Publications | World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40
40 Resolving a Piping Vibration Problem by Installing Viscous Damper Supports

Authors: Carlos Herrera Sierralta, Husain M. Muslim, Meshal T. Alsaiari, Daniel Fischer

Abstract:

The vast majority of piping vibration problems in the Oil & Gas industry are provoked by the process flow characteristics which are basically related to the fluid properties, the type of service and its different operational scenarios. In general, the corrective actions recommended for flow induced vibration in piping systems can be grouped in two major areas: those which affect the excitation mechanisms typically associated to process variables, and those which affect the response mechanism of the pipework per se. Where possible the first option is to try to solve the flow induced problem from the excitation mechanism perspective. However, in producing facilities the approach of changing process parameters might not always be convenient as it could lead to reduction of production rates or it may require the shutdown of the system. That impediment might lead to a second option, which is to modify the response of the piping system to excitation generated by the process flow. In principle, the action of shifting the natural frequency of the system well above the frequency inherent to the process always favours the elimination, or considerably reduces the level of vibration experienced by the piping system. Tightening up the clearances at the supports (ideally zero gap) and adding new static supports at the system, are typical ways of increasing the natural frequency of the piping system. However, only stiffening the piping system may not be sufficient to resolve the vibration problem, and in some cases, it might not be feasible to implement it at all, as the available piping layout could create limitations on adding supports due to thermal expansion/contraction requirements. In these cases, utilization of viscous damper supports could be recommended as these devices can allow relatively large quasi-static movement of piping while providing sufficient capabilities of dissipating the vibration. Therefore, when correctly selected and installed, viscous damper supports can provide a significant effect on the response of the piping system over a wide range of frequencies. Viscous dampers cannot be used to support sustained, static loads. This paper shows over a real case example, a methodology which allows to determine the selection of the viscous damper supports via a dynamic analysis model. By implementing this methodology, it is possible to resolve piping vibration problems by adding new viscous dampers supports to the system. The methodology applied on this paper can be used to resolve similar vibration issues.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, flow induced vibration, piping supports, turbulent flow, slug flow, viscous damper

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39 Land Use/Land Cover Mapping Using Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 in a Mediterranean Landscape

Authors: M. Vogiatzis, K. Perakis

Abstract:

Spatial-explicit and up-to-date land use/land cover information is fundamental for spatial planning, land management, sustainable development, and sound decision-making. In the last decade, many satellite-derived land cover products at different spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions have been developed, such as the European Copernicus Land Cover product. However, more efficient and detailed information for land use/land cover is required at the regional or local scale. A typical Mediterranean basin with a complex landscape comprised of various forest types, crops, artificial surfaces, and wetlands was selected to test and develop our approach. In this study, we investigate the improvement of Copernicus Land Cover product (CLC2018) using Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 pixel-based classification based on all available existing geospatial data (Forest Maps, LPIS, Natura2000 habitats, cadastral parcels, etc.). We examined and compared the performance of the Random Forest classifier for land use/land cover mapping. In total, 10 land use/land cover categories were recognized in Landsat 8 and 11 in Sentinel-2A. A comparison of the overall classification accuracies for 2018 shows that Landsat 8 classification accuracy was slightly higher than Sentinel-2A (82,99% vs. 80,30%). We concluded that the main land use/land cover types of CLC2018, even within a heterogeneous area, can be successfully mapped and updated according to CLC nomenclature. Future research should be oriented toward integrating spatiotemporal information from seasonal bands and spectral indexes in the classification process.

Keywords: land use/land cover, random forest, Landsat-8 OLI, Sentinel-2A MSI, Corine land cover

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38 Tutoring between “The Can Do” and “The Have to Do”: The Case of Batna 2 University, Algeria

Authors: Radia Guerza

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Tutoring in the Algerian university has been an issue of great controversy and debate. Henceforth, the current paper is an attempt to shed light on the issue of tutoring at the Algerian university. It aims to set a plan for tutoring that might meet the students’ needs and challenges. It endeavors to explore the viability of tutoring in the Algerian university between “The Can Do” and “The Have to Do”. To equate with the addressed research question, an exploratory small-scale study has been carried out at Batna 2 University using questionnaires and interviews with 50 teachers. Results indicate that the Algerian university is still lagging behind because of the huge lack of infrastructure means, human resources, and even pedagogical resources. In addition, the majority of our teachers are reluctant to adhere to the tutorial policy due to the lack of incentives; next to that the yearly increasing number of students and students’ high ratio would hardly permit any tutoring sessions. Finally, this paper is an attempt towards raising the awareness of our institution, staff members, teachers and students towards the importance of tutoring and how to adopt it. 

Keywords: higher education, tutoring, tutoring awareness, tutoring policy

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37 Evaluation of Sustainable Business Model Innovation in Increasing the Penetration of Renewable Energy in the Ghana Power Sector

Authors: Victor Birikorang Danquah

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Ghana's primary energy supply is heavily reliant on petroleum, biomass, and hydropower. Currently, Ghana gets its energy from hydropower (Akosombo and Bui), thermal power plants powered by crude oil, natural gas, and diesel, solar power, and imports from La Cote d'Ivoire. Until the early 2000s, large hydroelectric dams dominated Ghana's electricity generation. Due to the unreliable weather patterns, Ghana increased its reliance on thermal power. Thermal power contributes the highest percentage in terms of electricity generation in Ghana and is predominantly supplied by Independent Power Producers (IPPs). Ghana's electricity industry operates the corporate utility model as its business model. This model is typically 'vertically integrated', with a single corporation selling the majority of power generated by its generation assets to its retail business, which then sells the electricity to retail market consumers. The corporate utility model has a straightforward value proposition that is based on increasing the number of energy units sold. The unit volume business model drives the entire energy value chain to increase throughput, locking system users into unsustainable practices. This report uses the qualitative research approach to explore the electricity industry in Ghana. There is the need for increasing renewable energy such as wind and solar in the electricity generation. The research recommends two critical business models for the penetration of renewable energy in Ghana's power sector. The first model is the peer-to-peer electricity trading model which relies on a software platform to connect consumers and generators in order for them to trade energy directly with one another. The second model is about encouraging local energy generation, incentivizing optimal time-of-use behaviour, and allow any financial gains to be shared among the community members.

