long ignored this important part of the supply chain, known as backward supply chain or reverse logistics. The beverage industry is among the pioneers of backward supply chain or reverse logistics in Pakistan. The empty glass bottles are returned back from the point of consumption to the warehouse for refilling and reusability purposes. Due to the lack of information on reverse flow of logistics and more attention on the forward distribution, beverages industry in Pakistan is facing high rate of inefficiencies and ineffectiveness. Analysis of backward or reverse logistics practiced in beverages industry is the subject of this study in which framework dictating the current needs of market will be developed.

Keywords: backward supply chain, reverse logistics, refilling, re-usability

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46 Perception-Oriented Model Driven Development for Designing Data Acquisition Process in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: K. Indra Gandhi

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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have always been characterized for application-specific sensing, relaying and collection of information for further analysis. However, software development was not considered as a separate entity in this process of data collection which has posed severe limitations on the software development for WSN. Software development for WSN is a complex process since the components involved are data-driven, network-driven and application-driven in nature. This implies that there is a tremendous need for the separation of concern from the software development perspective. A layered approach for developing data acquisition design based on Model Driven Development (MDD) has been proposed as the sensed data collection process itself varies depending upon the application taken into consideration. This work focuses on the layered view of the data acquisition process so as to ease the software point of development. A metamodel has been proposed that enables reusability and realization of the software development as an adaptable component for WSN systems. Further, observing users perception indicates that proposed model helps in improving the programmer's productivity by realizing the collaborative system involved.

Keywords: data acquisition, model-driven development, separation of concern, wireless sensor networks

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45 Efficient Pre-Concentration of As (III) Using Guanidine-Modified Magnetic Mesoporous Silica in the Food Sample

Authors: Majede Modheji, Hamid Emadi, Hossein Vojoudi

Abstract:

An efficient magnetic mesoporous structure was designed and prepared for the facile pre-concentration of As(III) ions. To prepare the sorbent, a core-shell magnetic silica nanoparticle was covered by MCM-41 like structure, and then the surface was modified by guanidine via an amine linker. The prepared adsorbent was investigated as an effective and sensitive material for the adsorption of arsenic ions from the aqueous solution applying a normal batch method. The imperative variables of the adsorption were studied to increase efficiency. The dynamic and static processes were tested that matched a pseudo-second order of kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. The sorbent reusability was investigated, and it was confirmed that the designed product could be applied at best for six cycles successively without any significant efficiency loss. The synthesized product was tested to determine and pre-concentrate trace amounts of arsenic ions in rice and natural waters as a real sample. A desorption process applying 5 mL of hydrochloric acid (0.5 mol L⁻¹) as an eluent exhibited about 98% recovery of the As(III) ions adsorbed on the GA-MSMP sorbent.

Keywords: arsenic, adsorption, mesoporous, surface modification, MCM-41

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44 Synthesis of Polyvinyl Alcohol Encapsulated Ag Nanoparticle Film by Microwave Irradiation for Reduction of P-Nitrophenol

Authors: Supriya, J. K. Basu, S. Sengupta

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Silver nanoparticles have caught a lot of attention because of its unique physical and chemical properties. Silver nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/Ag) free-standing film have been prepared by microwave irradiation in few minutes. PVA performed as a reducing agent, stabilizing agents as well as support for silver nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectrometry, scanning transmission electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques affirmed the reduction of silver ion to silver nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Effect of irradiation time, the concentration of PVA and concentration of silver precursor on the synthesis of silver nanoparticle has been studied. Particles size of silver nanoparticles decreases with increase in irradiation time. Concentration of silver nanoparticles increases with increase in concentration of silver precursor. Good dispersion of silver nanoparticles in the film has been confirmed by TEM analysis. Particle size of silver nanoparticle has been found to be in the range of 2-10nm. Catalytic property of prepared silver nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst has been studied in the reduction of p-Nitrophenol (a water pollutant) with >98% conversion. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that PVA encapsulated Ag nanoparticles film as a catalyst shows better efficiency and reusability in the reduction of p-Nitrophenol.

Keywords: biopolymer, microwave irradiation, silver nanoparticles, water pollutant

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43 NaOH/Pumice and LiOH/Pumice as Heterogeneous Solid Base Catalysts for Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil: An Optimization Study

Authors: Joy Marie Mora, Mark Daniel De Luna, Tsair-Wang Chung

Abstract:

Transesterification reaction of soybean oil with methanol was carried out to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) using calcined alkali metal (Na and Li) supported by pumice silica as the solid base catalyst. Pumice silica catalyst was activated by loading alkali metal ions to its surface via an ion-exchange method. Response surface methodology (RSM) in combination with Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the operating parameters in biodiesel production, namely: reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction time, and catalyst concentration. Using the optimized sets of parameters, FAME yields using sodium and lithium silicate catalysts were 98.80% and 98.77%, respectively. A pseudo-first order kinetic equation was applied to evaluate the kinetic parameters of the reaction. The prepared catalysts were characterized by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) sorptometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, the reusability of the catalysts was successfully tested in two subsequent cycles.

