Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 350

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Health and Medical Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

350 The Scope And Effectiveness Of Interactive Voice Response Technologies In Post-Operative Care

Authors: Zanib Nafees, Amir Razaghizad, Ibtisam Mahmoud, Abhinav Sharma, Renzo Cecere


More than one million surgeries are performed each year in Canada, resulting in more than 100,000 associated serious adverse events (SAEs) per year. These are defined as unintended injuries or complications that adversely affect the well-being of patients. In recent years, there has been a proliferation of digital health interventions that have the potential to assist, monitor, and educate patients—facilitating self-care following post-operative discharge. Among digital health, interventions are interactive-voice response technologies (IVRs), which have been shown to be highly effective in certain medical settings. Although numerous IVR-based interventions have been developed, their effectiveness and utility remain unclear, notably in post-operative settings. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic or scoping reviews have evaluated this topic to date. Thus, the objective of this scoping review protocol is to systematically map and explore the literature and evidence describing and examining IVR tools, implementation, evaluation, outcome, and experience for post-operative patients. The focus will be primarily on the evaluation of baseline performance status, clinical assessment, treatment outcomes, and patient management, including self-management and self-monitoring. The objective of this scoping review is to assess the extent of the literature to direct future research efforts by identifying gaps and limitations in the literature and to highlight relevant determinants of positive outcomes in the emerging field of IVR monitoring for health outcomes in post-operative patients.

Keywords: digital healthcare technologies, post-surgery, interactive voice technology, interactive voice response

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349 Servant Leadership for Elder Care in St. Camillus Health Systems, USA

Authors: Anthoni Jeorge


Throughout the history of the world, servant leadership has been researched, and favourable results such as individual, team, and organizational have been linked to the construct. This research paper designates St. Camillus de Lellis, a practitioner of servant leadership and founder of the Ministers of the Sick as a servant leader in his approach to care for the sick. Service is the visible face of his servant leadership. First of all, despite many challenges, St. Camillus de Lellis practiced leadership by the example of compassionate service to the sick. Second, he made service to the sick the highest priority of his life. Third, Camillus displayed servant leadership such that his manner of leadership gave birth to a New School of Service to the Sick. The paper identifies the distinctive dimensions and essential elements which characterized his service-centered leadership. Furthermore, discuss the six major characteristics of a servant leader as set forth by St. Camillus’s life example. The research illustrates the transformational power of servant leadership infield healthcare in general and, in doing so, provides servant leadership seekers ways servant leadership can transform elder care in one’s own field (St. Camillus Health Systems). Thus, it ascertains that servant leadership is best-fit for humanized elder care. Supported by the review of literature, the paper ascertains that Camillus, by identifying himself with the sick, gained deeper insights concerning the pain and suffering of the population. Uniquely drawn from his true grit, Camillus’ service-centered leadership is value-based, people-oriented, and compassion-filled. His way of service to the sick is the prolongation of gestures of mercy and compassion. It is hoped that the results of this study will help health care workers and servant leadership practitioners to humanize elder care and cultivate servant leadership attitude in their health care services to the sick. By incorporating such service-oriented elements into their leadership orientation, health care workers will be true servant leaders of the sick.

Keywords: leadership, service, healthcare, compassion

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348 An Educational Electronic Health Record with a Configurable User Interface

Authors: Floriane Shala, Evangeline Wagner, Yichun Zhao


Background: Proper educational training and support are proven to be major components of EHR (Electronic Health Record) implementation and use. However, the majority of health providers are not sufficiently trained in EHR use, leading to adverse events, errors, and decreased quality of care. In response to this, students studying Health Information Science, Public Health, Nursing, and Medicine should all gain a thorough understanding of EHR use at different levels for different purposes. The design of a usable and safe EHR system that accommodates the needs and workflows of different users, user groups, and disciplines is required for EHR learning to be efficient and effective. Objectives: This project builds several artifacts which seek to address both the educational and usability aspects of an educational EHR. The artifacts proposed are models for and examples of such an EHR with a configurable UI to be learned by students who need a background in EHR use during their degrees. Methods: Review literature and gather professional opinions from domain experts on usability, the use of workflow patterns, UI configurability and design, and the educational aspect of EHR use. Conduct interviews in a semi-casual virtual setting with open discussion in order to gain a deeper understanding of the principal aspects of EHR use in educational settings. Select a specific task and user group to illustrate how the proposed solution will function based on the current research. Develop three artifacts based on the available research, professional opinions, and prior knowledge of the topic. The artifacts capture the user task and user’s interactions with the EHR for learning. The first generic model provides a general understanding of the EHR system process. The second model is a specific example of performing the task of MRI ordering with a configurable UI. The third artifact includes UI mock-ups showcasing the models in a practical and visual way. Significance: Due to the lack of educational EHRs, medical professionals do not receive sufficient EHR training. Implementing an educational EHR with a usable and configurable interface to suit the needs of different user groups and disciplines will help facilitate EHR learning and training and ultimately improve the quality of patient care.

Keywords: education, EHR, usability, configurable

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347 Spatial Analysis of Survival Pattern and Treatment Outcomes of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) Patients in Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Akinsola Oluwatosin, Udofia Samuel, Odofin Mayowa


The study is aimed at assessing the Geographic Information System (GIS)-based spatial analysis of Survival Pattern and Treatment Outcomes of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases for Lagos, Nigeria, with an objective to inform priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) develops due to problems such as irregular drug supply, poor drug quality, inappropriate prescription, and poor adherence to treatment. The shapefile(s) for this study were already georeferenced to Minna datum. The patient’s information was acquired on MS Excel and later converted to . CSV file for easy processing to ArcMap from various hospitals. To superimpose the patient’s information the spatial data, the addresses was geocoded to generate the longitude and latitude of the patients. The database was used for the SQL query to the various pattern of the treatment. To show the pattern of disease spread, spatial autocorrelation analysis was used. The result was displayed in a graphical format showing the areas of dispersing, random and clustered of patients in the study area. Hot and cold spot analysis was analyzed to show high-density areas. The distance between these patients and the closest health facility was examined using the buffer analysis. The result shows that 22% of the points were successfully matched, while 15% were tied. However, the result table shows that a greater percentage of it was unmatched; this is evident in the fact that most of the streets within the State are unnamed, and then again, most of the patients are likely to supply the wrong addresses. MDR-TB patients of all age groups are concentrated within Lagos-Mainland, Shomolu, Mushin, Surulere, Oshodi-Isolo, and Ifelodun LGAs. MDR-TB patients between the age group of 30-47 years had the highest number and were identified to be about 184 in number. The outcome of patients on ART treatment revealed that a high number of patients (300) were not ART treatment while a paltry 45 patients were on ART treatment. The result shows the Z-score of the distribution is greater than 1 (>2.58), which means that the distribution is highly clustered at a significance level of 0.01.

