Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: Mina Roshani

37 Oxidation of Alcohols Types Using Nano-Graphene Oxide (NGO) as Heterogeneous Catalyst

Authors: Ali Gharib, Leila Vojdanifard, Nader Noroozi Pesyan, Mina Roshani

Abstract:

We describe an efficient method for oxidation of alcohols to related aldehydes and ketones by hydrogen peroxide as oxidizing agent, under reflux conditions. Nano-graphene oxide (NGO) as a heterogeneous catalyst was used and had their activity compared with other various catalysts. This catalyst was found to be an excellent catalyst for oxidation of alcohols. The effects of various parameters, including catalyst type, nature of the substituent in the alcohols and temperature, on the yield of the carboxylic acids were studied. Nano-graphene oxide was synthesized by the oxidation of graphite powders. This nanocatalyst was found to be highly efficient in this reaction and products were obtained in good to excellent yields. The recovered nano-catalyst was successfully reused for several runs without significant loss in its catalytic activity.

Keywords: Oxidation, Catalyst, nano-graphene oxide, aldehyde, ketone

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36 Thermal Performance and Environmental Assessment of Evaporative Cooling Systems: Case of Mina Valley, Saudi Arabia

Authors: H. Ibrahim, A. Alharbi, R. Boukhanouf, T. Habeebullah

Abstract:

This paper presents a detailed description of evaporative cooling systems used for space cooling in Mina Valley, Saudi Arabia. The thermal performance and environmental impact of the evaporative coolers were evaluated. It was found that the evaporative cooling systems used for space cooling in pilgrims’ accommodations and in the train stations could reduce energy consumption by as much as 75% and cut carbon dioxide emission by 78% compared to traditional vapour compression systems.

Keywords: Vapor Compression, Electricity Consumption, evaporative cooling, CO2 emission

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35 Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Strips

Authors: Mina Iskander, Mina Melad, Mourad Yasser, Waleed Abdel Rahim, Amr Mosa, Mohamed El Lahamy, Ezzeldin Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed Abou-Zeid

Abstract:

Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams in flexure using externally bonded composite laminate of high tensile strength is easy and of the minimum cost compared to traditional methods such as increasing the concrete section depth or reinforcement that requires formwork and curing which affect the structure usability. One of the main limitations of this technique is debonding of the externally bonded laminate, either by end delamination or by mid-span flexural crack-induced debonding. ACI 440.2-08 suggests that using side-bonded FRP laminate in the flexural strengthening of RC beams may serve to limit the extent and width of flexural cracks. Consequently, this technique may decrease the effect of flexural cracks on initiating the mid-span debonding; i.e. delays the flexural crack-induced debonding. Furthermore, bonding the FRP strips to the side of the beam may offer an attractive, practical solution when the soffit of this beam is not accessible. This paper presents an experimental programme designed to investigate the effect of using externally bonded CFRP laminate on the sides of reinforced concrete beams and compares the results to those of bonding the CFRP laminate to the soffit of the beams. In addition, the paper discusses the effect of using end anchorage by U-wrapping the CFRP strips at their end zones with CFRP sheets for beams strengthened with soffit-bonded and side-bonded CFRP strips. Thus, ten rectangular reinforced concrete beams were tested to failure in order to study the effect of changing the location of the externally bonded laminate on the flexural capacity and ductility of the strengthened beams. Pultruded CFRP strips were bonded to the soffit of the beams or their sides to check the possibility of limiting the flexural cracking in mid-span region, which is the main reason for mid-span debonding. Pre-peg CFRP sheets were used near the support as U-wrap for the beam to act as an end-anchorage for the externally bonded strips in order to delay/prevent the end delamination. Strength gains of 38% and 43% were recorded for the soffit-bonded and the side-bonded composite strips with end U-wrapped sheets, respectively. Furthermore, beams with end sheets applied as an end anchorage showed higher ductility than those without these sheets.

Keywords: flexural strengthening, externally bonded CFRP, side-bonded CFRP, CFRP laminates

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34 Effect of Swelling Pressure on Drug Release from Polyelectrolyte Micro-Hydrogel Particles

Authors: Javad Tavakoli, Mina Boroujerdi

Abstract:

Hydrogels are extensively studied as matrices for the controlled release of drugs. To evaluate the mobility of embedded molecules, these drug delivery systems are usually characterized by release studies. In this contribution, an electronic device for swelling pressure measurement during drug release from hydrogel network was developed. Also, poly acrylic acid micro particles were prepared for prolonged and sustained controlled acetaminophen release. Effect of swelling pressure on drug release from micro particles studied under different environment pH in order to predict release profile in gastro-intestine medium. Swelling ratio and swelling pressure were measured in different pH.