Keywords: business model innovation, electricity generation, renewable energy, solar energy, sustainability, wind energy

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36 Three-Dimensional Positioning Method of Indoor Personnel Based on Millimeter Wave Radar Sensor

Authors: Chao Wang, Zuxue Xia, Wenhai Xia, Rui Wang, Jiayuan Hu, Rui Cheng

Abstract:

Aiming at the application of indoor personnel positioning under smog conditions, this paper proposes a 3D positioning method based on the IWR1443 millimeter wave radar sensor. The problem that millimeter-wave radar cannot effectively form contours in 3D point cloud imaging is solved. The results show that the method can effectively achieve indoor positioning and scene construction, and the maximum positioning error of the system is 0.130 m.

Keywords: indoor positioning, millimeter wave radar, IWR1443 sensor, point cloud imaging

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35 Experiences and Impact of Attachment among Women with Insecure Attachment in Cohabitation: Implications for Therapeutic Practice

Authors: Ka Yan Chan

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Cohabitation among couples has been increasingly common in recent decades. Nonetheless, insufficient attention was given to the impact of attachment on cohabitation. This study discussed the experience of cohabitation among women with insecure attachments by collecting qualitative data through semi-structured interviews. Through thematic analysis, the study explored the characteristics of the women, the formation of cohabitation, struggles, coping mechanisms, and the impacts of cohabitation on the women. Moreover, the influences of the family-of-origin on cohabitation and the needs of the women were explored. The findings indicated that insecure attachment and the family-of-origin had significant effects on cohabitation and the interaction among the cohabitating couples. Women with insecure attachments were more likely to enter cohabitation unconsciously and without discussing what cohabitation means for their relationship with their partners. The findings also suggested that committing to marriage was not the only method for the women to feel secure in the relationship. Instead, long-lasting love and care, as well as reliability from their partners, could satisfy their emotional needs. More importantly, the findings revealed that repairing attachment problems and dealing with challenges in life stage transition is associated with positive impacts on the cohabitation experience. Additionally, to meet the needs of diverse family structures and to provide all-rounded support for enhancing the wellbeing of individuals, cohabitants, and couples, a comprehensive intervention model of relationship enrichment was discussed. 

Keywords: cohabitation, family-of-origin, insecure attachment, relationship enrichment

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34 A Qualitative Study into the Success and Challenges in Embedding Evidence-Based Research Methods in Operational Policing Interventions

Authors: Ahmed Kadry, Gwyn Dodd

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There has been a growing call globally for police forces to embed evidence-based policing research methods into police interventions in order to better understand and evaluate their impact. This research study highlights the success and challenges that police forces may encounter when trying to embed evidence-based research methods within their organisation. Ten in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with police officers and staff at Greater Manchester Police (GMP) who were tasked with integrating evidence-based research methods into their operational interventions. The findings of the study indicate that with adequate resources and individual expertise, evidence-based research methods can be applied to operational work, including the testing of initiatives with strict controls in order to fully evaluate the impact of an intervention. However, the findings also indicate that this may only be possible where an operational intervention is heavily resourced with police officers and staff who have a strong understanding of evidence-based policing research methods, attained for example through their own graduate studies. In addition, the findings reveal that ample planning time was needed to trial operational interventions that would require strict parameters for what would be tested and how it would be evaluated. In contrast, interviewees underscored that operational interventions with the need for a speedy implementation were less likely to have evidence-based research methods applied. The study contributes to the wider literature on evidence-based policing by providing considerations for police forces globally wishing to apply evidence-based research methods to more of their operational work in order to understand their impact. The study also provides considerations for academics who work closely with police forces in assisting them to embed evidence-based policing. This includes how academics can provide their expertise to police decision makers wanting to underpin their work through evidence-based research methods, such as providing guidance on how to evaluate the impact of their work with varying research methods that they may otherwise be unaware of.

Keywords: evidence based policing, evidence-based practice, operational policing, organisational change

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33 Compressed Sensing of Fetal Electrocardiogram Signals Based on Joint Block Multi-Orthogonal Least Squares Algorithm

Authors: Xiang Jianhong, Wang Cong, Wang Linyu

Abstract:

With the rise of medical IoT technologies, Wireless body area networks (WBANs) can collect fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) signals to support telemedicine analysis. The compressed sensing (CS)-based WBANs system can avoid the sampling of a large amount of redundant information and reduce the complexity and computing time of data processing, but the existing algorithms have poor signal compression and reconstruction performance. In this paper, a Joint block multi-orthogonal least squares (JBMOLS) algorithm is proposed. We apply the FECG signal to the Joint block sparse model (JBSM), and a comparative study of sparse transformation and measurement matrices is carried out. A FECG signal compression transmission mode based on Rbio5.5 wavelet, Bernoulli measurement matrix, and JBMOLS algorithm is proposed to improve the compression and reconstruction performance of FECG signal by CS-based WBANs. Experimental results show that the compression ratio (CR) required for accurate reconstruction of this transmission mode is increased by nearly 10%, and the runtime is saved by about 30%.

Keywords: telemedicine, fetal electrocardiogram, compressed sensing, joint sparse reconstruction, block sparse signal

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32 Channel Estimation for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Systems over Doubly Selective Channels Based on the DCS-DCSOMP Algorithm

Authors: Linyu Wang, Furui Huo, Jianhong Xiang

Abstract:

The Doppler shift generated by high-speed movement and multipath effects in the channel are the main reasons for the generation of a time-frequency doubly-selective (DS) channel. There is severe inter-carrier interference (ICI) in the DS channel. Channel estimation for an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system over a DS channel is very difficult. The simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit (SOMP) algorithm under distributed compressive sensing theory (DCS-SOMP) has been used in channel estimation for OFDM systems over DS channels. However, the reconstruction accuracy of the DCS-SOMP algorithm is not high enough in the low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) stage. To solve this problem, in this paper, we propose an improved DCS-SOMP algorithm based on the inner product difference comparison operation (DCS-DCSOMP). The reconstruction accuracy is improved by increasing the number of candidate indexes and designing the comparison conditions of inner product difference. We combine the DCS-DCSOMP algorithm with the basis expansion model (BEM) to reduce the complexity of channel estimation. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and its advantages over other algorithms.