Keywords: tuberculosis, patients, treatment, GIS, MDR-TB

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346 High-Resolution Computed Tomography Imaging Features during Pandemic 'COVID-19'

Authors: Sahar Heidary, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan


By the development of new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has been one of the main investigative implements. To realize timely and truthful diagnostics, defining the radiological features of the infection is of excessive value. The purpose of this impression was to consider the imaging demonstrations of early-stage coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to run an imaging base for a primary finding of supposed cases and stratified interference. The right prophetic rate of HRCT was 85%, sensitivity was 73% for all patients. Total accuracy was 68%. There was no important change in these values for symptomatic and asymptomatic persons. These consequences were besides free of the period of X-ray from the beginning of signs or interaction. Therefore, we suggest that HRCT is a brilliant attachment for early identification of COVID-19 pneumonia in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in adding to the role of predictive gauge for COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients experienced non-contrast HRCT chest checkups and images were restored in a thin 1.25 mm lung window. Images were estimated for the existence of lung scratches & a CT severity notch was allocated separately for each patient based on the number of lung lobes convoluted.

Keywords: COVID-19, radiology, respiratory diseases, HRCT

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345 The Digitalization of Occupational Health and Safety Training: A Fourth Industrial Revolution Perspective

Authors: Deonie Botha


Digital transformation and the digitization of occupational health and safety training have grown exponentially due to a variety of contributing factors. The literature suggests that digitalization has numerous benefits but also has associated challenges. The aim of the paper is to develop an understanding of both the perceived benefits and challenges of digitalization in an occupational health and safety context in an effort to design and develop e-learning interventions that will optimize the benefits of digitalization and address the associated challenges. The paper proposes, deliberate and tests the design principles of an e-learning intervention to ensure alignment with the requirements of a digitally transformed environment. The results of the research are based on a literature review regarding the requirements and effect of the Fourth Industrial Revolution on learning and e-learning in particular. The findings of the literature review are enhanced with empirical research in the form of a case study conducted in an organization that designs and develops e-learning content in the occupational health and safety industry. The primary findings of the research indicated that: (i) The requirements of learners and organizations in respect of e-learning are different than previously (i.e., a pre-Fourth Industrial Revolution related work setting). (ii) The design principles of an e-learning intervention need to be aligned with the entire value chain of the organization. (iii) Digital twins support and enhance the design and development of e-learning. (iv)Learning should incorporate a multitude of sensory experiences and should not only be based on visual stimulation. (v) Data that are generated as a result of e-learning interventions should be incorporated into big data streams to be analyzed and to become actionable. It is therefore concluded that there is general consensus on the requirements that e-learning interventions need to adhere to in a digitally transformed occupational health and safety work environment. The challenge remains for organizations to incorporate data generated as a result of e-learning interventions into the digital ecosystem of the organization.

Keywords: digitalization, training, fourth industrial revolution, big data

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344 A Comparative Study on the Positive and Negative of Electronic Word-of-Mouth on the SERVQUAL Scale-Take A Certain Armed Forces General Hospital in Taiwan As An Example

Authors: Po-Chun Lee, Li-Lin Liang, Ching-Yuan Huang


Purpose: Research on electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM)& online review has been widely used in service industry management research in recent years. The SERVQUAL scale is the most commonly used method to measure service quality. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to combine electronic word of mouth & online review with the SERVQUAL scale. To explore the comparative study of positive and negative electronic word-of-mouth reviews of a certain armed force general hospital in Taiwan. Data sources: This research obtained online word-of-mouth comment data on google maps from a military hospital in Taiwan in the past ten years through Internet data mining technology. Research methods: This study uses the semantic content analysis method to classify word-of-mouth reviews according to the revised PZB SERVQUAL scale. Then carry out statistical analysis. Results of data synthesis: The results of this study disclosed that the negative reviews of this military hospital in Taiwan have been increasing year by year. Under the COVID-19 epidemic, positive word-of-mouth has a downward trend. Among the five determiners of SERVQUAL of PZB, positive word-of-mouth reviews performed best in “Assurance,” with a positive review rate of 58.89%, Followed by 43.33% of “Responsiveness.” In negative word-of-mouth reviews, “Assurance” performed the worst, with a positive rate of 70.99%, followed by responsive 29.01%. Conclusions: The important conclusions of this study disclosed that the total number of electronic word-of-mouth reviews of the military hospital has revealed positive growth in recent years, and the positive word-of-mouth growth has revealed negative growth after the epidemic of COVID-19, while the negative word-of-mouth has grown substantially. Regardless of the positive and negative comments, what patients care most about is “Assurance” of the professional attitude and skills of the medical staff, which needs to be strengthened most urgently. In addition, good “Reliability” will help build positive word-of-mouth. However, poor “Responsiveness” can easily lead to the spread of negative word-of-mouth. This study suggests that the hospital should focus on these few service-oriented quality management and audits.

Keywords: quality of medical service, electronic word-of-mouth, armed forces general hospital

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343 Comparison Of Virtual Non-Contrast To True Non-Contrast Images Using Dual Layer Spectral Computed Tomography

Authors: O’Day Luke


Purpose: To validate virtual non-contrast reconstructions generated from dual-layer spectral computed tomography (DL-CT) data as an alternative for the acquisition of a dedicated true non-contrast dataset during multiphase contrast studies. Material and methods: Thirty-three patients underwent a routine multiphase clinical CT examination, using Dual-Layer Spectral CT, from March to August 2021. True non-contrast (TNC) and virtual non-contrast (VNC) datasets, generated from both portal venous and arterial phase imaging were evaluated. For every patient in both true and virtual non-contrast datasets, a region-of-interest (ROI) was defined in aorta, liver, fluid (i.e. gallbladder, urinary bladder), kidney, muscle, fat and spongious bone, resulting in 693 ROIs. Differences in attenuation for VNC and TNV images were compared, both separately and combined. Consistency between VNC reconstructions obtained from the arterial and portal venous phase was evaluated. Results: Comparison of CT density (HU) on the VNC and TNC images showed a high correlation. The mean difference between TNC and VNC images (excluding bone results) was 5.5 ± 9.1 HU and > 90% of all comparisons showed a difference of less than 15 HU. For all tissues but spongious bone, the mean absolute difference between TNC and VNC images was below 10 HU. VNC images derived from the arterial and the portal venous phase showed a good correlation in most tissue types. The aortic attenuation was somewhat dependent however on which dataset was used for reconstruction. Bone evaluation with VNC datasets continues to be a problem, as spectral CT algorithms are currently poor in differentiating bone and iodine. Conclusion: Given the increasing availability of DL-CT and proven accuracy of virtual non-contrast processing, VNC is a promising tool for generating additional data during routine contrast-enhanced studies. This study shows the utility of virtual non-contrast scans as an alternative for true non-contrast studies during multiphase CT, with potential for dose reduction, without loss of diagnostic information.