Keywords: drug delivery, Hydrogel, polyelectrolyte, swelling pressure

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33 The Different Learning Path Analysis of Students with Different Learning Attitudes and Styles in Arts Creation

Authors: Tracy Ho, Huann-Shyang Lin, Mina Lin

Abstract:

This study investigated the different learning path of students with different learning attitude and learning styles in Arts Creation. Based on direct instruction, guided-discovery learning, and discovery learning theories, a tablet app including the following three learning areas were developed for students: (1) replication and remix practice area, (2) guided creation area, and (3) free creation area. Thirty. students with different learning attitude and learning styles were invited to use this app. Students’ learning behaviors were categorized and defined. The results will provide both educators and researchers with insights that can form a useful foundation for designing different content and strategy with the application of new technologies in school teaching. It also sheds light on how an educational App can be designed to enhance Arts Creation.

Keywords: tablet, App, learning style, arts creation, learning attitude

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32 Preservation of Historical Zelkova carpinifolia Wooden Structure in Humid Weather

Authors: A. Mahshid Kakouei, B. Kumaran Suberamanin, C. Sabzali Musa Kahn, D. Mina Kakouei

Abstract:

This study aims to identify suitable conservative product for the conservation and restoration of historical Zelkova Carpinifolia wood located in humid weather. The superficial properties and hardness of 14 compounds treated with several consolidants were compared. The consolidants have been applied alone, with synthetic resin or with protein glues and natural resins by the brushing method. Colorimetric measurements, observation methods and hardness tests were conducted before and after aging to verify the possible changes of the treated wood and the consolidating resistance. The compound 1:2 of Butvar B98 and sandarac in 5% ethanol was found to be more effective, providing a suitable compound compared to the other consolidants tested.

Keywords: Hardness, Zelkova carpinifolia, consolidation, synthetic resin, penetration depth

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31 Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Farag, Mina Attari, S. Andrew Gadsden, Saeid R. Habibi

Abstract:

Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is, therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation. One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF), the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the results are compared.

Keywords: Battery Modeling, state of charge estimation, one-state hysteresis, filtering and estimation

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30 Characterization of Plunging Water Jets in Crossflows: Experimental and Numerical Studies

Authors: Mina Esmi Jahromi, Mehdi Khiadani

Abstract:

Plunging water jets discharging into turbulent crossflows are capable of providing efficient air water interfacial area, which is desirable for the process of mass transfer. Although several studies have been dedicated to the air entrainment by water jets impinging into stagnant water, very few studies have focused on the water jets in crossflows. This study investigates development of the two-phase flow as a result of the jet impingements into crossflows by means of image processing technique and CFD simulations. Investigations are also conducted on the oxygen transfer and a correlation is established between the aeration properties and the oxygenation capacity of water jets in crossflows. This study helps the optimal design and the effective operation of the industrial and the environmental equipment incorporating water jets in crossflows.

Keywords: Image Processing, CFD simulation, two-phase flow, air entrainment, jet in crossflow, oxygen transfer

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29 Study of Temperature and Precipitation Changes Based on the Scenarios (IPCC) in the Caspian Sea City: Case Study in Gillan Province

Authors: Leila Rashidian, Mina Rajabali

Abstract:

Industrialization has made progress and comfort for human beings in many aspects. It is not only achievement for the global environment but also factor for destruction and disruption of the Earth's climate. In this study, we used LARS.WG model and down scaling of general circulation climate model HADCM-3 daily precipitation amounts, minimum and maximum temperature and daily sunshine hours. These data are provided by the meteorological organization for Caspian Sea coastal station such as Anzali, Manjil, Rasht, Lahijan and Astara since their establishment is from 1982 until 2010. According to the IPCC scenarios, including series A1b, A2, B1, we tried to simulate data from 2010 to 2040. The rainfall pattern has changed. So we have a rainfall distribution inappropriate in different months.