Keywords: OFDM, doubly selective, channel estimation, compressed sensing

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31 Foreign Languages and Employability in the EU

Authors: Paulina Pietrzyk-Kowalec

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This paper presents the phenomenon of multilingualism becoming the norm rather than the exception in the European Union. It also seeks to describe the correlation between the command of foreign languages and employability. It is evident that the challenges of today's societies when it comes to employability are more and more complex. Thus, it is one of the crucial tasks of higher education to prepare its students to face this kind of complexity, understand its nuances, and have the capacity to adapt effectively to situations that are common in corporations based in the countries belonging to the EU. From this point of view, the assessment of the impact that the command of foreign languages of European university students could have on the numerous business sectors becomes vital. It also involves raising awareness of future professionals to make them understand the importance of mastering communicative skills in foreign languages that will meet the requirements of students' prospective employers. The direct connection between higher education institutions and the world of business also allows companies to realize that they should rethink their recruitment and human resources procedures in order to take into account the importance of foreign languages. This article focuses on the objective of the multilingualism policy developed by the European Commission, which is to enable young people to master at least two foreign languages, which is crucial in their future careers. The article puts emphasis on the existence of a crucial connection between the research conducted in higher education institutions and the business sector in order to reduce current qualification gaps.

Keywords: Cross-cultural communication, employability, human resources, language attitudes, multilingualism.

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30 Towards a Standardization in Scheduling Models: Assessing the Variety of Homonyms

Authors: Marcel Rojahn, Edzard Weber, Norbert Gronau

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Terminology is a critical instrument for each researcher. Different terminologies for the same research object may arise in different research communities. By this inconsistency, many synergistic effects get lost. Theories and models will be more understandable and reusable if a common terminology is applied. This paper examines the terminological (in)consistence for the research field of job-shop scheduling by a literature review. There is an enormous variety in the choice of terms and mathematical notation for the same concept. The comparability, reusability and combinability of scheduling methods is unnecessarily hampered by the arbitrary use of homonyms and synonyms. The acceptance in the community of used variables and notation forms is shown by means of a compliance quotient. This is proven by the evaluation of 240 scientific publications on planning methods.

Keywords: Job-shop scheduling, JSP, terminology, notation, standardization.

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29 Effective Stacking of Deep Neural Models for Automated Object Recognition in Retail Stores

Authors: Ankit Sinha, Soham Banerjee, Pratik Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

Automated product recognition in retail stores is an important real-world application in the domain of Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. In this paper, we consider the problem of automatically identifying the classes of the products placed on racks in retail stores from an image of the rack and information about the query/product images. We improve upon the existing approaches in terms of effectiveness and memory requirement by developing a two-stage object detection and recognition pipeline comprising of a Faster-RCNN-based object localizer that detects the object regions in the rack image and a ResNet-18-based image encoder that classifies  the detected regions into the appropriate classes. Each of the models is fine-tuned using appropriate data sets for better prediction and data augmentation is performed on each query image to prepare an extensive gallery set for fine-tuning the ResNet-18-based product recognition model. This encoder is trained using a triplet loss function following the strategy of online-hard-negative-mining for improved prediction. The proposed models are lightweight and can be connected in an end-to-end manner during deployment to automatically identify each product object placed in a rack image. Extensive experiments using Grozi-32k and GP-180 data sets verify the effectiveness of the proposed model.

Keywords: Retail stores, Faster-RCNN, object localization, ResNet-18, triplet loss, data augmentation, product recognition.

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28 Offset Dependent Uniform Delay Mathematical Optimization Model for Signalized Traffic Network Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

Authors: Tahseen Al-Shaikhli, Halim Ceylan, Jonathan Weaver, Osman Nuri Çelik, Onur Gungor Sahin

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A concept of uniform delay offset dependent mathematical optimization problem is derived as the main objective for this study using a differential evolution algorithm. Furthermore, the objectives are to control the coordination problem which mainly depends on offset selection, and to estimate the uniform delay based on the offset choice at each signalized intersection. The assumption is the periodic sinusoidal function for arrival and departure patterns. The cycle time is optimized at the entry links and the optimized value is used in the non-entry links as a common cycle time. The offset optimization algorithm is used to calculate the uniform delay at each link. The results are illustrated by using a case study and compared with the canonical uniform delay model derived by Webster and the highway capacity manual’s model. The findings show that the derived model minimizes the total uniform delay to almost half compared to conventional models; the mathematical objective function is robust; the algorithm convergence time is fast.

Keywords: Area traffic control, differential evolution, offset variable, sinusoidal periodic function, traffic flow, uniform delay.

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27 The Effect of Aerobic Training and Taxol Consumption on IL 8 and PAI-1 in Cervical Cancer

Authors: Alireza Barari, Maryam Firoozi, Maryam Ebrahimzadeh, Romina Roohani Ardeshiri, Maryam Kamarloeei

Abstract:

Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of six-week aerobic training and taxol consumption on interleukin-8 and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in mice with cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 female C57 mice with cervical cancer, eight weeks old, were randomly divided into 4 groups including: control, taxol supplement, training, and training-taxol supplement. The implantation of cancerous tumors was performed under the skin at the upper of the pelvis. The program training was included: endurance training for six weeks, 3 sessions per week and 50 minutes per session, at the speed of 14-18 m/s. Taxol supplement at a dose of 60 mg/kg per day was injected intraperitoneally. Data analysis was performed using t-test and one-way ANOVA and if statistically significant, Bonferroni post hoc was used at the significance level p < .05. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between the levels of interleukin 8 (P < 0.05, F = 12.25) and the PAI-1 (P < 0.05, P = 0.10737 between the 4 groups. The results of this study showed a significant difference between the control group and the training - complementary group. Six weeks of aerobic training and taxol consumption have a significant effect on the level of PAI-1 and interleukin-8 mice with cervical cancer. Conclusion: Considering the effect of training on these variables, this type of exercise can be used as a complementary therapeutic approach with other therapies for cervical cancer.

