Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 196

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Health and Medical Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

196 Beyond the Water Seal: On-Field Observations of Occupational Hazards of Faecal Sludge Management in Southern Karnataka

Authors: Anissa Mary Thomas Thattil, Nancy Angeline Gnanaselvam, B. Ramakrishna Goud

Abstract:

Faecal sludge management (FSM) is an unorganized sector, and in India, there is an absence of regulations regarding the collection, transport, treatment, and disposal of faecal sludge. FSM has a high degree of occupational hazards that need to be thoroughly understood in order to shape effective solutions. On-field observations of five FSM operations were conducted in Anekal Taluk of southern Karnataka. All five of the FSM operations were privately owned and snowball method of sampling was employed. Two types of FS operations observed were: mechanical emptying involving direct human contact with faecal sludge and mechanical emptying without direct human contact with faecal sludge. Each operation was manned by 3-4 faecal sludge operators (FSOs). None of the observed FSOs used personal protective equipment. According to the WHO semi-quantitative risk assessment, the very high risk occupational hazards identified were dermal contact with faecal sludge, inhalation of toxic gases, and social stigma. The high risk hazards identified were trips and falls, injuries, ergonomic hazards, substance abuse, and mental health problems. In all five FSM operations, the collected faecal sludge was discharged untreated onto abandoned land. FSM in India is fraught with occupational and environmental hazards which need to be urgently addressed. This includes formalizing the institution of FSM, contextualized behaviour change communication, capacity building of local bodies, awareness programmes among agriculturists and FSOs, and designation of sites for the safe harnessing of faecal sludge as soil nutrient.

Keywords: faecal sludge, faecal sludge management, FSM, occupational hazards, sanitation

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195 Machine Learning Approach for Lateralization of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

Authors: Samira-Sadat JamaliDinan, Haidar Almohri, Mohammad-Reza Nazem-Zadeh

Abstract:

Lateralization of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is very important for positive surgical outcomes. We propose a machine learning framework to ultimately identify the epileptogenic hemisphere for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cases using magnetoencephalography (MEG) coherence source imaging (CSI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Unlike most studies that use classification algorithms, we propose an effective clustering approach to distinguish between normal and TLE cases. We apply the famous Minkowski weighted K-Means (MWK-Means) technique as the clustering framework. To overcome the problem of poor initialization of K-Means, we use particle swarm optimization (PSO) to effectively select the initial centroids of clusters prior to applying MWK-Means. We demonstrate that compared to K-means and MWK-means independently, this approach is able to improve the result of a benchmark data set.

Keywords: temporal lobe epilepsy, machine learning, clustering, magnetoencephalography

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194 Socioeconomic Status and Mortality in Older People with Angina: A Population-Based Cohort Study in China

Authors: Weiju Zhou, Alex Hopkins, Ruoling Chen

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Background: China has increased the gap in income between richer and poorer over the past 40 years, and the number of deaths from people with angina has been rising. It is unclear whether socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with increased mortality in older people with angina. Methods: Data from a cohort study of 2,380 participants aged ≥ 65 years, who were randomly recruited from 5-province urban communities were examined in China. The cohort members were interviewed to record socio-demographic and risk factors and document doctor-diagnosed angina at baseline and were followed them up in 3-10 years, including monitoring vital status. Multivariate Cox regression models were employed to examine all-cause mortality in relation to low SES. Results: The cohort follow-up identified 373 deaths occurred; 41 deaths in 208 angina patients. Compared to participants without angina (n=2,172), patients with angina had increased mortality (multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 1.41, 95% CI 1.01-1.97). Within angina patients, the risk of mortality increased with low satisfactory income (2.51, 1.08-5.85) and having financial problem (4.00, 1.07-15.00), but significantly with levels of education and occupation. In non-angina participants, none of these four SES indicators were associated with mortality. There was a significant interaction effect between angina and low satisfactory income on mortality. Conclusions: In China, having low income and financial problem increase mortality in older people with angina. Strategies to improve economic circumstances in older people could help reduce inequality in angina survival.

Keywords: angina, mortality, older people, socio-economic status

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193 An Empirical Study of Determinants Influencing Telemedicine Services Acceptance by Healthcare Professionals: Case of Selected Hospitals in Ghana

Authors: Jonathan Kissi, Baozhen Dai, Wisdom W. K. Pomegbe, Abdul-Basit Kassim

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Protecting patient’s digital information is a growing concern for healthcare institutions as people nowadays perpetually live their lives through telemedicine services. These telemedicine services have been confronted with several determinants that hinder their successful implementations, especially in developing countries. Identifying such determinants that influence the acceptance of telemedicine services is also a problem for healthcare professionals. Despite the tremendous increase in telemedicine services, its adoption, and use has been quite slow in some healthcare settings. Generally, it is accepted in today’s globalizing world that the success of telemedicine services relies on users’ satisfaction. Satisfying health professionals and patients are one of the crucial objectives of telemedicine success. This study seeks to investigate the determinants that influence health professionals’ intention to utilize telemedicine services in clinical activities in a sub-Saharan African country in West Africa (Ghana). A hybridized model comprising of health adoption models, including technology acceptance theory, diffusion of innovation theory, and protection of motivation theory, were used to investigate these quandaries. The study was carried out in four government health institutions that apply and regulate telemedicine services in their clinical activities. A structured questionnaire was developed and used for data collection. Purposive and convenience sampling methods were used in the selection of healthcare professionals from different medical fields for the study. The collected data were analyzed based on structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. All selected constructs showed a significant relationship with health professional’s behavioral intention in the direction expected from prior literature including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, management strategies, financial sustainability, communication channels, patients security threat, patients privacy risk, self efficacy, actual service use, user satisfaction, and telemedicine services systems securities threat. Surprisingly, user characteristics and response efficacy of health professionals were not significant in the hybridized model. The findings and insights from this research show that health professionals are pragmatic when making choices for technology applications and also their willingness to use telemedicine services. They are, however, anxious about its threats and coping appraisals. The identified significant constructs in the study may help to increase efficiency, quality of services, quality patient care delivery, and satisfactory user satisfaction among healthcare professionals. The implantation and effective utilization of telemedicine services in the selected hospitals will aid as a strategy to eradicate hardships in healthcare services delivery. The service will help attain universal health access coverage to all populace. This study contributes to empirical knowledge by identifying the vital factors influencing health professionals’ behavioral intentions to adopt telemedicine services. The study will also help stakeholders of healthcare to formulate better policies towards telemedicine service usage.