Keywords: Climate Change, HADCM3, Lars.WG, Gillan province, climatic parameters, A2 scenario

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28 Relationship between Codependency, Perceived Social Support, and Depression in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Sajed Yaghoubnezhad, Mina Karimi, Seyede Marjan Modirkhazeni

Abstract:

The goal of this research was to study the relationship between codependency, perceived social support and depression in mothers of children with intellectual disability (ID). The correlational method was used in this study. The research population is comprised of mothers of educable children with ID in the age range of 25 to 61 years. From among this, a sample of 251 individuals, in the multistage cluster sampling method, was selected from educational districts in Tehran, who responded to the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (SFCDS), the Social Support Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The findings of this study indicate that among mothers of children with ID depression has a positive and significant correlation with codependency (P<0.01, r=0.4) and a negative and significant correlation with the total score of social support (P<0.01, r=-0.34). Moreover, the results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that codependency is allocated a higher variance than social support in explaining depression (R2=0.023).

Keywords: Depression, Social Support, codependency, mothers of children with ID

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27 A Comparative Density Functional Theory Study of Hydrocarbon Combustion on Metal Surfaces

Authors: Abas Mohsenzadeh, Mina Arya, Kim Bolton

Abstract:

Catalytic combustion of hydrocarbons is an important technology developed to produce energy with minimum pollutant formation. The catalyst plays a key role in this process which operates at lower temperatures compared to conventional flame combustion. The energetics of the direct combustion of hydrocarbons (CH → C + H) on a series of metal surfaces including Ag, Au, Al, Cu, Rh, Pt, Pd, Ni, Fe and Co were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) and transition state scaling (TSS) correlations were proposed based on DFT calculations on the Ag, Au, Al, Cu, Rh, Pt and Pd surfaces. These correlations were then used to estimate the energetics on Fe, Ni and Co surfaces. Results showed that the estimated reaction and activation energies by BEP and TSS correlations on Fe, Ni and Co surfaces are in an excellent agreement with those obtained by DFT calculations. Therefore these correlations can be efficiently used to predict energetics of similar reactions on these surfaces without doing computationally costly transition state calculations. It was found that the activation barrier for CH dissociation follows the order Ag ˃ Au ˃ Al ˃ Cu ˃ Pt ˃ Pd ˃ Ni > Co > Rh > Fe. Also, BEP (with R2 value of 0.96) and TSS correlations (with R2 value of 0.99) support the results.

Keywords: dft, Metal Surfaces, TSS, BEP, hydrocarbon combustion

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26 An Experimental Investigation of Air Entrainment Due to Water Jets in Crossflows

Authors: Mina Esmi Jahromi, Mehdi Khiadani

Abstract:

Vertical water jets discharging into free surface turbulent cross flows result in the ingression of a large amount of air in the body of water and form a region of two-phase air-water flow with a considerable interfacial area. This research presents an experimental study of the two-phase bubbly flow using image processing technique. The air ingression and the trajectories of bubble swarms under different experimental conditions are evaluated. The rate of air entrainment and the bubble characteristics such as penetration depth, and dispersion pattern were found to be affected by the most influential parameters of water jet and cross flow including water jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio, water jet falling height, and cross flow depth. This research improves understanding of the underwater flow structure due to the water jet impingement in crossflow and advances the practical applications of water jets such as artificial aeration, circulation, and mixing where crossflow is present.

Keywords: Image Processing, two-phase flow, air entrainment, jet in cross flow

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25 Designing Elevations by Photocatalysis of Precast Concrete Materials, in Reducing Energy Consumption of Buildings: Case Study of Tabriz

Authors: Mahsa Faramarzi Asli, Mina Sarabi

Abstract:

The important issues that are addressed in most advanced industrial countries in recent decades, discussion of minimizing heat losses through the buildings. And the most influential parameters in the calculation of building energy consumption, is heat exchange, which takes place between the interior and outer space. One of the solutions to reduce heat loss is using materials with low thermal conductivity. The purpose of this article, is the effect of using some frontages with nano-concrete photo catalytic precast materials for reducing energy consumption in buildings. For this purpose, estimating the energy dissipation through the facade built with nano-concrete photo catalytic precast materials on a sample building in Tabriz city by BCS 19 software ( topic 19 simulation) is done and the results demonstrate reduce heat loss through the facade nano- concrete.

Keywords: Nano Materials, Stability, optimize energy consumption, themal

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24 Object Tracking in Motion Blurred Images with Adaptive Mean Shift and Wavelet Feature

Authors: Iman Iraei, Mina Sharifi

Abstract:

A method for object tracking in motion blurred images is proposed in this article. This paper shows that object tracking could be improved with this approach. We use mean shift algorithm to track different objects as a main tracker. But, the problem is that mean shift could not track the selected object accurately in blurred scenes. So, for better tracking result, and increasing the accuracy of tracking, wavelet transform is used. We use a feature named as blur extent, which could help us to get better results in tracking. For calculating of this feature, we should use Harr wavelet. We can look at this matter from two different angles which lead to determine whether an image is blurred or not and to what extent an image is blur. In fact, this feature left an impact on the covariance matrix of mean shift algorithm and cause to better performance of tracking. This method has been concentrated mostly on motion blur parameter. transform. The results reveal the ability of our method in order to reach more accurately tracking.