Keywords: Cervical cancer, taxol, endurance training, interleukin 8, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

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26 Eliciting and Confirming Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom in a Specialist Health Care Setting: The WICKED Method

Authors: S. Impey, D. Berry, S. Furtado, M. Galvin, L. Grogan, O. Hardiman, L. Hederman, M. Heverin, V. Wade, L. Douris, D. O'Sullivan, G. Stephens

Abstract:

Healthcare is a knowledge-rich environment. This knowledge, while valuable, is not always accessible outside the borders of individual clinics. This research aims to address part of this problem (at a study site) by constructing a maximal data set (knowledge artefact) for motor neurone disease (MND). This data set is proposed as an initial knowledge base for a concurrent project to develop an MND patient data platform. It represents the domain knowledge at the study site for the duration of the research (12 months). A knowledge elicitation method was also developed from the lessons learned during this process - the WICKED method. WICKED is an anagram of the words: eliciting and confirming data, information, knowledge, wisdom. But it is also a reference to the concept of wicked problems, which are complex and challenging, as is eliciting expert knowledge. The method was evaluated at a second site, and benefits and limitations were noted. Benefits include that the method provided a systematic way to manage data, information, knowledge and wisdom (DIKW) from various sources, including healthcare specialists and existing data sets. Limitations surrounded the time required and how the data set produced only represents DIKW known during the research period. Future work is underway to address these limitations.

Keywords: Healthcare, knowledge acquisition, maximal data sets, action design science.

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25 Impact of Enhanced Business Models on Technology Companies in the Pandemic: A Case Study about the Revolutionary Change in Management Styles

Authors: Murat Colak, Berkay Cakir Saridogan

Abstract:

Since the dawn of modern corporations, almost every single employee has been working in the same loop, which contains three basic steps: going to work, providing the needs for the work, and getting back home. Only a small amount of people was able to break that standard and live outside the box. As the 2019 pandemic hit the Earth and most companies shut down their physical offices, that loop had to change for everyone. This means that the old management styles had to be significantly re-arranged to the "work from home" type of business methods. The methods include online conferences and meetings, time and task tracking using algorithms, globalization of the work, and, most importantly, remote working. After the global epidemic started, even the tech giants were concerned. Now, it can be seen that those technology companies have an incredible step-up in their shares compared to the other companies because they know how to manage such situations even better than every other industry. This study aims to take the old traditional management styles in big companies and compare them with the post-Covid methods (2019-2022). As a result of this comparison made using the annual reports and shared statistics, this study aims to explain why the winners of this crisis are the technology companies.

Keywords: COVID-19, technology companies, business models, remote work.

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24 Developing Problem Solving Skills through a Project-Based Course as Part of a Lifelong Learning for Engineering Students

Authors: Robin Lok-Wang

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The purpose of this paper is to investigate how engineering students’ motivation and interests are maintained through a project-based course in their lifelong learning journeys. In recent years, different pedagogies of teaching including entrepreneurship, experiential and lifelong learnings as well as dream builder, etc., have been widely used for education purpose. University advocates hands-on practice, learning by experiencing and experimenting throughout different courses. Students are not limited to gain knowledge via traditional lectures, laboratory demonstration, tutorial and so on. The capabilities to identify both complex problems and its corresponding solutions in daily lives are one of the criteria/skill sets required for graduates to obtain their careers at professional organizations and companies. A project-based course, namely Mechatronic Design and Prototyping, was developed for students to design and build a physical prototype for solving existing problems in their daily lives, thereby encouraging them as an entrepreneur to explore further possibilities to commercialize their designed prototypes and launch it to the market. Feedbacks from students show that they are keen to propose their own ideas freely with guidance from instructor instead of using either suggested or assigned topics. Proposed ideas of the prototypes reflect that if students’ interests are maintained, they acquire the knowledges and skills they need, including essential communication, logical thinking and more importantly problem solving for their lifelong learning journey.

Keywords: Problem solving, lifelong learning, entrepreneurship, mechanical engineering.

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23 An Approach on Integrating Cooperative Education Experience into the Engineering Curriculum

Authors: Robin Lok-Wang

Abstract:

The center/unit for industry engagement and collaboration, as well as Internship, plays a significant role at a university. In general, the Center serves as the official interface between industry and the school or department to cultivate students’ early exposure to professional experience. The missions of the Center are not limited to provide a communication channel and collaborative platform for the industries and the university but also to assist students to build their career paths early while still at the university. In recent years, a cooperative education experience (commonly known as a co-op) has been strongly advocated for students to make the school-to-work transition. The nature of the co-op program is not only consistent with the internships/final year design projects, but it is also more industrial-oriented with academic support from faculty at the university. The purpose of this paper is to describe an approach to how cooperative education experience can be integrated into the engineering curriculum. It provides a mutual understanding and exchange of ideas for the approach between the university and industry. A suggested format in terms of timeline, duration, selection of candidates, students, and companies’ expectations for the co-op program is described. Also, feedback from employers/industries shows that a longer-term co-op program is well suited for students compared with a short-term internship. To this end, it provides an insight into collaboration and/or partnership between the university and the industries to prepare professional work-ready graduates.

Keywords: Cooperative education, internship, industry collaboration, engineering curriculum.

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22 Organizational Data Security in Perspective of Ownership of Mobile Devices Used by Employees for Works

Authors: B. Ferdousi, J. Bari

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With advancement of mobile computing, employees are increasingly doing their job-related works using personally owned mobile devices or organization owned devices. The Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) model allows employees to use their own mobile devices for job-related works, while Corporate Owned, Personally Enabled (COPE) model allows both organizations and employees to install applications onto organization-owned mobile devices used for job-related works. While there are many benefits of using mobile computing for job-related works, there are also serious concerns of different levels of threats to the organizational data security. Consequently, it is crucial to know the level of threat to the organizational data security in the BOYD and COPE models. It is also important to ensure that employees comply with the organizational data security policy. This paper discusses the organizational data security issues in perspective of ownership of mobile devices used by employees, especially in BYOD and COPE models. It appears that while the BYOD model has many benefits, there are relatively more data security risks in this model than in the COPE model. The findings also showed that in both BYOD and COPE environments, a more practical approach towards achieving secure mobile computing in organizational setting is through the development of comprehensive cybersecurity policies balancing employees’ need for convenience with organizational data security. The study helps to figure out the compliance and the risks of security breach in BYOD and COPE models.

Keywords: Data security, mobile computing, BYOD, COPE, cybersecurity policy, cybersecurity compliance.