Keywords: alkali metal, biodiesel, Box-Behnken design, heterogeneous catalyst, kinetics, optimization, pumice, transesterification

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42 Development of Catalyst from Waste Egg Shell for Biodiesel Production by Using Waste Vegetable Oil

Authors: Victor Chinecherem Ejeke, Raphael Eze Nnam

Abstract:

The main objective of this research is to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oil using activated eggshell waste as solid catalysts. A transesterification reaction was performed for the conversion to biodiesel. Waste eggshells were calcined at 700°C, 800°C and 900°C for a time period of 3hrs for the preparation of the renewable catalyst. The calcined waste eggshell catalyst was characterized using X-Ray Florescence (XRF) Spectroscopy, which revealed CaO as the major constituent (90.86%); this was further confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyses. The prepared catalyst was used for transesterification reaction and the effects of calcination temperature (700 to 900°C), Deep Eutectic Solvent DES loading (3 to 18 wt. %), Waste Egg Shell (WES) catalyst loading (6 to 14 wt. %) on the conversion to biodiesel were studied. The yield of biodiesel using a waste eggshell catalyst (91%) is comparable to conventional catalyst like sodium hydroxide with a yield of 80-90%. The maximum biodiesel production yield was obtained at a specific oil-to methanol molar ratio of 1:10, a temperature of 65°C and a catalyst loading of 14g-wt%. The biodiesel produced was characterized as being composed of methyl Tetradecanoate (C₁₄H₂₈O₂) 30.92% using the Gas Chromatographic (GC-MS) analysis. The fuel properties of the biodiesel (Flashpoint 138ᵒC) were comparable to commercial diesel, and hence it can be used in compression-ignition engines. The results indicated that the catalysts derived from waste eggshell had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts in transesterification of waste vegetable oil with the advantage of reusability and also not requiring water washing steps.

Keywords: waste vegetable oil, catalyst , biodiesel , waste egg shell

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41 Inulinase Immobilization on Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles Prepared with Soy Protein Isolate Conjugated Bovine Serum Albumin for High Fructose Syrup Production

Authors: Homa Torabizadeh, Mohaddeseh Mikani

Abstract:

Inulinase from Aspergillus niger was covalently immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs/Fe3O4) covered with soy protein isolate (SPI/Fe3O4) functionalized by bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles. MNPs are promising enzyme carriers because they separate easily under external magnetic fields and have enhanced immobilized enzyme reusability. As MNPs aggregate simply, surface coating strategy was employed. SPI functionalized by BSA was a suitable candidate for nanomagnetite coating due to its superior biocompatibility and hydrophilicity. Fe3O4@SPI-BSA nanoparticles were synthesized as a novel carrier with narrow particle size distribution. Step by step fabrication monitoring of Fe3O4@SPI-BSA nanoparticles was performed using field emission scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The results illustrated that nanomagnetite with the spherical morphology was well monodispersed with the diameter of about 35 nm. The average size of the SPI-BSA nanoparticles was 80 to 90 nm, and their zeta potential was around −34 mV. Finally, the mean diameter of fabricated Fe3O4@SPI-BSA NPs was less than 120 nm. Inulinase enzyme from Aspergillus niger was covalently immobilized through gluteraldehyde on Fe3O4@SPI-BSA nanoparticles successfully. Fourier transform infrared spectra and field emission scanning electron microscopy images provided sufficient proof for the enzyme immobilization on the nanoparticles with 80% enzyme loading.

Keywords: high fructose syrup, inulinase immobilization, functionalized magnetic nanoparticles, soy protein isolate

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40 Impact of Lifestyle and User Expectations on the Demand of Compact Living Spaces in the Home Interiors in Indian Cities

Authors: Velly Kapadia, Reenu Singh

Abstract:

This report identifies the long-term driving forces behind urbanization and the impact of compact living on both society and the home and proposes a concept to create smarter and more sustainable homes. Compact living has been trending across India as a sustainable housing solution, and the reality is that India is currently facing a housing shortage in urban areas of around 10 million units. With the rising demand for housing, urban land prices have been rising and the cost of homes. The paper explores how and why the interior design of the homes can be improved to relieve the housing demand in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable manner. A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine living patterns, area requirements, ecological footprints, energy consumption, purchasing patterns, and various pro-environmental behaviors of people who downsize to compact homes. Quantitative research explores sustainable material choices, durability, functionality, cost, and reusability of furniture. Besides addressing the need for smart and sustainable designed compact homes, a conceptual model is proposed, including options of ideal schematic layouts for homes in urban areas. In the conclusions, suggestions to improve space planning and suitable interior entities have been made to support the fact that compact homes are an eminently practical and sensible solution for the urban citizen.

Keywords: compact living, housing shortage, lifestyle, sustainable interior design

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39 Computer Countenanced Diagnosis of Skin Nodule Detection and Histogram Augmentation: Extracting System for Skin Cancer

Authors: S. Zith Dey Babu, S. Kour, S. Verma, C. Verma, V. Pathania, A. Agrawal, V. Chaudhary, A. Manoj Puthur, R. Goyal, A. Pal, T. Danti Dey, A. Kumar, K. Wadhwa, O. Ved

Abstract:

Background: Skin cancer is now is the buzzing button in the field of medical science. The cyst's pandemic is drastically calibrating the body and well-being of the global village. Methods: The extracted image of the skin tumor cannot be used in one way for diagnosis. The stored image contains anarchies like the center. This approach will locate the forepart of an extracted appearance of skin. Partitioning image models has been presented to sort out the disturbance in the picture. Results: After completing partitioning, feature extraction has been formed by using genetic algorithm and finally, classification can be performed between the trained and test data to evaluate a large scale of an image that helps the doctors for the right prediction. To bring the improvisation of the existing system, we have set our objectives with an analysis. The efficiency of the natural selection process and the enriching histogram is essential in that respect. To reduce the false-positive rate or output, GA is performed with its accuracy. Conclusions: The objective of this task is to bring improvisation of effectiveness. GA is accomplishing its task with perfection to bring down the invalid-positive rate or outcome. The paper's mergeable portion conflicts with the composition of deep learning and medical image processing, which provides superior accuracy. Proportional types of handling create the reusability without any errors.

Keywords: computer-aided system, detection, image segmentation, morphology

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