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, object tracking, mean shift, blur extent, motion blur

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23 Volatile Composition of Sucuks: A Traditional Dry-Fermented Sausage Affected by Meat and Fat Types

Authors: Mina Kargozari, Isabel Revilla Martin, Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina, Antoni Szumny

Abstract:

The profiles of volatile compounds of differently formulated sausages including CH (camel meat-hump), CB (camel meat-beef fat), BH (beef-hump) and BB (beef-beef fat) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using a solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) in order to investigate the role of meat and fat type in aroma compounds release. A total of 47 compounds identified, were consisted of 3 acids, 1 ester, 3 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 5 sulphur compounds, and 27 terpenes. The significant differences were observed in the aroma compounds among four batches. The CH sucuk samples containing the highest (p<0.05) fat amount among the others showed higher amounts of volatiles in consequence. The sausages prepared with hump showed higher amounts of aldehydes and lower amounts of terpenes compared to the sausages made with beef fat (p<0.05). It seemed that meat type had an inconsiderable effect on the volatile profile of the sausages.

Keywords: camel meat, aromatic compounds, hump, SPME

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22 Automatic Detection of Proliferative Cells in Immunohistochemically Images of Meningioma Using Fuzzy C-Means Clustering and HSV Color Space

Authors: Vahid Anari, Mina Bakhshi

Abstract:

Visual search and identification of immunohistochemically stained tissue of meningioma was performed manually in pathologic laboratories to detect and diagnose the cancers type of meningioma. This task is very tedious and time-consuming. Moreover, because of cell's complex nature, it still remains a challenging task to segment cells from its background and analyze them automatically. In this paper, we develop and test a computerized scheme that can automatically identify cells in microscopic images of meningioma and classify them into positive (proliferative) and negative (normal) cells. Dataset including 150 images are used to test the scheme. The scheme uses Fuzzy C-means algorithm as a color clustering method based on perceptually uniform hue, saturation, value (HSV) color space. Since the cells are distinguishable by the human eye, the accuracy and stability of the algorithm are quantitatively compared through application to a wide variety of real images.

Keywords: color segmentation, fuzzy c-means, thresholding, immunohistochemistry, meningioma, positive cell, HSV color space

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21 Development of a Testing Rig for a Cold Formed-Hot Rolled Steel Hybrid Wall Panel System

Authors: Mina Mortazavi, Pezhman Sharafi, Hamid Ronagh

Abstract:

The new concept of a cold formed-hot rolled hybrid steel wall panel system is introduced to overcome the deficiency in lateral load resisting capacity of cold-formed steel structures. The hybrid system is composed of a cold-formed steel part laterally connected to hot rolled part. The hot rolled steel part is responsible for carrying the whole lateral load; while the cold formed steel part is only required to transfer the lateral load to the hot rolled part without any local failure. The vertical load is beared by both hot rolled, and cold formed steel part, proportionally. In order to investigate the lateral performance of the proposed system, it should be tested under simultaneous lateral and vertical load. The main concern is to deliver the loads to each part during the test to simulate the real load distribution in the structure. In this paper, a detailed description of the proposed wall panel system and the designed testing rig is provided.

Keywords: Hybrid System, cold-formed steel, wall panel system, testing rig design

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20 Application of Reception Theory to Analyze the Translation as a Continuous Reception

Authors: Mina Darabi Amin

Abstract:

In 1972, Hans Robert Jauss introduced the Reception Theory a version of Reader-response criticism, that suggests the literary critics to re-examine the relationship between the author, the work and the reader. The revealing of these relationships has shown that, besides the creation, the reception and the reading of the text have different levels which exempt it from a continuous reference to the meaning intended by the artist and could lead to multiplicity of possible interpretations according to the ‘Horizon of Expectations’. This theory could be associated with another intellectual process called ‘translation’, a process that is always confronted by different levels of readers in the target language and different levels of reception by these readers. By adopting the perspective of Reception theory in translation, we could ignore a particular kind of translation and consider the initiation to a literary text, its translation and its reception as a continuous process. Just like the creation of the text, the translation and its reception, are not made once and for all; they are confronted with different levels of reception and interpretation which are made and remade endlessly. After having known and crossing the first levels, the Horizons of Expectation could be extended and the reader could be initiated to the higher levels. On the other hand, we could say that the faithful and free translation are not opposed to each other, but depending on the type of reception by the readers and in a particular moment, the existence of both is necessary. In fact, it is the level of reception in readers and their Horizon of Expectations that determine the degree of fidelity and freedom of translation.