Keywords: dual-layer spectral computed tomography, virtual non-contrast, true non-contrast, clinical comparison

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342 Healthcare in COVID-19 and It’s Impact on Children with Cochlear Implants

Authors: Amirreza Razzaghipour, Mahdi Khalili


References from the World Health Organization and the Center for Disease Control for deceleration the spread of the Novel COVID-19, comprises social estrangement, frequent handwashing, and covering your mouth when around others. As hearing healthcare specialists, the influence of existenceinvoluntary to boundary social interactions on persons with hearing impairment was significant for us to understand. We found ourselves delaying cochlear implant (CI) surgeries. All children, and chiefly those with hearing loss, are susceptible to reductions in spoken communication. Hearing plans, such as cochlear implants, provide children with hearing loss access to spoken communication and provision language development. when provided early and used consistently, these supplies help children with hearing loss to engage in spoken connections. Cochlear implant (CI) is a standard medical-surgical treatment for bilateral severe to profound hearing loss with no advantage with the hearing aid. Hearing is one of the most important senses in humans. Pediatric hearing loss establishes one of the most important public health challenges. Children with hearing loss are recognized early and habilitated via hearing aids or with cochlear implants (CIs). Suitable care and maintenance as well as continuous auditory verbal therapy (AVT) are also essential in reaching for the successful attainment of language acquisition. Children with hearing loss posture important challenges to their parents, particularly when there is limited admission to their hearing care providers. The disruption in the routine of their hearing and therapy follow-up services has had substantial effects on the children as well as their parents.

Keywords: healthcare, covid-19, cochlear implants, spoken communication, hearing loss

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341 Evaluation of Firearm Injury Syndromic Surveillance in Utah

Authors: E. Bennion, A. Acharya, S. Barnes, D. Ferrell, S. Luckett-Cole, G. Mower, J. Nelson, Y. Nguyen


Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the validity of a firearm injury query in the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics syndromic surveillance system. Syndromic surveillance data are used at the Utah Department of Health for early detection of and rapid response to unusually high rates of violence and injury, among other health outcomes. The query of interest was defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and used chief complaint and discharge diagnosis codes to capture initial emergency department encounters for firearm injury of all intents. Design: Two epidemiologists manually reviewed electronic health records of emergency department visits captured by the query from April-May 2020, compared results, and sent conflicting determinations to two arbiters. Results: Of the 85 unique records captured, 67 were deemed probable, 19 were ruled out, and two were undetermined, resulting in a positive predictive value of 75.3%. Common reasons for false positives included non-initial encounters and misleading keywords. Conclusion: Improving the validity of syndromic surveillance data would better inform outbreak response decisions made by state and local health departments. The firearm injury definition could be refined to exclude non-initial encounters by negating words such as “last month,” “last week,” and “aftercare”; and to exclude non-firearm injury by negating words such as “pellet gun,” “air gun,” “nail gun,” “bullet bike,” and “exit wound” when a firearm is not mentioned.

Keywords: evaluation, health information system, firearm injury, syndromic surveillance

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340 Pre-conditioning and Hot Water Sanitization of Reverse Osmosis Membrane for Medical Water Production

Authors: Supriyo Das, Elbir Jove, Ajay Singh, Sophie Corbet, Noel Carr, Martin Deetz


Water is a critical commodity in the healthcare and medical field. The utility of medical-grade water spans from washing surgical equipment, drug preparation to the key element of life-saving therapy such as hydrotherapy and hemodialysis for patients. A properly treated medical water reduces the bioburden load and mitigates the risk of infection, ensuring patient safety. However, any compromised condition during the production of medical-grade water can create a favorable environment for microbial growth putting patient safety at high risk. Therefore, proper upstream treatment of the medical water is essential before its application in healthcare, pharma and medical space. Reverse Osmosis (RO) is one of the most preferred treatments within healthcare industries and is recommended by all International Pharmacopeias to achieve the quality level demanded by global regulatory bodies. The RO process can remove up to 99.5% of constituents from feed water sources, eliminating bacteria, proteins and particles sizes of 100 Dalton and above. The combination of RO with other downstream water treatment technologies such as Electrodeionization and Ultrafiltration meet the quality requirements of various pharmacopeia monographs to produce highly purified water or water for injection for medical use. In the reverse osmosis process, the water from a liquid with a high concentration of dissolved solids is forced to flow through an especially engineered semi-permeable membrane to the low concentration side, resulting in high-quality grade water. However, these specially engineered RO membranes need to be sanitized either chemically or at high temperatures at regular intervals to keep the bio-burden at the minimum required level. In this paper, we talk about Dupont´s FilmTec Heat Sanitizable Reverse Osmosis membrane (HSRO) for the production of medical-grade water. An HSRO element must be pre-conditioned prior to initial use by exposure to hot water (80°C-85°C) for its stable performance and to meet the manufacturer’s specifications. Without pre-conditioning, the membrane will show variations in feed pressure operations and salt rejection. The paper will discuss the critical variables of pre-conditioning steps that can affect the overall performance of the HSRO membrane and demonstrate the data to support the need for pre-conditioning of HSRO elements. Our preliminary data suggests that there can be up to 35 % reduction in flow due to initial heat treatment, which also positively affects the increase in salt rejection. The paper will go into detail about the fundamental understanding of the performance change of HSRO after the pre-conditioning step and its effect on the quality of medical water produced. The paper will also discuss another critical point, “regular hot water sanitization” of these HSRO membranes. Regular hot water sanitization (at 80°C-85°C) is necessary to keep the membrane bioburden free; however, it can negatively impact the performance of the membrane over time. We will demonstrate several data points on hot water sanitization using FilmTec HSRO elements and challenge its robustness to produce quality medical water. The last part of this paper will discuss the construction details of the FilmTec HSRO membrane and features that make it suitable to pre-condition and sanitize at high temperatures.

Keywords: heat sanitizable reverse osmosis, HSRO, medical water, hemodialysis water, water for Injection, pre-conditioning, heat sanitization

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339 Current Issues in Finnish Primary E-Health Care Services

Authors: Marlon Luca Machal


Current Finnish primary health care services use the latest Information and Communications Technology tools. These tools include but are not limited to websites and patient portals. Yet, these websites and patient portals can be inefficient in serving patients. Patients encounter frustrations in finding appropriate information about health care services offered by Finnish primary health care centers or other Finnish hospitals’ websites. As a result, patients call or visit their hospitals. During COVID-19 pandemic patients were recommended to avoid unnecessary visits to hospitals. However, it is not clear to patients whether their health needs necessitate acute or nonurgent visits to the hospital. COVID-19 pandemic revealed that health care services around the world were proven to be weak. This weakness remains to be true for Finnish primary health care services that were not prepared to contain or manage COVID-19 crises. On the other hand, social media platforms succeeded in convincing a significant number of people around the world to avoid taking the COVID-19 vaccine. As a result, the desired herd immunity could not be achieved, a large number of vaccines were expired and more COVID-19 variants were evolved. It is a necessity rather than a recommendation to rethink and re-engineer eHealth care services in a way to win people’s trust, fight against COVID-19 and ensure readiness for future similar pandemics. Patient portals can be utilized as a powerful tool to educate patients and win their trust. To win the trust of patients, it is highly recommended to recognize patients as one fundamental element in shaping eHealth care services.