Keywords: telemedicine service, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, management strategies, security threats

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192 The Effect of Taekwondo on Plantar Pressure Distribution and Arch Index

Authors: Maryam Kakavand, Samira Entezari, Sara Khoshjamalfekri, Raghad Mimar

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The objective of this study is 1) to compare elite female and beginner taekwondo players in terms of plantar pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, contact area, mean pressure, and right and left longitudinal arches, and 2) to compare preferred and non-preferred limbs among elite players. To the best of authors’ knowledge, as of yet, there is no information available about the plantar pressure distribution and arch index among taekwondo players. Material and Methods: An analytical-comparative research method is applied. Therefore seven elite athletes and eight novice athletes were selected. The emed-C50 platform was used to assess plantar pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, contact area, mean pressure of different areas, and planter longitudinal arch in a second step protocol. Independent t-test and dependent t-test were used at a level of 0.05 to compare the elites and beginners' right and left feet, and preferred and non-preferred limbs among elite athletes, respectively. Results: In comparing the right and left limbs of elite and beginner groups, findings indicate that there is only a significant difference in the mean pressure of the first metatarsal of the right foot. Findings also showed a significant difference in the contact area of the toes 3, 4, 5 regions between elites’ preferred and non-preferred limbs. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups’ right and left limbs and elites’ preferred and non-preferred limbs in terms of pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, and arch index. Conclusion: It seems that taekwondo exercises have affected pressure distribution patterns among advanced players causing some differences in their planter pressure distribution pattern when compared to that of beginners. Therefore, taekwondo exercises may be a factor contributing to asymmetry performance in preferred and non-preferred limbs.

Keywords: planter pressure, arch index, taekwondo, elite

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191 Understanding Young Migrant Children’s Play and Social Interaction through ‘Stay and Play’: An Ethnography of Somali Families in Bristol

Authors: Isla Monaghan, Filsan Youssuf, Tom Allport, Sabi Redwood

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Somali children in Bristol suffer from disproportionate burdens of developmental problems compared to their non-Somali peers. Further, understanding young Somali children’s opportunities for play and social interaction before the age of attending pre-school may assist the tailoring of early developmental interventions for Somali children and those from other migrant backgrounds. Ethnographic observations and informal semi-structured interviews are conducted in two early-years centres in Bristol to explore the activities and routines that Somali families are engaging in. An inclusive research approach is used that collaborates with Somali community members as an ‘insider’ to the field. Data is coded, analysed, and interpreted to consolidate themes that may influence the social experiences of Somali families. Data reveals three themes to influence social experiences: community assets and resources, fear of judgment, and privacy, and ‘closedness’. Each theme is discussed in relation to one overall theme of ‘social connectedness and social isolation’ that may influence children’s opportunities for play and social interaction. Stigma, structural discrimination, and structural inequalities may play an important role in engendering social isolation in migrant families. Early childhood development interventions should build on the community’s assets to promote social cohesion and family wellbeing. Policymakers and healthcare professionals must address the effects of structural inequalities on migrant families’ experiences in society in order to engage with migrant children’s opportunities and constraints for play and social interaction.

Keywords: community, early childhood development, inequality, migrant

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190 Early Childhood Developmental Delay in 63 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Prevalence and Inequalities Estimated from National Health Surveys

Authors: Jesus D. Cortes Gil, Fernanda Ewerling, Leonardo Ferreira, Aluisio J. D. Barros

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Background: The sustainable development goals call for inclusive, equitable, and quality learning opportunities for all. This is especially important for children, to ensure they all develop to their full potential. We studied the prevalence and inequalities of suspected delay in child development in 63 low- and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings: We used the early child development module from national health surveys, which covers four developmental domains (physical, social-emotional, learning, literacy-numeracy) and provides a combined indicator (early child development index, ECDI) of whether children are on track. We calculated the age-adjusted prevalence of suspected delay at the country level and stratifying by wealth, urban/rural residence, sex of the child, and maternal education. We also calculated measures of absolute and relative inequality. We studied 330.613 children from 63 countries. The prevalence of suspected delay for the ECDI ranged from 3% in Barbados to 67% in Chad. For all countries together, 25% of the children were suspected of developmental delay. At regional level, the prevalence of delay ranged from 10% in Europe and Central Asia to 42% in West and Central Africa. The literacy-numeracy domain was by far the most challenging, with the highest proportions of delay. We observed very large inequalities, and most markedly for the literacy-numeracy domain. Conclusions: To date, our study presents the most comprehensive analysis of child development using an instrument especially developed for national health surveys. With a quarter of the children globally suspected of developmental delay, we face an immense challenge. The multifactorial aspect of early child development and the large gaps we found only add to the challenge of not leaving these children behind.

Keywords: child development, inequalities, global health, equity

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189 Occupational Health Programs for Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining: A Systematic Review for the WHO Global Plan of Action for Workers' Health

Authors: Vivian W. L. Tsang, Karen Lockhart, Samuel Spiegel, Annalee Yassi

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Background: Workers in the informal economy often incur exposure to well-documented occupational health hazards. Insufficient attention has been afforded to rigorously evaluating intervention programs to reduce the risks, especially in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM). Objectives: This systematic review, conducted as part of the World Health Organization’s Global Plan of Action for Workers’ Health, sought to assess the state of knowledge on occupational health programs and interventions for the informal artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) sector, an occupation which directly employs at least 50 million people. Methods: We used a comprehensive search strategy for four well-known databases relevant to health outcomes: PubMed, Engineering Village, OVID Medline, and Web of Science, and employed the PRISMA framework for our analysis. Findings: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria of a primary study focused on assessing the impact of interventions addressing occupational health concerns in ASGM. There were no studies evaluating or even identifying comprehensive occupational health and safety programs for this sector, although target interventions addressing specific hazards exist. Major areas of intervention –education and introduction of mercury-reducing/eliminating technology were identified, and the challenges and limitations of each intervention taken into the assessment. Even for these, however, there was a lack of standardization for measuring outcome or impact, let alone long-term health outcomes for miners and mining communities. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for research on comprehensive occupational health programs addressing the array of hazards faced by artisanal and small-scale miners.