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21 Hydraulic Conductivity Prediction of Cement Stabilized Pavement Base Incorporating Recycled Plastics and Recycled Aggregates

Authors: Md. Shams Razi Shopnil, Tanvir Imtiaz, Sabrina Mahjabin, Md. Sahadat Hossain

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Saturated hydraulic conductivity is one of the most significant attributes of pavement base course. Determination of hydraulic conductivity is a routine procedure for regular aggregate base courses. However, in many cases, a cement-stabilized base course is used with compromised drainage ability. Traditional hydraulic conductivity testing procedure is a readily available option which leads to two consequential drawbacks, i.e., the time required for the specimen to be saturated and extruding the sample after completion of the laboratory test. To overcome these complications, this study aims at formulating an empirical approach to predicting hydraulic conductivity based on Unconfined Compressive Strength test results. To do so, this study comprises two separate experiments (Constant Head Permeability test and Unconfined Compressive Strength test) conducted concurrently on a specimen having the same physical credentials. Data obtained from the two experiments were then used to devise a correlation between hydraulic conductivity and unconfined compressive strength. This correlation in the form of a polynomial equation helps to predict the hydraulic conductivity of cement-treated pavement base course, bypassing the cumbrous process of traditional permeability and less commonly used horizontal permeability tests. The correlation was further corroborated by a different set of data, and it has been found that the derived polynomial equation is deemed to be a viable tool to predict hydraulic conductivity.

Keywords: Hydraulic conductivity, unconfined compressive strength, recycled plastics, recycled concrete aggregates.

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20 Construction Innovation: Support for 3D Printing House

Authors: Andrea Palazzo, Daniel Macek, Veronika Malinova

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Contour processing is the new technology challenge for architects and construction companies. The many advantages it promises make it one of the most interesting solutions for construction in terms of automation of building processes. The technology for 3D printing houses offers many application possibilities, from low-cost construction, to being considered by NASA for visionary projects as a good solution for building settlements on other planets. Another very important point is that clients, as architects, will no longer have many limits in design concerning ideas and creativity. The prices for real estate are constantly increasing and the lack of availability of construction materials as well as the speculation that has been created around it in 2021 is bringing prices to such a level that in the future it will be difficult for developers to find customers for these ultra-expensive homes. Hence, this paper starts with the introduction of 3D printing, which now has the potential to gain an important position in the market, becoming a valid alternative to the classic construction process. This technology is not only beneficial from an economic point of view but it is also a great opportunity to have an impact on the environment by reducing CO2 emissions. Further on in the article we will also understand if, after the COP 26 (2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference), world governments could also push towards building technologies that reduce the waste materials that are needed to be disposed of and at the same time reduce emissions with the contribution of governmental funds. This paper will give us insight on the multiple benefits of 3D printing and emphasize the importance of finding new solutions for materials that can be used by the printer. Therefore, based on the type of material, it will be possible to understand the compatibility with current regulations and how the authorities will be inclined to support this technology. This will help to enable the rise and development of this technology in Europe and in the rest of the world on actual housing projects and not only on prototypes.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, building development building regulation, contour crafting, printing material.

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19 The Effects of System Change on Buildings Equipped with Structural Systems with the Sandwich Composite Wall with J-Hook Connectors and Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls

Authors: Majid Saaly, Shahriar Tavousi Tafreshi, Mehdi Nazari Afshar

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The sandwich composite walls (SCSSC) have more ductility and energy dissipation than conventional reinforced concrete shear walls. SCSSCs have acceptable compressive, shear, in-plane bending, and out-of-plane bending capacities. The use of sandwich-composite walls with J-hook connectors has a significant effect on energy dissipation and reduction of dynamic responses of mid-rise and high-rise structural models. In this paper, incremental dynamic analyses for 10- and 15-story steel structures were performed under seven far-faults by OpenSees. The demand values of 10- and 15-story models are reduced by up to 32% and 45%, respectively, while the structural system change from shear walls (SW) to SCSSC.

Keywords: Sandwich composite wall, SCSSC, fling step, fragility curve, IDA, inter story drift ratio.

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18 Strong Adhesion and High Wettability at Polyetheretherketone-Resin/Titanium-Dioxide Interface Obtained with Crystal-Orientation Control

Authors: Tomio Iwasaki, Yosuke Kawahito

Abstract:

The adhesion strength and wettability at the interfaces between a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) resin and titanium dioxide (TiO2) have become more important because direct joining of PEEK resin and titanium (Ti), whose surface has usually the oxide (TiO2), is needed not only in vehicles such as airplanes, automobiles, and space vehicles, but also in medical devices such as implants. To realize strong joint between the PEEK resin and TiO2, the dependence of the adhesion strength and wettability on crystal orientations of rutile TiO2 were investigated by using molecular simulations. Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted by combining quantum-mechanics equation of electrons with Newton’s equation of motion of nuclear coordinates (atomic coordinates). By putting a PEEK-resin sphere on a rutile TiO2 surface and by heating the system to 650 K, the contact angles at the interfaces were calculated to evaluate the wettability. After the system is cooled to 300 K from 650 K, to evaluate the adhesin strength, the adhesive fracture energy is calculated as the difference between the energy of the PEEK-TiO2 attached state and that of the PEEK-TiO2 detached state. The results of the contact angles showed that PEEK resin on the TiO2(100) and that on the TiO2(001) surface has low wettability with large contact angles. On the other hand, PEEK resin on the TiO2(110) surface has high wettability with a small contact angle. The results of the adhesive fracture energies showed that the adhesion at the PEEK-resin/TiO2(100) and PEEK-resin/TiO2(001) interfaces are weak. On the other hand, the adhesion at the PEEK-resin/TiO2(110) interface is strong. To clarify the reason that the higher wettability and stronger adhesion are obtained at the PEEK/TiO2(110) interface than at the at the PEEK/TiO2(100) and PEEK/TiO2(001) interfaces, atomic configurations at the interfaces were visualized. The atomic configuration at the PEEK/TiO2(110) interface showed that the lattice-matched coherent interface is realized, and the atomic density is high. On the other hand, the atomic configuration at the PEEK/TiO2(001) interface showed the lattice-unmatched incoherent interface. The atomic configuration at the PEEK/TiO2(100) interface showed that the atomic density is very low although the lattice-matched interface is realized. Therefore, the lattice matching and the high atomic density at the PEEK/TiO2(001) interface are considered to be dominant factors in the high wettability and strong adhesion.