Keywords: Reading, Reception Theory, literary translation, reader, horizons of expectation

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19 Isolation of Different Brachyspira spp. from Laying Hens in North-East of Iran

Authors: Abdollah Jamshidi, Jamshid Razmyar, Ahdieh Alijani, Mina Zarrabi

Abstract:

Avian intestinal spirochetosis (AIS) is caused by spiral-shaped Gram-negative Brachyspira spp. in poultry and is known as a cause of diarrhea, low egg production and increased the occurrence of dirty eggs in layer hens. In this study the presence of some Brachyspira spp. was investigated in laying hens. A total of 100 cloacal swab samples were individually collected from 20 laying hen flocks showing fecal egg staining in northeastern Iran. By culture and morphologic examination, 41 samples (41%) from 20 flocks were positive but by using genus–specific PCR only 37 (37%) samples were confirmed as Brachyspira spp. Using species-specific primers, single colonization was identified in 18 samples associated with B. pilosicoli (48.6%) while single colonization with B. intermedia was found in only two samples (5.4%). Simultaneous colonization by B. intermedia and B. murdochii was detected in 3 samples (8.1%). B. pilosicoli was the most prevalent species in concurrent colonization in 11 cases (29.7%). Finally, co-colonization by B. intermedia and B. innocens was identified in 3 samples (8.1%). The results of this study show the colonization of different species of Brachyspira with the dominance of B. pilosicoli in layer hens. In simultaneous colonization with pathogenic and non-pathogenic species the symptoms of intestinal spirochetosis were reduced, suggesting a competitive role in preventing and reducing the colonization of pathogenic species.

Keywords: PCR, laying hen, intestinal spirochetosis, Brachyspira

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18 Identify the Factors Affecting Employment and Prioritize in the Economic Sector Jobs of Increased Employment MADM approach of using SAW and TOPSIS and POSET: Ministry of Cooperatives, Do Varamin City Social Welfare

Authors: Mina Rahmani Pour

Abstract:

Negative consequences of unemployment are: increasing age at marriage, addiction, depression, drug trafficking, divorce, immigration, elite, frustration, delinquency, theft, murder, etc., has led to addressing the issue of employment by economic planners, public authorities, chief executive economic conditions in different countries and different time is important. All countries are faced with the problem of unemployment. By identifying the influential factors of occupational employment and employing strengths in the basic steps can be taken to reduce unemployment. In this study, the most significant factors affecting employment has identified 12 variables based on interviews conducted Choose Vtasyrafzaysh engaged in three main business is discussed. DRGAM next question the 8 expert ministry to respond to it is distributed and for weight Horns AZFN Shannon entropy and the ranking criteria of the (SAW, TOPSIS) used. According to the results of the above methods are not compatible with each other, to reach a general consensus on the rating criteria of the technique of integrating (POSET) involving average, Borda, copeland is used. Ultimately, there is no difference between the employments in the economic sector jobs of increased employment.

Keywords: Employment, effective techniques, SAW, TOPSIS

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17 Free Shape Optimisation of Cold Formed Steel Sections

Authors: Mina Mortazavi, Pezhman Sharafi

Abstract:

Cold-formed steel sections are popular construction materials as structural or non-structural elements. The objective of this paper is to propose an optimisation method for open cross sections targeting the maximum nominal axial strength. The cross sections considered in the optimisation process should all meet a determined critical global buckling load to be considered as a candidate for optimisation process. The maximum dimensions of the cross section are fixed and limited into a predefined rectangular area. The optimisation process is repeated for different available coil thicknesses of 1 mm, 2.5 mm and 3 mm to determine the optimum thickness according to the cross section buckling behaviour. A simple-simple boundary is assumed as end conditions. The number of folds is limited to 20 folds to prevent extra complicated sections. The global buckling load is considered as Euler load and is determined according to the moment of inertia of the cross-section with a constant length. The critical buckling loads are obtained using Finite Strip Method. The results of the optimisation analysis are provided, and the optimum cross-section within the considered range is determined.