Keywords: informal economy, artisanal and small-scale gold mining, occupational health, health and safety, workplace safety

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188 Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells Ameliorate Cisplatin-Induced Acute Renal Failure through Autophagy Induction and Inhibition of Apoptosis

Authors: Soniya Nityanand, Ekta Minocha, Manali Jain, Rohit Anthony Sinha, Chandra Prakash Chaturvedi

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Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) have been shown to contribute towards the amelioration of Acute Renal Failure (ARF), but the mechanisms underlying the renoprotective effect are largely unknown. Therefore, the main goal of the current study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of AFSC in a cisplatin-induced rat model of ARF and to investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for its renoprotective effect. To study the therapeutic efficacy of AFSC, ARF was induced in Wistar rats by an intra-peritoneal injection of cisplatin, and five days after administration, the rats were randomized into two groups and injected with either AFSC or normal saline intravenously. On day 8 and 12 after cisplatin injection, i.e., day 3 and day7 post-therapy respectively, the blood biochemical parameters, histopathological changes, apoptosis and expression of pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic and autophagy-related proteins in renal tissues were studied in both groups of rats. Administration of AFSC in ARF rats resulted in improvement of renal function and attenuation of renal damage as reflected by significant decrease in blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine levels, tubular cell apoptosis as assessed by Bax/Bcl2 ratio, and expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins viz. PUMA, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 as compared to saline-treated group. Furthermore, in the AFSC-treated group as compared to saline-treated group, there was a significant increase in the activation of autophagy as evident by increased expression of LC3-II, ATG5, ATG7, Beclin1 and phospho-AMPK levels with a concomitant decrease in phospho-p70S6K and p62 expression levels. To further confirm whether the protective effects of AFSC on cisplatin-induced apoptosis were dependent on autophagy, chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor was administered by the intra-peritoneal route. Chloroquine administration led to significant reduction in the anti-apoptotic effects of the AFSC therapy and further deterioration in the renal structure and function caused by cisplatin. Collectively, our results put forth that AFSC ameliorates cisplatin-induced ARF through induction of autophagy and inhibition of apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective effects of AFSC were blunted by chloroquine, highlighting that activation of autophagy is an important mechanism of action for the protective role of AFSC in cisplatin-induced renal injury.

Keywords: amniotic fluid stem cells, acute renal failure, autophagy, cisplatin

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187 Application of RayMan Model in Quantifying the Impacts of the Built Environment and Surface Properties on Surrounding Temperature

Authors: Maryam Karimi, Rouzbeh Nazari

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Introduction: Understanding thermal distribution in the micro-urban climate has now been necessary for urban planners or designers due to the impact of complex micro-scale features of Urban Heat Island (UHI) on the built environment and public health. Hence, understanding the interrelation between urban components and thermal pattern can assist planners in the proper addition of vegetation to build-environment, which can minimize the UHI impact. To characterize the need for urban green infrastructure (UGI) through better urban planning, this study proposes the use of RayMan model to measure the impact of air quality and increased temperature based on urban morphology in the selected metropolitan cities. This project will measure the impact of build environment for urban and regional planning using human biometeorological evaluations (Tmrt). Methods: We utilized the RayMan model to estimate the Tmrt in an urban environment incorporating location and height of buildings and trees as a supplemental tool in urban planning and street design. The estimated Tmrt value will be compared with existing surface and air temperature data to find the actual temperature felt by pedestrians. Results: Our current results suggest a strong relationship between sky-view factor (SVF) and increased surface temperature in megacities based on current urban morphology. Conclusion: This study will help with Quantifying the impacts of the built environment and surface properties on surrounding temperature, identifying priority urban neighborhoods by analyzing Tmrt and air quality data at the pedestrian level, and characterizing the need for urban green infrastructure cooling potential.

Keywords: built environment, urban planning, urban cooling, extreme heat

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186 Human Factors Considerations in New Generation Fighter Planes to Enhance Combat Effectiveness

Authors: Chitra Rajagopal, Indra Deo Kumar, Ruchi Joshi, Binoy B.

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Role of fighter planes in modern network-centric military warfare scenarios has changed significantly in the recent past. New generation fighter planes have multi-role features capable of engaging both air and ground targets with high precision. Multi role aircraft undertakes missions such as air to air combat, air defence, air to surface role (including air interdiction, close air support, maritime attack, suppression and destruction of enemy air defence, reconnaissance, electronic warfare missions, etc. Designers have primarily focused on the development of technologies to enhance the combat performance of the fighter planes, and very little attention is given to human factor aspects of technologies. Unique physical and psychological challenges are imposed on the pilots to meet operational requirements during these missions. Newly evolved technologies have enhanced aircraft performance in terms of its speed, firepower, stealth, electronic warfare, situational awareness, and vulnerability reduction capabilities. This paper highlights the impact of emerging technologies on human factors for various military operations and missions. Technologies such as ‘cooperative knowledge-based systems’ to aid pilots decision making in military conflict scenarios as well as simulation technologies to enhance human performance is also studied as a part of research work. Current and emerging pilot protection technologies and systems which form part of the integrated life support systems in new generation fighter planes is discussed. System safety analysis application to quantify human reliability in military operations is also studied.

Keywords: combat effectiveness, emerging technologies, human factors, systems safety analysis

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185 Assessing the Use of Biomedicine in Nigeria: A Case Study of IDO and Northwest Local Government Areas of Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Adeyemi A. Ajisebiolola

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This study examined people’s responses to demand and consumption of herbal medicines in Nigeria. It also assessed people’s evaluation of the effectiveness of the existing medicines on the treatment of ailments and encouraging forest products utilization for greener future in terms of healthcare delivery. Two Local Government Areas, namely Ido and Ibadan Northwest were adopted for the study; Ido is characterized by rural populace and Ibadan Northwest by urban populace. Out of 500 questionnaires randomly administered to the households in the two local government areas of study, 481 (96.2%) were recovered. Statistical analysis employed showed that people were beginning to understand the importance of herbal medicines in Nigeria as majority of the households use herbal medicines to treat various ailments. Among the major problems encountered by the respondents are lack of precise dosage and adequate preservation methods. It was recommended that Forestry Research Institutes in Nigeria should be deeply involved in the findings on medicinal plants, package them into products and make them available to the society for sustainable healthcare management and greener future of the nation.