Keywords: Adhesion, direct joining, PEEK, TiO2, wettability.

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17 The Use of Hydrocolloid Dressing in the Management of Open Wounds in Big Cats

Authors: Catherine Portelli

Abstract:

Felines, such as Panthera tigris, Panthera leo and Puma concolor, have become common residents in animal parks and zoos. They often sustain injuries from other felines within the same, or adjacent enclosures and from playing with items of enrichment and structures of the enclosure itself. These open wounds, and their treatments, are often challenging in veterinary practice, where feline-specific studies are lacking. This study is based on the author’s clinical experience gained while working at local animal parks in the past five years, and current evidence of hydrocolloid dressing applied to other species. Hydrocolloid dressing is used for secondary healing of chronic and acute wounds, where there is a considerable amount of tissue loss. The patients included in this study were sedated using medetomidine and ketamine every three to four days, for wound treatment and bandage change. Comparative studies of different techniques of open wound management will improve the healing process of exotic felines in the future by decreasing the time of recovery and incidence of other complications. Such studies will also aid with treatment of injuries sustained in wild felines, such as foot hold trap and bite wounds, found in natural conservation areas and wild animal sanctuaries.

Keywords: Felines, hydrocolloid dressing, open wound, secondary healing.

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16 The Indo-European and Old Iranian Fire and Its Relations with the Lur Fire

Authors: Behzad Moeini Sam, Sara Mohammadi Avandi, Afroz Kianpor

Abstract:

The rituals of fire among the Iranians originate in the general Proto-Indo-European and Indo-Iranian eras when they lived in regions known as the Pontic-Caspian (Indo-Europeans) and Kazakhstan (the Andronovo culture belonging to the Indo-Iranian tribes), and we can get to know about their vulgar heritage despite their separation from each other during several millennia. The early Aryan settlers of Iran had brought their cults to their new home and were bequeathed to them by their Indo-Iranian ancestors. Tradition speaks of several great sacred Iranian fires consecrated by the pre-Zoroastrian kings. Ātar or fire is comparable to the Vedic Agni Atar's functions and elaborately are delineated in the Later Avesta. This paper aims to show the fire cults among the Iranian Lur tribes who originate in the past. Therefore, it will be searched for rituals equally in Indo-European and Indo-Iranian Periods and Old Iranian Texts and their frequency among the Lur tribes. In addition to the library books, we tried to interview the chiefs of Lur tribes. Finally, we concluded that the fire among the Lur Tribes is a sequence of beliefs of the Proto-Indo-European and Indo-Iranian Periods reflected in Old and Middle Iranian texts.

Keywords: Indo-European, Ancient Iran, Fire, Lur, Zoroastrian.

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15 Survey of Communication Technologies for IoT Deployments in Developing Regions

Authors: Namugenyi Ephrance Eunice, Julianne Sansa Otim, Marco Zennaro, Stephen D. Wolthusen

Abstract:

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of connected data processing devices, mechanical and digital machinery, items, animals, or people that may send data across a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. Each component has sensors that can pick up on specific phenomena, as well as processing software and other technologies that can link to and communicate with other systems and/or devices over the Internet or other communication networks and exchange data with them. IoT is increasingly being used in fields other than consumer electronics, such as public safety, emergency response, industrial automation, autonomous vehicles, the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), and general environmental monitoring. Consumer-based IoT applications, like smart home gadgets and wearables, are also becoming more prevalent. This paper presents the main IoT deployment areas for environmental monitoring in developing regions and the backhaul options suitable for them based on a couple of related works. The study includes an overview of existing IoT deployments, the underlying communication architectures, protocols, and technologies that support them. This overview shows that Low Power Wireless Area Networks (LPWANs) are very well suited for monitoring environment architectures designed for remote locations. LoRa technology, particularly the LoRaWAN protocol, has an advantage over other technologies due to its low power consumption, adaptability, and suitable communication range. The current challenges of various architectures are discussed in detail, with the major issue identified as obstruction of communication paths by buildings, trees, hills, etc.

Keywords: Communication technologies, environmental monitoring, Internet of Things, IoT, IoT deployment challenges.

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14 Change Point Analysis in Average Ozone Layer Temperature Using Exponential Lomax Distribution

Authors: Amjad Abdullah, Amjad Yahya, Bushra Aljohani, Amani S. Alghamdi

Abstract:

Change point detection is an important part of data analysis. The presence of a change point refers to a significant change in the behavior of a time series. In this article, we examine the detection of multiple change points of parameters of the exponential Lomax distribution, which is broad and flexible compared with other distributions while fitting data. We used the Schwarz information criterion and binary segmentation to detect multiple change points in publicly available data on the average temperature in the ozone layer. The change points were successfully located.

Keywords: Binary segmentation, change point, exponential Lomax distribution, information criterion.

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13 Approach for a Safety Element out of Context for an Actuator Circuit Control Module

Authors: H. Noun, C. Urban-Seelmann, M. Abdelfattah, G. Zeller, G. Rajesh, I. Mozgova, R. Lachmayer

Abstract:

Several modules in automotive are usually modified and adapted for various project-specific applications. Due to a standardized safety concept a high reusability is accessible. A safety element out of context (SEooC) according to ISO 26262 can be a suitable approach. Based on the same safety concept and analysis, common modules can reach high reusability. For developing according to a module out of context, an appropriate and detailed development approach is required. This paper shows how to deduce this development processes for platform modules. Therefore, the detailed approach of the SEooC is derived. The aim is to create a detailed workflow for all phases of the development and integration of any kind of system modules. As an application example, an automotive project for an actuator control module is considered.

Keywords: Functional Safety, Safety Element out of Context, System Engineering, Hardware Engineering.