Keywords: Finnish primary health care, e-health care services, patients, COVID-19

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338 Active Learning through a Game Format: Implementation of a Nutrition Board Game in Diabetes Training for Healthcare Professionals

Authors: Li Jiuen Ong, Magdalin Cheong, Sri Rahayu, Lek Alexander, Pei Ting Tan


Background: Previous programme evaluations from the diabetes training programme conducted in Changi General Hospital revealed that healthcare professionals (HCPs) are keen to receive advance diabetes training and education, specifically in medical, nutritional therapy. HCPs also expressed a preference for interactive activities over didactic teaching methods to enhance their learning. Since the War on Diabetes was initiated by MOH in 2016, HCPs are challenged to be actively involved in continuous education to be better equipped to reduce the growing burden of diabetes. Hence, streamlining training to incorporate an element of fun is of utmost importance. Aim: The nutrition programme incorporates game play using an interactive board game that aims to provide a more conducive and less stressful environment for learning. The board game could be adapted for training of community HCPs, health ambassadors or caregivers to cope with the increasing demand of diabetes care in the hospital and community setting. Methodology: Stages for game’s conception (Jaffe, 2001) were adopted in the development of the interactive board game ‘Sweet Score™ ’ Nutrition concepts and topics in diabetes self-management are embedded into the game elements of varying levels of difficulty (‘Easy,’ ‘Medium,’ ‘Hard’) including activities such as a) Drawing/ sculpting (Pictionary-like) b)Facts/ Knowledge (MCQs/ True or False) Word definition) c) Performing/ Charades To study the effects of game play on knowledge acquisition and perceived experiences, participants were randomised into two groups, i.e., lecture group (control) and game group (intervention), to test the difference. Results: Participants in both groups (control group, n= 14; intervention group, n= 13) attempted a pre and post workshop quiz to assess the effectiveness of knowledge acquisition. The scores were analysed using paired T-test. There was an improvement of quiz scores after attending the game play (mean difference: 4.3, SD: 2.0, P<0.001) and the lecture (mean difference: 3.4, SD: 2.1, P<0.001). However, there was no significance difference in the improvement of quiz scores between gameplay and lecture (mean difference: 0.9, 95%CI: -0.8 to 2.5, P=0.280). This suggests that gameplay may be as effective as a lecture in terms of knowledge transfer. All the13 HCPs who participated in the game rated 4 out of 5 on the likert scale for the favourable learning experience and relevance of learning to their job, whereas only 8 out of 14 HCPs in the lecture reported a high rating in both aspects. 16. Conclusion: There is no known board game currently designed for diabetes training for HCPs.Evaluative data from future training can provide insights and direction to improve the game format and cover other aspects of diabetes management such as self-care, exercise, medications and insulin management. Further testing of the board game to ensure learning objectives are met is important and can assist in the development of awell-designed digital game as an alternative training approach during the COVID-19 pandemic. Learning through gameplay increases opportunities for HCPs to bond, interact and learn through games in a relaxed social setting and potentially brings more joy to the workplace.

Keywords: active learning, game, diabetes, nutrition

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337 The Feasibility of Online, Interactive Workshops to Facilitate Anatomy Education during the UK COVID-19 Lockdowns

Authors: Prabhvir Singh Marway, Kai Lok Chan, Maria-Ruxandra Jinga, Rachel Bok Ying Lee, Matthew Bok Kit Lee, Krishan Nandapalan, Sze Yi Beh, Harry Carr, Christopher Kui


We piloted a structured series of online workshops on the 3D segmentation of anatomical structures from CT scans. 33 participants were recruited from four UK universities for two-day workshops between 2020 and 2021. Open-source software (3D-Slicer) was used. We hypothesized that active participation via real-time screen-sharing and voice-communication via Discord would enable improved engagement and learning, despite national lockdowns. Written feedback indicated positive learning experiences, with subjective measures of anatomical understanding and software confidence improving.

Keywords: medical education, workshop, segmentation, anatomy

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336 The Effect of Applying the Electronic Supply System on the Performance of the Supply Chain in Health Organizations

Authors: Sameh S. Namnqani, Yaqoob Y. Abobakar, Ahmed M. Alsewehri, Khaled M. AlQethami


The main objective of this research is to know the impact of the application of the electronic supply system on the performance of the supply department of health organizations. To reach this goal, the study adopted independent variables to measure the dependent variable (performance of the supply department), namely: integration with suppliers, integration with intermediaries and distributors and knowledge of supply size, inventory, and demand. The study used the descriptive method and was aided by the questionnaire tool that was distributed to a sample of workers in the Supply Chain Management Department of King Abdullah Medical City. After the statistical analysis, the results showed that: The 70 sample members strongly agree with the (electronic integration with suppliers) axis with a p-value of 0.001, especially with regard to the following: Opening formal and informal communication channels between management and suppliers (Mean 4.59) and exchanging information with suppliers with transparency and clarity (Mean 4.50). It also clarified that the sample members agree on the axis of (electronic integration with brokers and distributors) with a p-value of 0.001 and this is represented in the following elements: Exchange of information between management, brokers and distributors with transparency, clarity (Mean 4.18) , and finding a close cooperation relationship between management, brokers and distributors (Mean 4.13). The results also indicated that the respondents agreed to some extent on the axis (knowledge of the size of supply, stock, and demand) with a p-value of 0.001. It also indicated that the respondents strongly agree with the existence of a relationship between electronic procurement and (the performance of the procurement department in health organizations) with a p-value of 0.001, which is represented in the following: transparency and clarity in dealing with suppliers and intermediaries to prevent fraud and manipulation (Mean 4.50) and reduce the costs of supplying the needs of the health organization (Mean 4.50). From the results, the study recommended several recommendations, the most important of which are: that health organizations work to increase the level of information sharing between them and suppliers in order to achieve the implementation of electronic procurement in the supply management of health organizations. Attention to using electronic data interchange methods and using modern programs that make supply management able to exchange information with brokers and distributors to find out the volume of supply, inventory, and demand. To know the volume of supply, inventory, and demand, it recommended the application of scientific methods of supply for storage. Take advantage of information technology, for example, electronic data exchange techniques and documents, where it can help in contact with suppliers, brokers, and distributors, and know the volume of supply, inventory, and demand, which contributes to improving the performance of the supply department in health organizations.

Keywords: healthcare supply chain, performance, electronic system, ERP

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335 A Survey of Digital Health Companies: Opportunities and Business Model Challenges

Authors: Iris Xiaohong Quan


The global digital health market reached 175 billion U.S. dollars in 2019, and is expected to grow at about 25% CAGR to over 650 billion USD by 2025. Different terms such as digital health, e-health, mHealth, telehealth have been used in the field, which can sometimes cause confusion. The term digital health was originally introduced to refer specifically to the use of interactive media, tools, platforms, applications, and solutions that are connected to the Internet to address health concerns of providers as well as consumers. While mHealth emphasizes the use of mobile phones in healthcare, telehealth means using technology to remotely deliver clinical health services to patients. According to FDA, “the broad scope of digital health includes categories such as mobile health (mHealth), health information technology (IT), wearable devices, telehealth and telemedicine, and personalized medicine.” Some researchers believe that digital health is nothing else but the cultural transformation healthcare has been going through in the 21st century because of digital health technologies that provide data to both patients and medical professionals. As digital health is burgeoning, but research in the area is still inadequate, our paper aims to clear the definition confusion and provide an overall picture of digital health companies. We further investigate how business models are designed and differentiated in the emerging digital health sector. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are adopted in the research. For the quantitative analysis, our research data came from two databases Crunchbase and CBInsights, which are well-recognized information sources for researchers, entrepreneurs, managers, and investors. We searched a few keywords in the Crunchbase database based on companies’ self-description: digital health, e-health, and telehealth. A search of “digital health” returned 941 unique results, “e-health” returned 167 companies, while “telehealth” 427. We also searched the CBInsights database for similar information. After merging and removing duplicate ones and cleaning up the database, we came up with a list of 1464 companies as digital health companies. A qualitative method will be used to complement the quantitative analysis. We will do an in-depth case analysis of three successful unicorn digital health companies to understand how business models evolve and discuss the challenges faced in this sector. Our research returned some interesting findings. For instance, we found that 86% of the digital health startups were founded in the recent decade since 2010. 75% of the digital health companies have less than 50 employees, and almost 50% with less than 10 employees. This shows that digital health companies are relatively young and small in scale. On the business model analysis, while traditional healthcare businesses emphasize the so-called “3P”—patient, physicians, and payer, digital health companies extend to “5p” by adding patents, which is the result of technology requirements (such as the development of artificial intelligence models), and platform, which is an effective value creation approach to bring the stakeholders together. Our case analysis will detail the 5p framework and contribute to the extant knowledge on business models in the healthcare industry.