Keywords: demand and consumption, forest products, herbal medicines, Nigeria

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184 Human Skin Identification Using a Specific mRNA Marker at Different Storage Durations

Authors: Abla A. Ali, Heba A. Abd El Razik, Nadia A. Kotb, Amany A. Bayoumi, Laila A. Rashed

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The detection of human skin through mRNA-based profiling is a very useful tool for forensic investigations. The aim of this study was definitive identification of human skin at different time intervals using an mRNA marker late cornified envelope gene 1C. Ten middle-aged healthy volunteers of both sexes were recruited for this study. Skin samples controlled with blood samples were taken from the candidates to test for the presence of our targeted mRNA marker. Samples were kept at dry dark conditions to be tested at different time intervals (24 hours, one week, three weeks and four weeks) for detection and relative quantification of the targeted marker by RT PCR. The targeted marker could not be detected in blood samples. The targeted marker showed the highest mean value after 24 hours (11.90 ± 2.42) and the lowest mean value (7.56 ± 2.56) after three weeks. No marker could be detected at four weeks. This study verified the high specificity and sensitivity of mRNA marker in the skin at different storage times up to three weeks under the study conditions.

Keywords: human skin, late cornified envelope gene 1C, mRNA marker, time intervals

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183 Impacts of Online Behaviors on Empathy in Medical Students

Authors: Ling-Lang Huang, Yih-Jer Wu

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Empathy is crucial for a patient-physician relationship and medical professionalism. Internet activity, gaming, or even addiction, have been more and more common among medical students. However, there’s been no report showing whether internet behavior has a substantial impact on empathy in medical students to our best knowledge. All year-2 medical students taking the optional course 'Narrative, Comprehension, and Communication' were enrolled. Internet behaviors are divided into two groups, 'internet users without online gaming (IU)' and 'internet users with online gaming (IG)', each group was further divided into 3 groups according to their average online retention time each day (< 2, 2 - 6, > 6 hours). Empathy was evaluated by the scores of the reports and humanities reflection after watching indicated movies, and by self-measured empathy questionnaire. All students taking the year-2 optional course 'Narrative, Comprehension, and Communication' were enrolled. As compared with students in the IU group, those in the IG group had significantly lower scores for the reports (81.3 ± 3.7 vs. 86.4 ± 5.1, P = 0.014). If further dividing the students into 5 groups (IU < 2, IU 2-6, IG < 2, IG 2 - 6, and IG > 6 hours), the scores were significantly and negatively correlated to online gaming with longer hours (r = -0.556, P = 0.006). However, there was no significant difference between IU and IG groups (33.0 ± 5.4 vs. 34.8 ± 3.2, P = n.s.), in terms of scores in the self-measured empathy questionnaire, neither was there any significant trend of scores along with longer online hours across the 5 groups (r = -0.164, P = n.s.). To date, there has been no evidence showing whether different internet behaviors (with or without online gaming) have distinct impacts on empathy. Although all of the medical students had a similarly good self-perception for empathy, our data suggested that online gaming did have a negative impact on their actual expression of empathy. Our observation has brought up an important issue for pondering: May IT- or gaming-assisted medical learning actually harm students’ empathy? In conclusion, this data suggests that long hours of online gaming harms expression of empathy, though all medics think themselves a person of high empathy.

Keywords: empathy. Internet, medical students, online gaming

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182 Effectiveness of Balloon Angioplasty and Stent Angioplasty: Wound Healing in Critically Limb Ischemic

Authors: M. Wisnu Pamungkas, Patrianef Darwis

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Introduction: Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a vascular disease that has a significant amputation and mortality risk with diabetes mellitus, the most significant risk factor in CLI, is very common among Indonesian. Endovascular intervention (EVI) is preferred in treating CLI because it is noninvasive and effective. Balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty are the most common method of EVI in Indonesia. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty on wound healing in CLI. Method: A cross-sectional study enrolled 90 subjects of CLI who underwent endovascular intervention using balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty from January 2013 to July 2017 in dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. The wound healing period between balloon angioplasty dan stent angioplasty was analyzed using unpaired T-test with p<0,05 considered as statistically significant. Data of intervention method wound healing period, and subjects characteristic data (age, amputation, BMI, smoking habit, DM, occlusion site, and blood profile) were obtained. Result: The wound healing period in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty distributed normally. Mean value of wound healing period in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty are 84,8+/-2,423 and 59,93 +/- 2,423 days with a mean difference of 25 days. The difference in wound healing period in both groups is statically significant (p<0,05). The amputation event in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty is 22 and 16 event with no difference statistically. Conclusion: Stent angioplasty is a better method than balloon angioplasty for wound healing in patients with CLI.

Keywords: critical limb ischemia, endovascular intervention, wound healing, angioplasty

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181 Effect of Ambient Oxygen Content and Lifting Frequency on the Participant’s Lifting Capabilities, Muscle Activities, and Perceived Exertion

Authors: Atef M. Ghaleb, Mohamed Z. Ramadan, Khalid Saad Aljaloud

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The aim of this study is to assesses the lifting capabilities of persons experiencing hypoxia. It also examines the behavior of the physiological response induced through the lifting process related to changing in the hypoxia and lifting frequency variables. For this purpose, the study performed two consecutive tests by using; (1) training and acclimatization; and (2) an actual collection of data. A total of 10 male students from King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were recruited in the study. A two-way repeated measures design, with two independent variables (ambient oxygen (15%, 18% and 21%)) and lifting frequency (1 lift/min and 4 lifts/min) and four dependent variables i.e., maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), Electromyography (EMG) of four muscle groups (anterior deltoid, trapezius, biceps brachii, and erector spinae), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and rating of oxygen feeling (ROF) were used in this study. The results show that lifting frequency has significantly impacted the MAWL and muscles’ activities. The oxygen content had a significant effect on the RPE and ROE. The study has revealed that acclimatization and training sessions significantly reduce the effect of the hypoxia on the human physiological parameters during the manual materials handling tasks.

Keywords: lifting capabilities, muscle activities, oxygen content, perceived exertion

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180 Research on Health Emergency Management Based on the Bibliometrics

Authors: Meng-Na Dai, Bao-Fang Wen, Gao-Pei Zhu, Chen-Xi Zhang, Jing Sun, Chang-Hai Tang, Zhi-Qiang Feng, Wen-Qiang Yin

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Based on the analysis of literature in the health emergency management in China with recent 10 years, this paper discusses the Chinese current research hotspots, development trends and shortcomings in this field, and provides references for scholars to conduct follow-up research. CNKI(China National Knowledge Infrastructure), Weipu, and Wanfang were the databases of this literature. The key words during the database search were health, emergency, and management with the time from 2009 to 2018. The duplicate, non-academic, and unrelated documents were excluded. 901 articles were included in the literature review database. The main indicators of abstraction were, the number of articles published every year, authors, institutions, periodicals, etc. There are some research findings through the analysis of the literature. Overall, the number of literature in the health emergency management in China has shown a fluctuating downward trend in recent 10 years. Specifically, there is a lack of close cooperation between authors, which has not constituted the core team among them yet. Meanwhile, in this field, the number of high-level periodicals and quality literature is scarce. In addition, there are a lot of research hotspots, such as emergency management system, mechanism research, capacity evaluation index system research, plans and capacity-building research, etc. In the future, we should increase the scientific research funding of the health emergency management, encourage collaborative innovation among authors in multi-disciplinary fields, and create high-quality and high-impact journals in this field. The states should encourage scholars in this field to carry out more academic cooperation and communication with the whole world and improve the research in breadth and depth. Generally speaking, the research in health emergency management in China is still insufficient and needs to be improved.