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12 A Saltwater Battery Inspired by the Membrane Potential Found in Biological Cells

Authors: Andrew Jester, Ross Lee, Pritpal Singh

Abstract:

As the world transitions to a more sustainable energy economy, the deployment of energy storage technologies is expected to increase to develop a more resilient grid system. However, current technologies are associated with various environmental and safety issues throughout their entire lifecycle; therefore, a new battery technology is desirable for grid applications to curtail these risks. Biological cells, such as human neurons and electrocytes in the electric eel, can serve as a more sustainable design template for a new bio-inspired (i.e., biomimetic) battery. Within biological cells, an electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane forms the membrane potential, which serves as the driving force for ion transport into/out of the cell akin to the charging/discharging of a battery cell. This work serves as the first step for developing such a biomimetic battery cell, starting with the fabrication and characterization of ion-selective membranes to facilitate ion transport through the cell. Performance characteristics (e.g., cell voltage, power density, specific energy, roundtrip efficiency) for the cell under investigation are compared to incumbent battery technologies and biological cells to assess the readiness level for this emerging technology. Using a Na+-Form Nafion-117 membrane, the cell in this work successfully demonstrated behavior like human neurons; these findings will inform how cell components can be re-engineered to enhance device performance.

Keywords: Battery, biomimetic, electrocytes, human neurons, ion-selective membranes, membrane potential.

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11 Improving Financial Education for Young Women: A Case Study of Australian School Students

Authors: Laura de Zwaan, Tracey West

Abstract:

There is a sustained observable gender gap in financial literacy, with females consistently having lower levels than males. This research explores the knowledge and experiences of high school students in Australia aged 14 to 18 in order to understand how this gap can be improved. Using a predominantly qualitative approach, we find evidence to support impacts on financial literacy from financial socialization and socio-economic environment. We also find evidence that current teaching and assessment approaches to financial literacy may disadvantage female students. We conclude by offering recommendations to improve the way financial literacy education is delivered within the curriculum.

Keywords: Financial literacy, financial socialization, gender, maths.

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10 Designing and Implementation of a Method Comprising One to One Web-Based Real-Time Communications

Authors: Lata Kiran Dey, Rajendra Kumar, Biren Karmakar

Abstract:

Web Real-Time Communications is a collection of standards, and protocols, which provide real-time communications capabilities between web browsers and devices. This paper outlines the design and further implementation of a web real-time communications method on a secure web application having audio and video call capabilities. This proposed application may put up a system that will be able to work over both desktop as well as mobile browsers. Web Real-Time Communications (WebRTC) also gives a set of JavaScript standard Real-Time Communications (RTC) Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), which primarily work over the RTC framework. This helps to build a suitable communication application, which enables the audio, video, and message transfer between today’s modern browsers having WebRTC support.

Keywords: WebRTC, Session Initiation Protocol, SIP, RTC, JavaScript, Secure Real Time Protocol, SRTP, Secure Web Sockets, Browser.

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9 An Introduction to Giulia Annalinda Neglia Viewpoint on Morphology of the Islamic City Using Written Content Analysis Approach

Authors: Mohammad Saber Eslamlou

Abstract:

Morphology of Islamic cities has been extensively studied by researchers. In this regard, there exist much difference in method of analysis, classification, recognition, confrontation and comparative method of urban morphology. The present paper aims to examine the previous methods, approaches and insights and how Dr. Giulia Annalinda Neglia dealt with the analysis of morphology of Islamic cities. Neglia is assistant professor in University of Bari, Italy (UNIBA) who has published numerous papers and books on Islamic cities. We introduce the works in the field of morphology of Islamic cities and then, her thoughts, insights and research methodologies are presented and analyzed in critical perspective. This is a qualitative research on her written works, which have been classified in three major categories. The present paper focuses mainly on her works regarding morphology and physical shape of Islamic cities. The results of her works’ review suggest that she has used Moratoria typology in investigating morphology of Islamic cities. Moreover, overall structure of the cities under investigation is often described linear; however, she is against to define a single framework for the recognition of morphology in Islamic cities. She believes that fabric of each region in the city follows from the principles of a specific period or urban pattern, in particular, Hellenistic and Roman structures. Furthermore, she believes that it is impossible to understand the morphology of a city without taking into account the obvious and hidden developments associated with it, because form of building and their surrounding open spaces are written history of the city.

Keywords: City, Islamic city, morphology of city, Giulia Annalinda Neglia.

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8 Slip Limit Prediction of High-Strength Bolt Joints Based on Local Approach

Authors: Chang He, Hiroshi Tamura, Hiroshi Katsuchi, Jiaqi Wang

Abstract:

In this study, the aim is to infer the slip limit (static friction limit) of contact interfaces in bolt friction joints by analyzing other bolt friction joints with the same contact surface but in a different shape. By using the Weibull distribution to deal with microelements on the contact surface statistically, the slip limit of a certain type of bolt joint was predicted from other types of bolt joint with the same contact surface. As a result, this research succeeded in predicting the slip limit of bolt joins with different numbers of contact surfaces and with different numbers of bolt rows.

Keywords: Bolt joints, slip coefficient, finite element method, Weibull distribution.

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7 Exemplary Practice: A Case Study of One of New Zealand’s Most Successful Enterprise Education Teachers

Authors: K. Lee

Abstract:

Many teachers are experienced; however, experience does not necessarily equate to excellence. Excellence in teaching is the single most powerful influence on student achievement. This qualitative, interpretivist case study investigates the practices of one of the nation’s most acknowledged teachers in enterprise education. In a number of semi-structured interviews, and observational visits, this remote regional teacher talked freely about what skills and strategies she used to achieve this success. Findings from this study were compared to key ideas developed by Professor John Hattie with regards to differences between expert, excellent and experienced teachers. Key findings showed the ‘expert teacher’ central to this study; ensured learning was engaging, challenging yet achievable for all (for both teacher and student of all abilities), authentic and driven by local needs, involved community supports; and ensured the process and learning was constantly monitored and teaching adjusted accordingly. It is anticipated that the data collected via observations, semi-structured interviews, and document analysis will help others to support students to gain greater success (in whatever form that may take).

Keywords: Expert teacher, enterprise education, excellence, skills and strategies.