Keywords: digital health, business models, entrepreneurship opportunities, healthcare

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334 Wrong Site Surgery Should Not Occur In This Day And Age!

Authors: C. Kuoh, C. Lucas, T. Lopes, I. Mechie, J. Yoong, W. Yoong


For all surgeons, there is one preventable but still highly occurring complication – wrong site surgeries. They can have potentially catastrophic, irreversible, or even fatal consequences on patients. With the exponential development of microsurgery and the use of advanced technological tools, the consequences of operating on the wrong side, anatomical part, or even person is seen as the most visible and destructive of all surgical errors and perhaps the error that is dreaded by most clinicians as it threatens their licenses and arouses feelings of guilt. Despite the implementation of the WHO surgical safety checklist more than a decade ago, the incidence of wrong-site surgeries remains relatively high, leading to tremendous physical and psychological repercussions for the clinicians involved, as well as a financial burden for the healthcare institution. In this presentation, the authors explore various factors which can lead to wrong site surgery – a combination of environmental and human factors and evaluate their impact amongst patients, practitioners, their families, and the medical industry. Major contributing factors to these “never events” include deviations from checklists, excessive workload, and poor communication. Two real-life cases are discussed, and systems that can be implemented to prevent these errors are highlighted alongside lessons learnt from other industries. The authors suggest that reinforcing speaking-up, implementing medical professional trainings, and higher patient’s involvements can potentially improve safety in surgeries and electrosurgeries.

Keywords: wrong side surgery, never events, checklist, workload, communication

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333 Nitrous Oxide Wastage: Putting Strategies “In the Pipeline” to Reduce Carbon Emissions from Nitrous Oxide

Authors: F. Gallop, C. Ward, M. Zaky, M. Vaghela, R. Sabaratnam


Nitrous oxide (N₂O) has been used in anaesthesia for over 150 years owing to advantageous physical and pharmacological properties. However, with a global warming potential of 310, we have an urgent responsibility to reduce its usage and emission. Anecdotal evidence in our hospital trust suggests minimal N₂O usage, yet our theatres receive a staggering supply. This warranted further investigation. We used a data collection tool to prospectively capture quantitative and qualitative data regarding N₂O cases during one week: this recorded demographics, N₂O indications, clinical management, and total N₂O consumption in litres. In addition, N₂O usage in dental sedation suites and paediatric theatres was separately quantified. Pipeline supply data was acquired from British Oxygen Company accounts. We captured 490 cases. 4% (n=19) used N₂O, 63% (n=12) of these in dental theatres. Common N₂0 indications were induction speed (37%) and rapidly increasing anaesthesia depth (32%). In adult cases, N₂O was always used intraoperatively rather than solely at induction. 74% (n=14) of anaesthetists reported environmental concern over using N₂O. The week’s total N₂O usage was 8109 litres, amounting to 421,668 litres annually. However, the annual N₂O pipeline supply is 2,997,000 litres; an enormous 1.8 million Kg of CO₂. Our results supportively demonstrate that the N₂O pipeline supply greatly exceeds its clinical use. Acknowledging clinical areas not audited, the discrepancy between supply and usage suggests approximately 2.5 million litres of yearly wastage. We consequently recommend terminating the N₂O pipeline supply in minimally used areas, eliminating 1.5 million Kg of CO₂ emissions. High usage clinical areas could consider portable N₂O cylinders as an alternative. In Sweden, N₂O destruction technology is routinely used to minimise CO₂ emissions. Our results support National Health System investment in similar infrastructure.

Keywords: anaesthesia, environment, medical gases, nitrous oxide, sustainability

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332 A Randomised Simulation Study to Assess the Impact of a Focussed Crew Resource Management Course on UK Medical Students

Authors: S. MacDougall-Davis, S. Wysling, R. Willmore


Background: The application of good non-technical skills, also known as crew resource management (CRM), is central to the delivery of safe, effective healthcare. The authors have been running remote trauma courses for over 10 years, primarily focussing on developing participants’ CRM in time-critical, high-stress clinical situations. The course has undergone an iterative process over the past 10 years. We employ a number of experiential learning techniques for improving CRM, including small group workshops, military command tasks, high fidelity simulations with reflective debriefs, and a ‘flipped classroom’, where participants are asked to create their own simulations and assess and debrief their colleagues’ CRM. We created a randomised simulation study to assess the impact of our course on UK medical students’ CRM, both at an individual and a teams level. Methods: Sixteen students took part. Four clinical scenarios were devised, designed to be of similar urgency and complexity. Professional moulage effects and experienced clinical actors were used to increase fidelity and to further simulate high-stress environments. Participants were block randomised into teams of 4; each team was randomly assigned to one pre-course simulation. They then underwent our 5 day remote trauma CRM course. Post-course, students were re-randomised into four new teams; each was randomly assigned to a post-course simulation. All simulations were videoed. The footage was reviewed by two independent CRM-trained assessors, who were blinded to the before/after the status of the simulations. Assessors used the internationally validated team emergency assessment measure (TEAM) to evaluate key areas of team performance, as well as a global outcome rating. Prior to the study, assessors had scored two unrelated scenarios using the same assessment tool, demonstrating 89% concordance. Participants also completed pre- and post-course questionnaires. Likert scales were used to rate individuals’ perceived NTS ability and their confidence to work in a team in time-critical, high-stress situations. Results: Following participation in the course, a significant improvement in CRM was observed in all areas of team performance. Furthermore, the global outcome rating for team performance was markedly improved (40-70%; mean 55%), thus demonstrating an impact at Level 4 of Kirkpatrick’s hierarchy. At an individual level, participants’ self-perceived CRM improved markedly after the course (35-70% absolute improvement; mean 55%), as did their confidence to work in a team in high-stress situations. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that with a short, cost-effective course, using easily reproducible teaching sessions, it is possible to significantly improve participants’ CRM skills, both at an individual and, perhaps more importantly, at a teams level. The successful functioning of multi-disciplinary teams is vital in a healthcare setting, particularly in high-stress, time-critical situations. Good CRM is of paramount importance in these scenarios. The authors believe that these concepts should be introduced from the earliest stages of medical education, thus promoting a culture of effective CRM and embedding an early appreciation of the importance of these skills in enabling safe and effective healthcare.