Keywords: health emergency management, research situation, bibliometrics, literature

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179 Fingers Exergames to Improve Fine Motor Skill in Autistic Children

Authors: Zulhisyam Salleh, Fizatul Aini Patakor, Rosilah Wahab, Awangku Khairul Ridzwan Awangku Jaya

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Autism is a lifelong developmental disability that affects how people perceive the world and interact with others. Most of these children have difficulty with fine motor skills which typically struggle with handwriting and fine activities in their routine life such as getting dressed and controlled use of the everyday tool. Because fine motor activities encompass so many routine functions, a fine motor delay can have a measurable negative impact on a person's ability to handle daily practical tasks. This project proposed a simple fine motor exercise aid plus the game (exergame) for autistic children who discover from fine motor difficulties. The proposed exergame will be blinking randomly and user needs to bend their finger accordingly. It will notify the user, whether they bend the right finger or not. The system is realized using Arduino, which is programmed to control all the operated circuit. The feasibility studies with six autistic children were conducted and found the child interested in using exergame and could quickly get used to it. This study provides important guidance for future investigations of the exergame potential for accessing and improving fine motor skill among autistic children.

Keywords: autism children, Arduino project, fine motor skill, finger exergame

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178 From Electroencephalogram to Epileptic Seizures Detection by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Gaetano Zazzaro, Angelo Martone, Roberto V. Montaquila, Luigi Pavone

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Seizure is the main factor that affects the quality of life of epileptic patients. The diagnosis of epilepsy, and hence the identification of epileptogenic zone, is commonly made by using continuous Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal monitoring. Seizure identification on EEG signals is made manually by epileptologists and this process is usually very long and error prone. The aim of this paper is to describe an automated method able to detect seizures in EEG signals, using knowledge discovery in database process and data mining methods and algorithms, which can support physicians during the seizure detection process. Our detection method is based on Artificial Neural Network classifier, trained by applying the multilayer perceptron algorithm, and by using a software application, called Training Builder that has been developed for the massive extraction of features from EEG signals. This tool is able to cover all the data preparation steps ranging from signal processing to data analysis techniques, including the sliding window paradigm, the dimensionality reduction algorithms, information theory, and feature selection measures. The final model shows excellent performances, reaching an accuracy of over 99% during tests on data of a single patient retrieved from a publicly available EEG dataset.

Keywords: artificial neural network, data mining, electroencephalogram, epilepsy, feature extraction, seizure detection, signal processing

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177 The Influence of Human Factors Education on the Irish Registered Pre-Hospital Practitioner within the National Ambulance Service

Authors: Desmond Wade, Alfredo Ormazabal

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Background: Ever since it commenced its registration process of pre-hospital practitioners in the year 2000 through the Irish Government Statute Instrument (SI 109 of 2000) process, the approach to education of its professionals has changed drastically. The progression from the traditional behaviouristic to the current constructivist approach has been based on experiences from other sectors and industries, nationally and internationally. Today, the delivery of a safe and efficient ambulance service heavily depends on its practitioners’ range of technical skills, academic knowledge, and overall competences. As these increase, so does the level of complexity of paramedics’ everyday practice. This has made it inevitable to consider the 'Human Factor' as a source of potential risk and made formative institutions like the National Ambulance Service College to include it in their curriculum. Methods: This paper used a mixed-method approach, where both, an online questionnaire and a set of semi-structured interviews were the source of primary data. An analysis of this data was carried out using qualitative and quantitative data analysis. Conclusions: The evidence presented leads to the conclusion that in the National Ambulance Service there is a considerable lack of education of Human Factors and the levels in understanding of how to manage Human Factors in practice vary across its spectrum. Paramedic Practitioners in Ireland seem to understand that the responsibility of patient care lies on the team, rather than on the most hierarchically senior practitioner present in the scene.

Keywords: human factors, ergonomics, stress, decision making, pre-hospital care, paramedic, education

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176 Creating a Digital Map to Monitor the Care of People Living with HIV/Aids in Porto Alegre, Brazil: An Experience Report

Authors: Tiago Sigal Linhares, Ana Amélia Nascimento da Silva Bones, Juliana Miola, McArthur Alexander Barrow, Airton Tetelbom Stein

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Introduction: As a result of increased globalization and changing migration trends, it is expected that a significant portion of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) will change their place of residence over time. In order to provide better health care, monitor the HIV epidemic and plan urban public health care and policies, there is a growing need to formulate a strategy for monitoring PLWHA care, location and migration patterns. The Porto Alegre District is characterized by a high prevalence of PLWHA and is considered one of the epicenters of HIV epidemic in Latin America. Objectives: The aim of this study is to create a digital and easily editable map in order to create a visual representation of the location of PLWHA and to monitor their migration within the city and the country in an effort to promote longitudinal care. Methods: This Experience Report used Google Maps Map Creator to generate an active digital map showing the location and changes in residence of 165 PLWHA who received care at two Primary Health Care (PHC) clinics, which attended an estimated population of five thousand patients, in downtown Porto Alegre over the last four years. Their current addresses were discovered in the unified Brazilian health care system digital records (e-SUS) and updated on the map. Results: A digital map with PLWHA current residence location was created. It was possible to demonstrate visually areas with a large concentration of PLWHA and the migration of the population within the city as wells as other cities, regions and states. Conclusions: An easily reproducible and free map could aid in PLWHA monitoring, urban public health planning, target interventions and situational diagnosis. Moreover, a visual representation of PLWHA location and migration could help bring more attention and investments to areas with geographic inequities or higher prevalence of PLWHA. It also enables notification of local PHC units of monitored patients inside their area, which are in clinical risk or with treatment abandonment through active case findings, improving the care of PLWHA.