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6 Vibration Transmission across Junctions of Walls and Floors in an Apartment Building: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Hugo Sampaio Libero, Max de Castro Magalhaes

Abstract:

The perception of sound radiated from a building floor is greatly influenced by the rooms in which it is immersed and by the position of both listener and source. The main question that remains unanswered is related to the influence of the source position on the sound power radiated by a complex wall-floor system in buildings. This research is concerned with the investigation of vibration transmission across walls and floors in buildings. It is primarily based on the determination of vibration reduction index via experimental tests. Knowledge of this parameter may help in predicting noise and vibration propagation in building components. First, the physical mechanisms involving vibration transmission across structural junctions is described. An experimental set-up is performed to aid this investigation. The experimental tests have showed that the vibration generation in the walls and floors are directed related to their size and boundary conditions. It is also shown that the vibration source position can affect the overall vibration spectrum significantly. Second, the characteristics of the noise spectra inside the rooms due to an impact source (tapping machine) are also presented. Conclusions are drawn for the general trend of vibration and noise spectrum of the structural components and rooms respectively. In summary, the aim of this paper is to investigate the vibro-acoustical behavior of building floors and walls under floor impact excitation. The impact excitation was at distinct positions on the slab. The analysis has highlighted the main physical characteristics of the vibration transmission mechanism.

Keywords: Vibration transmission, Vibration Reduction Index, Impact excitation, building acoustics.

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5 Impact of Revenue Reform on Vulnerable Communities in Tonga

Authors: Pauliasi Tony Fakahau

Abstract:

This paper provides an overview of the impact of the revenue reform programme on vulnerable communities in the Kingdom of Tonga. Economic turmoil and mismanagement during the late 1990s forced the government to seek technical and financial assistance from the Asian Development Bank to undertake a comprehensive Economic and Public Sector Reform (EPSR) programme. The EPSR is a Western model recommended by donor agencies as the solution to Tonga’s economic challenges. The EPSR programme included public sector reform, private sector growth, and revenue generation. Tax reform was the main tool for revenue generation, which set out to strengthen tax compliance and administration as well as implement a value-added consumption tax. The EPSR is based on Western values and ideology but failed to recognise that Tongan cultural values are important to the local community. Two participant groups were interviewed. Participant group one consisted of 51 people representing vulnerable communities. Participant group two consisted of six people from the government and business sector who were from the elite of Tongan society. The Kakala Research Methodology provided the framework for the research, and the Talanoa Research Method was used to conduct semi-structured interviews in the homes of the first group and in the workplaces of the second group. The research found a heavy burden of the consumption tax on the purchasing power of participant group one (vulnerable participants), having an impact on nearly every financial transaction they made. Participant group one’s main financial priorities were kavenga fakalotu (obligations to the church), kavenga fakafāmili (obligations to the family) and kavenga fakafonua (obligations to cultural events for the village, nobility, and royalty). The findings identified inequalities of the revenue reform, especially from consumption tax, for vulnerable people and communities compared to the elite of society. The research concluded that government and donor agencies need ameliorating policies to reduce the burden of tax on vulnerable groups more susceptible to the impact of revenue reform.

Keywords: Tax reform, Tonga vulnerable community revenue, revenue reform, public sector reform.

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4 Breast Cancer Prediction Using Score-Level Fusion of Machine Learning and Deep Learning Models

Authors: [email protected]

Abstract:

Breast cancer is one of the most common types in women. Early prediction of breast cancer helps physicians detect cancer in its early stages. Big cancer data need a very powerful tool to analyze and extract predictions. Machine learning and deep learning are two of the most efficient tools for predicting cancer based on textual data. In this study, we developed a fusion model of two machine learning and deep learning models. To obtain the final prediction, Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM), ensemble learning with hyper parameters optimization, and score-level fusion is used. Experiments are done on the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) dataset after balancing and grouping the class categories. Five different training scenarios are used, and the tests show that the designed fusion model improved the performance by 3.3% compared to the individual models.

Keywords: Machine learning, Deep learning, cancer prediction, breast cancer, LSTM, Score-Level Fusion.

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3 Gaussian Particle Flow Bernoulli Filter for Single Target Tracking

Authors: Hyeongbok Kim, Lingling Zhao, Xiaohong Su, Junjie Wang

Abstract:

The Bernoulli filter is a precise Bayesian filter for single target tracking based on the random finite set theory. The standard Bernoulli filter often underestimates the number of the targets. This study proposes a Gaussian particle flow (GPF) Bernoulli filter employing particle flow to migrate particles from prior to posterior positions to improve the performance of the standard Bernoulli filter. By employing the particle flow filter, the computational speed of the Bernoulli filters is significantly improved. In addition, the GPF Bernoulli filter provides more accurate estimation compared with that of the standard Bernoulli filter. Simulation results confirm the improved tracking performance and computational speed in two- and three-dimensional scenarios compared with other algorithms.

Keywords: Bernoulli filter, particle filter, particle flow filter, random finite sets, target tracking.

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2 Application of Agile Project Methodology in Computational Fluid Dynamics Engineering Project

Authors: Mohammed Bilal, Noor Hyder

Abstract:

Agile methodology is a popular project management methodology and is widely used in many engineering projects. In the recent years agile methodology is successful in countering the inherent problems seen in traditional methodology. The application of the Agile methodology in the computational fluid dynamic project had improved the project delivery performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the method to solve and analyze the fluid flow problems by the application of the numerical analysis. In this paper, study is conducted using agile methodology and results are compared with waterfall methodology. The result shows that the agile methodology is improves the final delivery of the project.

Keywords: Agile methodology, traditional methodology, engineering management, engineering technology, Computational Fluid Dynamics, project management.

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1 Identifying the Gap between Consumers with Down Syndrome and Apparel Brands

Authors: Lucky Farha, Martha L. Hall

Abstract:

The current adaptive clothing brands are limited in numbers and specific categories. This study explores clothing challenges for children with Down syndrome and factors that influence their perception of adaptive clothing brands. Another aim of this study was to explore brands' challenges in the adaptive business and factors that influence their perceptions towards the adaptive market. In order to determine the market barriers affecting adaptive target market needs, we applied Technology Acceptance Model. After interviewing and surveying parents/caregivers having children with Down syndrome and current adaptive brands, the results found education as the significant gap in the adaptive clothing market yet to be overcome. Based on the finding, several recommendations were suggested to improve the current barriers in the adaptive clothing market.

Keywords: Adaptive fashion, disability, functional clothing, clothing needs assessment, Down syndrome, clothing challenge.

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