Keywords: crew resource management, non-technical skills, training, simulation

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331 The Return on Investment (ROI) of Experiential Learning/Simulation Training at Atrium Health Wake Forest Baptist

Authors: Janae Joyner, Maria Crawford, Carty Beaston, Cheryl Conner, Louise Nixon


Introduction: Today, there is a demand in areas of business, including healthcare and education, to connect investments in programs to organizational outcomes by demonstrating value and impact. In many cases, the programmatic value must outweigh the cost of the solution in order for the program to be sustained. The Center for Experiential and Applied Learning (CEAL) desired to implement return-on-investment (ROI) methodology via the ROI Institute Method in a project entitled Return on Learning (ROL) across its clinical enterprise portfolio of hands-on experiential learning/simulation training events. Objective: The objective of this study was to ensure stakeholder inclination regarding ROL implementation via a readiness assessment. Subsequently, this study’s goal was to pilot several versions of the ROL evaluation tool across the CEAL clinical enterprise portfolio of training events to determine the preferred tool to use for ROL assessment. Methods: CEAL administered a modified electronic readiness assessment survey from the ROI Institute. Stakeholders included CEAL steering committee members and faculty/staff event champions currently holding experiential learning events within CEAL. Next, CEAL conducted a modified Delphi technique with the same stakeholders to narrow down questions on a general evaluation tool to five (5) questions. After a two (2) month pilot, the evaluation tool was redesigned and expanded to ten (10) questions and re-piloted for six (6) months. Results: The readiness assessment survey results (n=41) yielded an overall institutional score of 52.3, demonstrating per the ROI Institute scale that we were ready to build skills to implement the ROI process (15-30 = not a candidate; 31-45 = not a strong candidate; 46-60 = a strong candidate). An initial pilot of the five (5) question general evaluation tool (n=339) utilizing a 1-4 Likert Scale (1=strongly disagree; 4=strongly agree) revealed high confidence to apply what was learned in the clinical environment (3.58+0.58), meeting the identified need (3.92+0.28), immediate application of use (3.86 +0.37), and recommendation of the program/course to colleagues (3.94+0.26). The longer ten (10) question evaluation tool (n=771) using a 5-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree; 5=strongly agree) demonstrated that the training was relevant to one work of improving patient outcomes (4.84+0.02), high confidence to apply what was learned in the clinical environment (4.76 +0.02), comfortability during the debrief (4.75+0.02), engaged learning environment (4.79+0.02) and identification of opportunities to improve or sustain superior healthcare performance (4.82+0.01). Conclusions: Based upon the ROI readiness assessment, our organization was prepared to implement an ROI initiative. Data from the initial pilot indicated successful events but presented the opportunity to broaden the question base and redefine the scale to a traditional 5-point Likert scale. The ten (10) question pilot also indicated successful training events. The next steps in the ROL project are to evaluate qualitative assessment questions and finalize the evaluation tool through discussion with the original stakeholder group using these data/results. CEAL also plans to extend the ROI possibilities by using data from the electronic health record (EHR) to evaluate the impact of training on patient care.

Keywords: return on investment, simulation, training, value-based

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330 Health Care Provider Perception of Training and Simulation Effectiveness in Preparation for an Expanded Labor and Delivery Service Line

Authors: JaNae Joyner, Josh Nitsche, Stacy Schmauss, Maria Crawford, Carty Beaston, Louise Nixon, Alisa Starbuck


Introduction: The 2019 opening of an expanded labor and delivery service line at Atrium Health Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center was a herculean mission involving stakeholder groups for many institutional departments. For many months, a number of subgroups met, working in their respective areas of influence and expertise, to prepare for the facilities, technology, staffing, workflow, and training needs to guarantee day-one readiness for this Birth Center. The Center for Experiential and Applied Learning (CEAL), a hands-on simulation center internal to Atrium Health Wake Forest Baptist through our Wake Forest School of Medicine, was part of the training initiative. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the perception of training and simulation effectiveness in preparing stakeholders, including women’s health care providers, for the opening of the Birth Center. Methods: Surveys were distributed to newly hired health care providers including nurses after the Birth Center opening. A survey design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training given to health care providers. This survey included 5-point Likert questions and qualitative opportunities to discuss lessons learned. Results: The training effectiveness quantitative survey (n=62) found that 81% of respondents indicated that simulation training was the most useful training tool they encountered in preparing them for their role or job in the Birth Center. This was compared to other training modalities utilized during the Birth Center opening which included on-the-job training (61% useful), preceptorship (57%), mentoring/coaching (56%), classroom/didactics (55%), and online modules (47%). When evaluating whether or not the training received had prepared providers for the healthcare role they were to serve once the Birth Center opened, the majority (72%) felt fully equipped while 27% did not. Of those who did not feel well-equipped, additional mentoring/coaching (25%), on-the-job training (25%), mentoring/coaching (25%), preceptor opportunities (21%); simulation training (13%); and classroom instruction (12%) were requested. The quantitative data was supported by qualitative comments and themes including the need for more hands-on training and simulation, as well as on-the-job training/preceptorships. Conclusions: Altogether, this data indicates that most Birth Center providers felt prepared for their role in the Birth Center when it opened. Simulation training was seen as an effective tool in preparing these providers. However, additional training, especially those involving one-on-one learning, should be considered when undertaking a highly specialized service line stand-up.

Keywords: labor and delivery, OBGYN, simulation, training

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329 Mediation Analysis of the Efficacy of the Nimotuzumab-Cisplatin-Radiation (NCR) Improve Overall Survival (OS): A HPV Negative Oropharyngeal Cancer Patient (HPVNOCP) Cohort

Authors: Akshay Patil


Objective: Mediation analysis identifies causal pathways by testing the relationships between the NCR, the OS, and an intermediate variable that mediates the relationship between the Nimotuzumab-cisplatin-radiation (NCR) and OS. Introduction: In randomized controlled trials, the primary interest is in the mechanisms by which an intervention exerts its effects on the outcomes. Clinicians are often interested in how the intervention works (or why it does not work) through hypothesized causal mechanisms. In this work, we highlight the value of understanding causal mechanisms in randomized trial by applying causal mediation analysis in a randomized trial in oncology. Methods: Data was obtained from a phase III randomized trial (Subgroup of HPVNOCP). NCR is reported to significantly improve the OS of patients locally advanced head and neck cancer patients undergoing definitive chemoradiation. Here, based on trial data, the mediating effect of NCR on patient overall survival was systematically quantified through progression-free survival(PFS), disease free survival (DFS), Loco-regional failure (LRF), and the disease control rate (DCR), Overall response rate (ORR). Effects of potential mediators on the HR for OS with NCR versus cisplatin-radiation (CR) were analyzed by Cox regression models. Statistical analyses were performed using R software Version 3.6.3 (The R Foundation for Statistical Computing) Results: Effects of potential mediator PFS was an association between NCR treatment and OS, with an indirect-effect (IE) 0.76(0.62 – 0.95), which mediated 60.69% of the treatment effect. Taking into account baseline confounders, the overall adjusted hazard ratio of death was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43 – 0.96; P=0.03). The DFS was also a significant mediator and had an IE 0.77 (95% CI; 0.62-0.93), 58% mediated). Smaller mediation effects (maximum 27%) were observed for LRF with IE 0.88(0.74 – 1.06). Both DCR and ORR mediated 10% and 15%, respectively, of the effect of NCR vs. CR on the OS with IE 0.65 (95% CI; 0.81 – 1.08) and 0.94(95% CI; 0.79 – 1.04). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that PFS and DFS were the most important mediators of the OS with nimotuzumab to weekly cisplatin-radiation in HPVNOCP.