Keywords: health care, medical public health, theoretical and conceptual innovations, urban public health

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175 Measurements for Risk Analysis and Detecting Hazards by Active Wearables

Authors: Werner Grommes

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Intelligent wearables (illuminated vests or hand and foot-bands, smart watches with a laser diode, Bluetooth smart glasses) overflow the market today. They are integrated with complex electronics and are worn very close to the body. Optical measurements and limitation of the maximum light density are needed. Smart watches are equipped with a laser diode or control different body currents. Special glasses generate readable text information that is received via radio transmission. Small high-performance batteries (lithium-ion/polymer) supply the electronics. All these products have been tested and evaluated for risk. These products must, for example, meet the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility as well as the requirements for electromagnetic fields affecting humans or implant wearers. Extensive analyses and measurements were carried out for this purpose. Many users are not aware of these risks. The result of this study should serve as a suggestion to do it better in the future or simply to point out these risks. Commercial LED warning vests, LED hand and foot-bands, illuminated surfaces with inverter (high voltage), flashlights, smart watches, and Bluetooth smart glasses were checked for risks. The luminance, the electromagnetic emissions in the low-frequency as well as in the high-frequency range, audible noises, and nervous flashing frequencies were checked by measurements and analyzed. Rechargeable lithium-ion or lithium-polymer batteries can burn or explode under special conditions like overheating, overcharging, deep discharge or using out of the temperature specification. Some risk analysis becomes necessary. The result of this study is that many smart wearables are worn very close to the body, and an extensive risk analysis becomes necessary. Wearers of active implants like a pacemaker or implantable cardiac defibrillator must be considered. If the wearable electronics include switching regulators or inverter circuits, active medical implants in the near field can be disturbed. A risk analysis is necessary.

Keywords: safety and hazards, electrical safety, EMC, EMF, active medical implants, optical radiation, illuminated warning vest, electric luminescent, hand and head lamps, LED, e-light, safety batteries, light density, optical glare effects

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174 Development of the Drug Abuse Health Information System in Thai Community

Authors: Waraporn Boonchieng, Ekkarat Boonchieng, Sivaporn Aungwattana, Decha Tamdee, Wongamporn Pinyavong

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Drug addiction represents one of the most important public health issues in both developed and developing countries. The purpose of this study was to develop a drug abuse health information in a community in Northern Thailand using developmental research design. The developmental researchers performed four phases to develop drug abuse health information, including 1) synthesizing knowledge related to drug abuse prevention and identifying the components of drug abuse health information; 2) developing the system in mobile application and website; 3) implementing drug abuse health information in the rural community; and 4) evaluating the feasibility of drug abuse health information. Data collection involved both qualitative and quantitative procedures. The qualitative data and quantitative data were analyzed using content analysis and descriptive statistics, respectively. The findings of this study showed that drug abuse health information consisted of five sections, including drug-related prevention knowledge for teens, drug-related knowledge for adults and professionals, the database for drug dependence treatment centers, self-administered questionnaires, and supportive counseling sections. First, in drug-related prevention knowledge for teens, the developmental researchers designed four infographics and animation to provide drug-related prevention knowledge, including types of illegal drugs, causes of drug abuse, consequences of drug abuse, drug abuse diagnosis and treatment, and drug abuse prevention. Second, in drug-related knowledge for adults and professionals, the developmental researchers developed many documents in a form of PDF file to provide drug-related knowledge, including types of illegal drugs, causes of drug abuse, drug abuse prevention, and relapse prevention guideline. Third, database for drug dependence treatment centers included the place, direction map, operation time, and the way for contacting all drug dependence treatment centers in Thailand. Fourth, self-administered questionnaires comprised preventive drugs behavior questionnaire, drug abuse knowledge questionnaire, the stages of change readiness and treatment eagerness to drug use scale, substance use behaviors questionnaire, tobacco use behaviors questionnaire, stress screening, and depression screening. Finally, for supportive counseling, the developmental researchers designed chatting box through which each user could write and send their concerns to counselors individually. Results from evaluation process showed that 651 participants used drug abuse health information via mobile application and website. Among all users, 48.8% were males and 51.2% were females. More than half (55.3%) were 15-20 years old and most of them (88.0%) were Buddhists. Most users reported ever getting knowledge related to drugs (86.1%), and drinking alcohol (94.2%) while some of them (6.9%) reported ever using tobacco. For satisfaction with using the drug abuse health information, more than half of users reflected that the contents of drug abuse health information were interesting (59%), up-to date (61%), and highly useful to their self-study (59%) at high level. In addition, half of them were satisfied with the design in terms of infographics (54%) and animation (51%). Thus, this drug abuse health information can be adopted to explore drug abuse situation and serves as a tool to prevent drug abuse and addiction among Thai community people.

Keywords: drug addiction, health informatics, big data, development research

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173 Geographic Legacies for Modern Day Disease Research: Autism Spectrum Disorder as a Case-Control Study

Authors: Rebecca Richards Steed, James Van Derslice, Ken Smith, Richard Medina, Amanda Bakian

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Elucidating gene-environment interactions for heritable disease outcomes is an emerging area of disease research, with genetic studies informing hypotheses for environment and gene interactions underlying some of the most confounding diseases of our time, like autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Geography has thus far played a key role in identifying environmental factors contributing to disease, but its use can be broadened to include genetic and environmental factors that have a synergistic effect on disease. Through the use of family pedigrees and disease outcomes with life-course residential histories, space-time clustering of generations at critical developmental windows can provide further understanding of (1) environmental factors that contribute to disease patterns in families, (2) susceptible critical windows of development most impacted by environment, (3) and that are most likely to lead to an ASD diagnosis. This paper introduces a retrospective case-control study that utilizes pedigree data, health data, and residential life-course location points to find space-time clustering of ancestors with a grandchild/child with a clinical diagnosis of ASD. Finding space-time clusters of ancestors at critical developmental windows serves as a proxy for shared environmental exposures. The authors refer to geographic life-course exposures as geographic legacies. Identifying space-time clusters of ancestors creates a bridge for researching exposures of past generations that may impact modern-day progeny health. Results from the space-time cluster analysis show multiple clusters for the maternal and paternal pedigrees. The paternal grandparent pedigree resulted in the most space-time clustering for birth and childhood developmental windows. No statistically significant clustering was found for adolescent years. These results will be further studied to identify the specific share of space-time environmental exposures. In conclusion, this study has found significant space-time clusters of parents, and grandparents for both maternal and paternal lineage. These results will be used to identify what environmental exposures have been shared with family members at critical developmental windows of time, and additional analysis will be applied.