Keywords: buckling, Finite Strip Method, Cold Formed Steel, shape optimisation

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16 EEG Analysis of Brain Dynamics in Children with Language Disorders

Authors: Hamed Alizadeh Dashagholi, Hossein Yousefi-Banaem, Mina Naeimi

Abstract:

Current study established for EEG signal analysis in patients with language disorder. Language disorder can be defined as meaningful delay in the use or understanding of spoken or written language. The disorder can include the content or meaning of language, its form, or its use. Here we applied Z-score, power spectrum, and coherence methods to discriminate the language disorder data from healthy ones. Power spectrum of each channel in alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and theta frequency bands was measured. In addition, intra hemispheric Z-score obtained by scoring algorithm. Obtained results showed high Z-score and power spectrum in posterior regions. Therefore, we can conclude that peoples with language disorder have high brain activity in frontal region of brain in comparison with healthy peoples. Results showed that high coherence correlates with irregularities in the ERP and is often found during complex task, whereas low coherence is often found in pathological conditions. The results of the Z-score analysis of the brain dynamics showed higher Z-score peak frequency in delta, theta and beta sub bands of Language Disorder patients. In this analysis there were activity signs in both hemispheres and the left-dominant hemisphere was more active than the right.

Keywords: Electroencephalography, eeg, Z-score, power spectrum, coherence methods, language disorder

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15 Music for Peace, a Model for Socialization

Authors: Mina Fenercioglu

Abstract:

This study discusses a Turkish music education model similar to El Sistema. The Music for Peace (Baris icin Muzik) program, founded in 2005 by an idealist humanitarian in Istanbul, started as a pilot project with accordion and then with flute in ensembles at the Ulubatlı Hasan Primary School where mostly underprivileged children attend. The program gives complimentary music lessons particularly to deprived children, who at the beginning were prone to crime. With music education, the attitudes of the children turn to a positive aspect. The aim of this initiative provides social and cultural awareness, which serves the same mission as the world known El Sistema. In 2009, the Music for Peace project received Deutsche Bank Urban Age Award, which is a prize presented to enterprises that improve the quality of life in urban environment. Since 2010, the Music for Peace continues the symphonic music education at its own place. In 2011, Music for Peace gained foundation status, and started to accept donations as musical instruments for children who attend the courses. On July 2013, IKSV (Istanbul Culture and Arts Foundation) became the institutional partner of Music for Peace Foundation and in June 2014, the foundation signed up to join El Sistema’s global program. Now in 2015, the foundation has three ensembles: the Music for Peace Orchestra, which consists of two orchestras practicing and performing in different levels; the Music for Peace Chorus, which has joined Istanbul International Polyphonic Choruses Festival; and the recently established Music for Peace Brass Ensemble.

Keywords: Music Education, socialization, El Sistema, music for peace

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14 Nutritional Properties and Lipid Oxidation Assessments of Sucuks Prepared with Camel (Camelus Dromedarius) Meat and Hump

Authors: Mina Kargozari, Isabel Revilla Martin, Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina

Abstract:

Different formulations of Turkish fermented sausages (sucuks) prepared with camel meat-hump (CH), camel meat-beef fat (CB), beef-hump (BH) and beef-beef fat (BB), were characterized. The sausages were analytically compared to determine differences in proximate composition and total cholesterol content (TCC), quality parameters such as fatty acids profile and fat quality characteristics, and lipid oxidation parameters including peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and resulted carbonyl compounds. The PUFAs/SFAs ratio was higher in CB and BB samples than CH and BH (p<0.05). The higher calculated atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes (AI and TI) were obtained from the samples made with hump (p< 0.05) as a result of high amounts of their SFAs. The CH sausages contained high amount of total fat (p<0.05) among all samples. The CB sucuks exhibited the highest protein content and the lowest TCC and rancidity at the end of ripening (p<0.05). The TBARS results showed that beef fat samples were more susceptible to lipid oxidation. Moreover, no significant difference (p<0.05) was observed for the values of short aldehydes among the sucuk samples excepting nonanal. This study demonstrated that supplementing camel meat for the production of dry-fermented sausage resulted in high quality products with good functional and nutritional characteristics.