Keywords: mediation analysis, cancer data, survival, NCR, HPV negative oropharyngeal

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328 Systematic Review & Meta-analysis Investigating the Efficacy of Walking-based Aerobic Exercise Interventions to Treat Postpartum Depression

Authors: V. Pentland, S, Spilsbury, A. Biswas, M.F. Mottola, S. Paplinskie, M.S. Mitchell


Postpartum depression (PPD) is a form of major depressive disorder that afflicts 10–22% of mothers worldwide. Rising demands for traditional PPD treatment options (e.g., psychiatry), especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, are increasingly difficult to meet. More accessible treatment options (e.g., walking) are needed. The objective of this review is to determine the impact of walking on PPD severity. A structured search of seven electronic databases for randomised controlled trials published between 2000 and July 29, 2021, was completed. Studies were included if walking was the sole or primary aerobic exercise modality. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted for studies reporting PPD symptoms measured using a clinically validated tool. A simple count of positive/null effect studies was undertaken as part of a narrative summary. Five studies involving 242 participants were included (mean age=~28.9 years; 100% with mild-to-moderate depression). Interventions were 12 (n=4) and 24 (n=1) weeks long. Each assessed PPD severity using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and was included in the meta-analysis. The pooled effect estimate suggests that relative to controls, walking yielded clinically significant decreases in mean EPDS scores from baseline to intervention end (pooled MD=-4.01; 95% CI:-7.18 to -0.84, I2=86%). The narrative summary provides preliminary evidence that walking-only, supervised, and group-based interventions, including 90-120+ minutes/week of moderate-intensity walking, may produce greater EPDS reductions. While limited by a relatively small number of included studies, pooled effect estimates suggest walking may help mothers manage PPD. This is the first time walking as a treatment for PPD, an exercise modality that uniquely addresses many barriers faced by mothers has been summarized in a systematic way. Trial registration: PROSPERO (CRD42020197521) on August 16th, 2020

Keywords: postpartum, exercise, depression, walking

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327 Save Lives: The Application of Geolocation-Awareness Service in Iranian Pre-hospital EMS Information Management System

Authors: Somayeh Abedian, Pirhossein Kolivand, Hamid Reza Lornejad, Amin Karampour, Ebrahim Keshavarz Safari


For emergency and relief service providers such as pre-hospital emergencies, quick arrival at the scene of an accident or any EMS mission is one of the most important requirements of effective service delivery. Response time (the interval between the time of the call and the time of arrival on scene) is a critical factor in determining the quality of pre-hospital Emergency Medical Services (EMS). This is especially important for heart attack, stroke, or accident patients. Location-based e-services can be broadly defined as any service that provides information pertinent to the current location of an active mobile handset or precise address of landline phone call at a specific time window, regardless of the underlying delivery technology used to convey the information. According to research, one of the effective methods of meeting this goal is determining the location of the caller via the cooperation of landline and mobile phone operators in the country. The follow-up of the Communications Regulatory Authority (CRA) organization has resulted in the receipt of two separate secured electronic web services. Thus, to ensure human privacy, a secure technical architecture was required for launching the services in the pre-hospital EMS information management system. In addition, to quicken medics’ arrival at the patient's bedside, rescue vehicles should make use of an intelligent transportation system to estimate road traffic using a GPS-based mobile navigation system independent of the Internet. This paper seeks to illustrate the architecture of the practical national model used by the Iranian EMS organization.

Keywords: response time, geographic location inquiry service (GLIS), location-based service (LBS), emergency medical services information system (EMSIS)

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326 Serum Interlukin-8 and Immunomodulation in Beta Thalassemia Patients

Authors: Shahira El Shafie, Hanaa Eldash, Engy Ghabbour, Mohamed Eid


Several immunologic defects can be found in patients with beta-thalassemia, among which the impairment of neutrophil phagocytic function is of utmost importance. Attention has been directed to the role of proinflammatory cytokines in neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is an important chemotactic and activation peptide for neutrophils; changes in IL-8 level and potential correlation with neutrophil function can be relevant to immunomodulation pathophysiology in beta-thalassemia patients. This case-control study aimed to evaluate IL-8 level and to assess granulocyte recruitment, as markers of immunomodulation, in poly-transfused thalassemia patients attending Fayoum University Hospitals. The study was conducted on 50 patients with ß thalassemia and 32 age-matched controls. 21/50 patients were transfused more than ten times, and 29/50 were transfused in a lower frequency. Patients and controls were subjected to thorough history taking and clinical examination, measurement of IL-8 level using human IL-8 ELISA kit, and Rebuck skin window technique (RSWT) to assess granulocyte recruitment. Our data showed statistically significant higher levels of IL-8 in ß thalassemia patients compared to control with a much higher difference in patients transfused more than ten times. Neutrophil recruitment was significantly lower in ß thalassemia patients compared to control at 4 hours and 24 hours test time. Although IL-8, the main chemotactic pro-inflammatory cytokine showed a higher level in thalassemia patients, neutrophils recruitment was significantly lower, especially in those receiving more than ten transfusion times. Our findings suggest a possible role of other neutrophil chemotactic factors, defective neutrophil response, or increased IL-8 as compensation of abnormal function. We recommend the use of IL-8 and Rebuck skin window technique as useful markers of immunomodulation in thalassemia and further study for these biomarkers to assess their clinical implications and impact on the management of thalassemia patients.

Keywords: beta-thalassemia, Interleukin-8, Rebuck skin window technique, immunomodulation

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325 Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer of Cephalic Extremity – Clinical and Histological Aspects

Authors: Razvan Mercut, Mihaela Ionescu, Vlad Parvanescu, Razvan Ghita, Tudor-Gabriel Caragea, Cristina Simionescu, Marius-Eugen Ciurea


Introduction: Over the past years, the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has continuously increased, being one of the most commonly diagnosed carcinomasofthe cephalic extremity. NMSC regroups basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), Merkel cell carcinoma, cutaneous lymphoma, and sarcoma. The most common forms are BCC and SCC, both still implying a significant level of morbidity due to local invasion (especially BCC), even if the overall death rates are declining. The objective of our study was the evaluation of clinical and histological aspects of NMSC for a group of patients with BCC and SCC, from Craiova, a south-western major city in Romania. Materialand method: Our study lot comprised 65 patients, with an almost equal distribution of sexes, and ages between 23-91 years old (mean value±standard deviation62.61±16.67), all treated within the Clinic of Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Microsurgery, Clinical Emergency County Hospital Craiova, Romania, between 2019-2020. In order to determine the main morphological characteristics of both studied cancers, we used paraffin embedding techniques, with various staining methods:hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome stain with aniline blue, and Periodic acid-schiffAlcian Blue. The statistical study was completed using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA, USA), with XLSTAT (Addinsoft SARL, Paris, France). Results: The overall results of our study indicate that BCC accounts for 67.69% of all NMSC forms; SCC covers 27.69%, while 4.62% are representedby other forms. The most frequent site is the nose for BCC (27.69%, 18 patients), being followed by preauricular regions, forehead, and periorbital areas. For patients with SCC, tumors were mainly located at lips level (66.67%, 12 patients). The analysis of NMSC histological forms indicated that nodular BCC is predominant (45.45%, 20 patients), as well as ulcero-vegetant SCC (38.89%, 7 patients). We have not identified any topographic characteristics or NMSC forms significantly related to age or sex. Conclusions: The most frequent NMSC form identified for our study lot was BCC. The preferred location was the nose for BCC. For SCC, the oral cavity is the most frequent anatomical site, especially the lips level. Nodular BCC and ulcero-vegetant SCC were the most commonly identified histological types. Our findings emphasize the need for periodic screening, in order to improve prevention and early treatment for these malignancies.