Keywords: family pedigree, environmental exposure, geographic legacy, medical geography, transgenerational inheritance

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172 Spatial Pattern of Environmental Noise Levels and Auditory Ailments in Abeokuta Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Olusegun Oguntoke, Aramide Y. Tijani, Olayide R. Adetunji

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Environmental noise has become a major threat to the quality of human life, and it is generally more severe in cities. This study assessed the level of environmental noise, mapped the spatial pattern at different times of the day and examined the association with morbidity of auditory ailments in Abeokuta metropolis. The entire metropolis was divided into 80 cells (areas) of 1000 m by 1000 m; out of which 33 were randomly selected for noise levels assessment. Portable noise meter (AR824) was used to measure noise level, and Global Positioning System (Garmin GPS-72H) was employed to take the coordinates of the sample sites for mapping. Risk map of the noise levels was produced using Kriging interpolation techniques based on the spatial spread of measured noise values across the study area. Data on cases of hearing impairments were collected from four major hospitals in the city. Data collected from field measurements and medical records were subjected to descriptive (frequency and percentage) and inferential (mean, ANOVA and correlation) statistics using SPSS (version 20.0). ArcMap 10.1 was employed for spatial analysis and mapping. Results showed mean noise levels range at morning (42.4 ± 4.14 – 88.2 ± 15.1 dBA), afternoon (45.0 ± 6.72– 86.4 ± 12.5 dBA) and evening (51.0 ± 6.55–84.4 ± 5.19 dBA) across the study area. The interpolated maps identified Kuto, Okelowo, Isale-Igbein, and Sapon as high noise risk areas. These are the central business district and nucleus of Abeokuta metropolis where commercial activities, high traffic volume, and clustered buildings exist. The monitored noise levels varied significantly among the sampled areas in the morning, afternoon and evening (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was found between diagnosed cases of auditory ailments and noise levels measured in the morning (r=0.39 at p < 0.05). Common auditory ailments found across the metropolis included impaired hearing (25.8%), tinnitus (16.4%) and otitis (15.0%). The most affected age groups were between 11-30 years while the male gender had more cases of hearing impairments (51.2%) than the females. The study revealed that environmental noise levels exceeded the recommended standards in the morning, afternoon and evening in 60.6%, 61% and 72.7% of the sampled areas respectively. Summarily, environmental noise in the study area is high and contributes to the morbidity of auditory ailments. Areas identified as hot spots of noise pollution should be avoided in the location of noise sensitive activities while environmental noise monitoring should be included as part of the mandate of the regulatory agencies in Nigeria.

Keywords: noise pollution, associative analysis, auditory impairment, urban, human exposure

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171 Recurrent Neural Networks for Classifying Outliers in Electronic Health Record Clinical Text

Authors: Duncan Wallace, M-Tahar Kechadi

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In recent years, Machine Learning (ML) approaches have been successfully applied to an analysis of patient symptom data in the context of disease diagnosis, at least where such data is well codified. However, much of the data present in Electronic Health Records (EHR) are unlikely to prove suitable for classic ML approaches. Furthermore, as scores of data are widely spread across both hospitals and individuals, a decentralized, computationally scalable methodology is a priority. The focus of this paper is to develop a method to predict outliers in an out-of-hours healthcare provision center (OOHC). In particular, our research is based upon the early identification of patients who have underlying conditions which will cause them to repeatedly require medical attention. OOHC act as an ad-hoc delivery of triage and treatment, where interactions occur without recourse to a full medical history of the patient in question. Medical histories, relating to patients contacting an OOHC, may reside in several distinct EHR systems in multiple hospitals or surgeries, which are unavailable to the OOHC in question. As such, although a local solution is optimal for this problem, it follows that the data under investigation is incomplete, heterogeneous, and comprised mostly of noisy textual notes compiled during routine OOHC activities. Through the use of Deep Learning methodologies, the aim of this paper is to provide the means to identify patient cases, upon initial contact, which are likely to relate to such outliers. To this end, we compare the performance of Long Short-Term Memory, Gated Recurrent Units, and combinations of both with Convolutional Neural Networks. A further aim of this paper is to elucidate the discovery of such outliers by examining the exact terms which provide a strong indication of positive and negative case entries. While free-text is the principal data extracted from EHRs for classification, EHRs also contain normalized features. Although the specific demographical features treated within our corpus are relatively limited in scope, we examine whether it is beneficial to include such features among the inputs to our neural network, or whether these features are more successfully exploited in conjunction with a different form of a classifier. In this section, we compare the performance of randomly generated regression trees and support vector machines and determine the extent to which our classification program can be improved upon by using either of these machine learning approaches in conjunction with the output of our Recurrent Neural Network application. The output of our neural network is also used to help determine the most significant lexemes present within the corpus for determining high-risk patients. By combining the confidence of our classification program in relation to lexemes within true positive and true negative cases, with an inverse document frequency of the lexemes related to these cases, we can determine what features act as the primary indicators of frequent-attender and non-frequent-attender cases, providing a human interpretable appreciation of how our program classifies cases.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, data-mining, machine learning, medical informatics

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170 Non-Time and Non-Sense: Temporalities of Addiction for Heroin Users in Scotland