Keywords: quality properties, SPME, fermented sausages, total cholesterol content

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13 Recreating Old Gardens, a Dynamic and Sustainable Design Pattern for Urban Green Spaces, Case Study: Persian Garden

Authors: Dariush Sattarzadeh, Mina Sarabi, Mitra Asadollahi Oula

Abstract:

In the old days, gardens reflect the identity and culture of each country. Persian garden in urban planning and architecture has a high position and it is a kind of paradise in Iranian opinion. But nowadays, the gardens were replaced with parks and urban open spaces. On the other hand, due to the industrial development of cities and increasing air pollution in urban environments, living in this spaces make problem for people. And improving ecological conditions will be felt more than ever. The purposes of this study are identification and reproduction of Persian garden pattern and adaptation of it with sustainability features in green spaces in contemporary cities and developing meaningful green spaces instead of designing aimless spaces in urban environment. The research method in this article is analytical and descriptive. Studying and collecting information about Iranian garden pattern is referring to library documents, articles and analysis case studies. The result reveals that Persian garden was the main factor the bond between man and nature. But in the last century, this relationship is in trouble. It has a significant impact in reducing the adverse effects of urban air pollution, noise and etc as well. Nowadays, recreated pattern of Iranian gardens in urban green spaces not only keep Iranian identity for future generations but also, using the principles of sustainability can play an important role in sustainable development and quality space of a city.

Keywords: Urban Sustainability, Nature, Persian garden, green open spaces

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12 Characterization of the Intestinal Microbiota: A Signature in Fecal Samples from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Authors: Mina Hojat Ansari, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Mohammad Reza Fattahi, Ali Reza Safarpour

Abstract:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common bowel disorder which is usually diagnosed through the abdominal pain, fecal irregularities and bloating. Alteration in the intestinal microbial composition is implicating to inflammatory and functional bowel disorders which is recently also noted as an IBS feature. Owing to the potential importance of microbiota implication in both efficiencies of the treatment and prevention of the diseases, we examined the association between the intestinal microbiota and different bowel patterns in a cohort of subjects with IBS and healthy controls. Fresh fecal samples were collected from a total of 50 subjects, 30 of whom met the Rome IV criteria for IBS and 20 Healthy control. Total DNA was extracted and library preparation was conducted following the standard protocol for small whole genome sequencing. The pooled libraries sequenced on an Illumina Nextseq platform with a 2 × 150 paired-end read length and obtained sequences were analyzed using several bioinformatics programs. The majority of sequences obtained in the current study assigned to bacteria. However, our finding highlighted the significant microbial taxa variation among the studied groups. The result, therefore, suggests a significant association of the microbiota with symptoms and bowel characteristics in patients with IBS. These alterations in fecal microbiota could be exploited as a biomarker for IBS or its subtypes and suggest the modification of the microbiota might be integrated into prevention and treatment strategies for IBS.

Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal microbiota, Illumina, small whole genome sequencing, fecal samples

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11 Study of Pseudomonas as Biofertiliser in Salt-Affected Soils of the Northwestern Algeria: Solubilisation of Calcium Phosphate and Growth Promoting of Broad Bean (Vcia faba)

Authors: H. A. Reguieg Yssaad, A. Djoudi, R. Djibaou

Abstract:

Our study focuses on the study of a bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas solubilizing tricalcium phosphate. They were isolated from rhizosphere of a variety of broad bean grown in salt-affected soils (electrical conductivity between 4 and 8 mmhos/cm) of the irrigated perimeter of Mina in northwestern Algeria. Isolates which have advantageous results in the calcium phosphate solubilization index test were subjected to identification using API20 then used to re-inoculate the same soil in pots experimentation to assess the effects of inoculation on the growth of the broad bean (Vicia faba). Based on the results obtained from the in-vitro tests, two isolates P5 and P8 showed a significant effect on the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate with an index I estimated at 314% and 283% sequentially. According to the results of in-vivo tests, the inoculation of the soil with P5 and P8 were significantly and positively influencing the growth in biometric parameters of the broad bean. Inoculation with strain P5 has promoted the growth of the broad bean in stem height, stem fresh weight and stem dry weight of 108.59%, 115.28%, 104.33%, respectively. Inoculation with strain P8 has fostered the growth of the broad bean stem fresh weight of 112.47%. The effect of Pseudomonas on the development of Vicia faba is considered as an interesting process by which PGPR can increase biological production and crop protection.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, Vicia faba, promoting of plant growth, solubilization tricalcium phosphate

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10 Effect of Green Roofs to Prevent the Dissipation of Energy in Mountainous Areas

Authors: Mina Ganji Morad, Maziar Azadisoleimanieh, Sina Ganji Morad

Abstract:

A green roof is formed by green plants alive and has many positive impacts in the regional climatic, as well as indoor. Green roof system to prevent solar radiation plays a role in the cooling space. The cooling is done by reducing thermal fluctuations on the exterior of the roof and by increasing the roof heat capacity which cause to keep the space under the roof cool in the summer and heating rate increases during the winter. A roof garden is one of the recommended ways to reduce energy consumption in large cities. Despite the scale of the city green roofs have effective functions, such as beautiful view of city and decontaminating the urban landscape and reduce mental stress, and in an exchange of energy and heat from outside to inside spaces. This article is based on a review of 20 articles and 10 books and valid survey results on the positive effects of green roofs to prevent energy waste in the building. According to these publications, three of the conventional roof, green roof typical and green roof with certain administrative details (layers of glass) and the use of resistant plants and shrubs have been analyzed and compared their heat transfer. The results of these studies showed that one of the best green roof systems for mountainous climate is tree and shrub system that in addition to being resistant to climate change in mountainous regions, will benefit from the other advantages of green roof. Due to the severity of climate change in mountainous areas it is essential to prevent the waste of buildings heating and cooling energy. Proper climate design can greatly help to reduce energy.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Sustainable Architecture, green roof, reducing energy consumption, mountainous areas

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9 Exploring the Determinants of Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigerian Security Systems and Economy

Authors: Abara Onu, Augustine Mina Ephraim, Emmanuel Teidi

Abstract:

Terrorism has been a major challenge and is so dare to the Nigerian government in recent times. The actions and activities of the Islamic sect known as Boko Haram had led to enormous loss of lives and properties in the country, mostly the Northern part of Nigeria. Some of these activities entails bombings, suicide attacks, intimidations, sporadic gunfire of the unarmed, blameless and innocent Nigerians, burning of police stations and churches, kidnappings, raping of school girls and women. Nigeria has also been included amongst one of the terrorist countries of the world. This has serious implications for the development of Nigerian economy. Although, Nigeria had made several worried hard work to deal with these challenges masqueraded by terrorism and insecurity in the country but the rate of insurgency and insecurity is still worrisome. The study looks at exploring the determinants of Boko Haram terrorism in Nigerian security systems and economy. Data used for the study work was from questionnaire administered, using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method to analyse the data. The result shows that Ideology and funding are significant basic factors that propelled the Boko Haram group in Nigeria. The Boko Haram disaster poses a significant threat to Nigeria’s economy and the military is the best option and solution in tackling the Boko Haram menace in Nigeria. The work x-rayed the following recommendations; government should declare war on terrorism and as well seek support and cooperation from international communities who in time or the other might have faced with this kind ugly experience and challenge and were able to tackle it. Nigerian Military needs to be more empowered with high dangerous weapons to combat the insurgency as well as beef up security across the Country to curb the threats.

Keywords: Economy, Terrorism, Nigeria, Boko Haram

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8 Effect of Stress Relief of the Footbath Using Bio-Marker in Japan

Authors: Harumi Katayama, Mina Suzuki, Taeko Muramatsu, Yui Shimogawa, Yoshimi Mizushima, Mitsuo Hiramatsu, Kimitsugu Nakamura, Takeshi Suzue

Abstract:

Purpose: There are very often footbaths in the hot-spring area as culture from old days in Japan. This culture moderately supported mental and physical health among people. In Japanese hospitals, nurses provide footbath for severe patients to mental comfortable. However, there are only a few evidences effect of footbath for mental comfortable. In this presentation, we show the effect of stress relief of the footbath using biomarker among 35 college students in volunteer. Methods: The experiment was designed in two groups of the footbath group and the simple relaxation group randomly. As mental load, Kraepelin test was given to the students beforehand. Ultra-weak chemiluminescence (UCL) in saliva and self-administered liner scale measurable emotional state were measured on four times concurrently; there is before and after the mental load, after the stress relief, and 30 minutes after the stress relief. The scale that measured emotional state was consisted of 7 factors; there is excitement, relaxation, vigorous, fatigue, tension, calm, and sleepiness with 22 items. ANOVA was calculated effect of the footbath for stress relief. Results: The level of UCL (photons/100sec) was significantly increased in response on both groups after mental load. After the two types of stress relief, UCL (photons/100sec) of footbath group was significantly decreased compared to simple relaxation group. Score of sleepiness and relaxation were significantly increased after the stress relief in the footbath group than the simple relaxation group. However, score of excitement, vigorous, tension, and calm were exhibit the same degree of decrease after the stress relief on both group. Conclusion: It was suggested that salivary UCL may be a sensitive biomarker for mild stress relief as nursing care. In the future, we will measure using UCL to evaluate as stress relief for inpatients, outpatients, or general public as the subjects.

Keywords: Japan, stress relief, bio-marker, footbath

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