Keywords: non-melanoma skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, histological

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324 Glaucoma Detection in Retinal Tomography Using the Vision Transformer

Authors: Sushish Baral, Pratibha Joshi, Yaman Maharjan


Glaucoma is a chronic eye condition that causes vision loss that is irreversible. Early detection and treatment are critical to prevent vision loss because it can be asymptomatic. For the identification of glaucoma, multiple deep learning algorithms are used. Transformer-based architectures, which use the self-attention mechanism to encode long-range dependencies and acquire extremely expressive representations, have recently become popular. Convolutional architectures, on the other hand, lack knowledge of long-range dependencies in the image due to their intrinsic inductive biases. The aforementioned statements inspire this thesis to look at transformer-based solutions and investigate the viability of adopting transformer-based network designs for glaucoma detection. Using retinal fundus images of the optic nerve head to develop a viable algorithm to assess the severity of glaucoma necessitates a large number of well-curated images. Initially, data is generated by augmenting ocular pictures. After that, the ocular images are pre-processed to make them ready for further processing. The system is trained using pre-processed images, and it classifies the input images as normal or glaucoma based on the features retrieved during training. The Vision Transformer (ViT) architecture is well suited to this situation, as it allows the self-attention mechanism to utilise structural modeling. Extensive experiments are run on the common dataset, and the results are thoroughly validated and visualized.

Keywords: glaucoma, vision transformer, convolutional architectures, retinal fundus images, self-attention, deep learning

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323 Telehealth Ecosystem: Challenge and Opportunity

Authors: Rattakorn Poonsuph


Technological innovation plays a crucial role in virtual healthcare services. A growing number of telehealth platforms are concentrating on using digital tools to improve the quality and availability of care. As a result, telehealth represents an opportunity to redesign the way health services are delivered. The research objective is to discover a new business model for digital health services and related industries to participate with telehealth solutions. The business opportunity is valuable for healthcare investors as a startup company to further investigations or implement the telehealth platform. The paper presents a digital healthcare business model and business opportunities to related industries. These include digital healthcare services extending from a traditional business model and use cases of business opportunities to related industries. Although there are enormous business opportunities, telehealth is still challenging due to the patient adaption and digital transformation process within a healthcare organization.

Keywords: telehealth, Internet hospital, HealthTech, InsurTech

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322 Creation of a Trust-Wide, Cross-Speciality, Virtual Teaching Programme for Doctors, Nurses and Allied Healthcare Professionals

Authors: Nelomi Anandagoda, Leanne J. Eveson


During the COVID-19 pandemic, the surge in in-patient admissions across the medical directorate of a district general hospital necessitated the implementation of an incident rota. Conscious of the impact on training and professional development, the idea of developing a virtual teaching programme was conceived. The programme initially aimed to provide junior doctors, specialist nurses, pharmacists, and allied healthcare professionals from medical specialties and those re-deployed from other specialties (e.g., ophthalmology, GP, surgery, psychiatry) the knowledge and skills to manage the deteriorating patient with COVID-19. The programme was later developed to incorporate the general internal medicine curriculum. To facilitate continuing medical education whilst maintaining social distancing during this period, a virtual platform was used to deliver teaching to junior doctors across two large district general hospitals and two community hospitals. Teaching sessions were recorded and uploaded to a common platform, providing a resource for participants to catch up on and re-watch teaching sessions, making strides towards reducing discrimination against the professional development of less than full-time trainees. Thus, creating a learning environment, which is inclusive and accessible to adult learners in a self-directed manner. The negative impact of the pandemic on the well-being of healthcare professionals is well documented. To support the multi-disciplinary team, the virtual teaching programme evolved to included sessions on well-being, resilience, and work-life balance. Providing teaching for learners across the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) has been an eye-opening experience. By challenging the concept that learners should only be taught within their own peer groups, the authors have fostered a greater appreciation of the strengths of the MDT and showcased the immense wealth of expertise available within the trust. The inclusive nature of the teaching and the ease of joining a virtual teaching session has facilitated the dissemination of knowledge across the MDT, thus improving patient care on the frontline. The weekly teaching programme has been running for over eight months, with ongoing engagement, interest, and participation. As described above, the teaching programme has evolved to accommodate the needs of its learners. It has received excellent feedback with an appreciation of its inclusive, multi-disciplinary, and holistic nature. The COVID-19 pandemic provided a catalyst to rapidly develop novel methods of working and training and widened access/exposure to the virtual technologies available to large organisations. By merging pedagogical expertise and technology, the authors have created an effective online learning environment. Although the authors do not propose to replace face-to-face teaching altogether, this model of virtual multidisciplinary team, cross-site teaching has proven to be a great leveler. It has made high-quality teaching accessible to learners of different confidence levels, grades, specialties, and working patterns.

Keywords: cross-site, cross-speciality, inter-disciplinary, multidisciplinary, virtual teaching

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321 Co-Developing an Effective Electronic Prescribing and Medicines Administration (EMPA) to Maturity in an Acute NHS Trust

Authors: Geeth Silva, Gang Xu, Shriyam Patel, Qasim Rauf, Graeme Hall, Tim Bourne, Aaron Vogel, Andrew Carruthers


Introduction: University Hospitals Leicester (UHL) has co-developed, with Nervecentre, an Electronic Prescribing and Medicines Administration (EPMA) that meets specific clinical demands and NHS interoperability standards. Methods: The EPMA was created through a bottom-up approach with a project team consisting of frontline clinicians, IT specialists and vendors representatives. The project team piloted the system 'eMeds' across three Renal wards at Leicester General Hospital. After implementation, the team assessed the perspectives of frontline staff through self-administered questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Results: The EPMA was deployed successfully during the COVID-19 pandemic, with more than a thousand transcriptions during roll-out. Despite the increasing caseload, there was no increase in error rates within the first three months. Healthcare professionals perceived the EPMA as more efficient through improving workflow and safer through an alerts system and creating an audit trail. Discussion: Creating an NHS-focused EPMA has the potential to allow for smoother implementation. This project provides an important case study in understanding how NHS trusts can work with vendors and use gradual integration to develop and deploy new IT systems.

Keywords: health informatics, quality improvement, health information systems, leadership, change management, software design, decision support systems

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