Authors: Laura Roe

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This study draws on twelve months of ethnographic fieldwork conducted in 2017 with heroin and poly-substance users in Scotland and explores experiences of time and temporality as factors in continuing drug use. The research largely took place over the year in which drug-related deaths in Scotland reached a record high, and were statistically recorded as the highest in Europe. This qualitative research is therefore significant in understanding both evolving patterns of drug use and the experiential lifeworlds of those who use heroin and other substances in high doses. Methodologies included participant observation, structured and semi-structured interviews, and unstructured conversations with twenty-two regular participants. The fieldwork was conducted in two needle exchanges, a community recovery group and in the community. The initial aim of the study was to assess evolving patterns of drug preferences in order to explore a clinical and user-reported rise in the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), which are typically considered to be highly potent, synthetic substances, often available at a low cost. It was found, however, that while most research participants had experimented with NPS with varying intensity, those who used every day regularly consumed heroin, methadone, and alcohol with benzodiazepines such as diazepam or anticonvulsants such as gabapentin. The research found that many participants deliberately pursued the non-fatal effects of overdose, aiming to induce states of dissociation, detachment and uneven consciousness, and did so by both mixing substances and experimenting with novel modes of consumption. Temporality was significant in the decision to consume cocktails of substances, as users described wishing to sever themselves from time; entering into states of ‘non-time’ and insensibility through specific modes of intoxication. Time and temporality similarly impacted other aspects of addicted life. Periods of attempted abstinence witnessed a slowing of time’s passage that was tied to affective states of boredom and melancholy, in addition to a disruptive return of distressing and difficult memories. Abject past memories frequently dominated and disrupted the present, which otherwise could be highly immersive due to the time and energy-consuming nature of seeking drugs while in financial difficulty. There was furthermore a discordance between individual user temporalities and the strict time-based regimes of recovery services and institutional bodies, and the study aims to highlight the impact of such a disjuncture on the efficacy of treatment programs. Many participants had difficulty in adhering to set appointments or temporal frameworks due to their specific temporal situatedness. Overall, exploring increasing tendencies of heroin users in Scotland towards poly-substance use, this study draws on experiences and perceptions of time, analysing how temporality comes to bear on the ways drugs are sought and consumed, and how recovery is imagined and enacted. The study attempts to outline the experiential, intimate and subjective worlds of heroin and poly-substance users while explicating the structural and historical factors that shape them.

Keywords: addiction, poly-substance use, temporality, timelessness

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169 Reducing the Incidence of Hyperphosphatemia in Patients Receiving Dialysis

Authors: Tsai Su Hui

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Background: Hyperphosphatemia in patients receiving dialysis can cause hyperparathyroidism, which can lead to renal osteodystrophy, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Data showed that 26% of patients receiving dialysis had blood phosphate levels of >6.0 mg/dl at this unit from January to March 2017, higher than the Taiwan Society of Nephrology evaluation criteria of < 20%. After analysis, possible reasons included: 1. Incomprehensive education for nurse and lack of relevant training. 2. Insufficient assistive aids for nursing health education instruction. 3. Patients were unsure which foods are high or low in phosphate. 4. Patients did not have habits of taking medicine with them and how to correctly administer the medication. Purpose: To reduce the percentage of patients receiving dialysis with blood phosphate levels of >6.0 mg/dl to less than 20% at this unit. Method: (1) Improve understanding of hyperphosphatemia and food for patients receiving dialysis and their families, (2) Acquire more nursing instruction assistive aids and improve knowledge of hyperphosphatemia for nurse. Results: After implementing the project, the percentage of patients receiving dialysis with blood phosphate levels of >6.0 mg/dl decreased from 26.0% to 18.8% at this unit. By implementing the project, the professional skills of nurse improved, blood phosphate levels of patients receiving dialysis were reduced, and the quality of care for patients receiving dialysis at this unit was enhanced.

Keywords: hemodialysis, hyperphosphatemia, incidence, reducing

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168 Source-Detector Trajectory Optimization for Target-Based C-Arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: S. Hatamikia, A. Biguri, H. Furtado, G. Kronreif, J. Kettenbach, W. Birkfellner

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Nowadays, three dimensional Cone Beam CT (CBCT) has turned into a widespread clinical routine imaging modality for interventional radiology. In conventional CBCT, a circular sourcedetector trajectory is used to acquire a high number of 2D projections in order to reconstruct a 3D volume. However, the accumulated radiation dose due to the repetitive use of CBCT needed for the intraoperative procedure as well as daily pretreatment patient alignment for radiotherapy has become a concern. It is of great importance for both health care providers and patients to decrease the amount of radiation dose required for these interventional images. Thus, it is desirable to find some optimized source-detector trajectories with the reduced number of projections which could therefore lead to dose reduction. In this study we investigate some source-detector trajectories with the optimal arbitrary orientation in the way to maximize performance of the reconstructed image at particular regions of interest. To achieve this approach, we developed a box phantom consisting several small target polytetrafluoroethylene spheres at regular distances through the entire phantom. Each of these spheres serves as a target inside a particular region of interest. We use the 3D Point Spread Function (PSF) as a measure to evaluate the performance of the reconstructed image. We measured the spatial variance in terms of Full-Width-Half-Maximum (FWHM) of the local PSFs each related to a particular target. The lower value of FWHM shows the better spatial resolution of reconstruction results at the target area. One important feature of interventional radiology is that we have very well-known imaging targets as a prior knowledge of patient anatomy (e.g. preoperative CT) is usually available for interventional imaging. Therefore, we use a CT scan from the box phantom as the prior knowledge and consider that as the digital phantom in our simulations to find the optimal trajectory for a specific target. Based on the simulation phase we have the optimal trajectory which can be then applied on the device in real situation. We consider a Philips Allura FD20 Xper C-arm geometry to perform the simulations and real data acquisition. Our experimental results based on both simulation and real data show our proposed optimization scheme has the capacity to find optimized trajectories with minimal number of projections in order to localize the targets. Our results show the proposed optimized trajectories are able to localize the targets as good as a standard circular trajectory while using just 1/3 number of projections. Conclusion: We demonstrate that applying a minimal dedicated set of projections with optimized orientations is sufficient to localize targets, may minimize radiation.

Keywords: CBCT, C-arm, reconstruction, trajectory optimization

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167 The Internet of Healthcare Things: A European Perspective and a Review of Ethical Concerns

Authors: M. Emmanouilidou

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The Internet of Things (IoT) is a disruptive technological paradigm that is at the center of the digital evolution by integrating physical and virtual worlds leading to the creation of extended interconnected ecosystems that are characterized as smart environments. The concept of the IoT has a broad range of applications in different industries including the healthcare sector. The Internet of Healthcare Things (IoHT), a branch of the IoT, is expected to bring promising benefits to all involved stakeholders and accelerate the revolution of the healthcare sector through a transition towards preventive and personalized medicine. The socio-economic challenges that the healthcare sector is facing further emphasize the need for a radical transformation of healthcare systems in both developed and developing countries with the role of pervasive technological innovations, such as IoHT, recognized as key to counteract the relevant challenges. Besides the number of potential opportunities that IoHT presents, there are fundamental ethical concerns that need to be considered and addressed in relation to the application of IoHT. This paper contributes to the discussion of the emerging topic of IoHT by providing an overview of the role and potential of IoHT, highlighting the characteristics of the current and future healthcare landscape, reporting on the up-to-date status of IoHT in Europe and reflecting upon existing research in the ethics of IoHT by incorporating additional ethical dimensions that have been ignored which can provide pathways for future research in the field.

Keywords: ethics, Europe, healthcare, Internet of Things

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