Search results for: volumetric properties
2877 Assessment of Compaction Temperatures on Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Properties
Authors: Houman Saedi
Abstract:Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) is one of the most commonest constructed asphalts in Iran and the quality control of constructed roads with HMA have been always paid due attention by researchers. The quality control of constructed roads with this method is being usually carried out by measuring volumetric parameters of HMA marshall samples. One of the important parameters that has a critical role in changing these volumetric parameters is “compaction temperature"; which as a result of its changing, volumetric parameters of Marshall Samples and subsequently constructed asphalt is encountered with variations. In this study, considering the necessity of preservation of the compaction temperature, the effect of various temperatures on Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) samples properties has been evaluated. As well, to evaluate the effect of this parameter on different grading, two different grading (Top coat index grading and binder index grading) have been used and samples were compacted at 5 various temperatures.
Keywords: Compaction Temperature, HMA, Volumetric Parameters, Marshall MethodProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2809
2876 The Effect of Material Properties and Volumetric Changes in Phase Transformation to the Final Residual Stress of Welding Process
Authors: Djarot B. Darmadi
Abstract:The wider growing Finite Element Method (FEM) application is caused by its benefits of cost saving and environment friendly. Also, by using FEM a deep understanding of certain phenomenon can be achieved. This paper observed the role of material properties and volumetric change when Solid State Phase Transformation (SSPT) takes place in residual stress formation due to a welding process of ferritic steels through coupled Thermo- Metallurgy-Mechanical (TMM) analysis. The correctness of FEM residual stress prediction was validated by experiment. From parametric study of the FEM model, it can be concluded that the material properties change tend to over-predicts residual stress in the weld center whilst volumetric change tend to underestimates it. The best final result is the compromise of both by incorporates them in the model which has a better result compared to a model without SSPT.
Keywords: Residual stress, ferritic steels, SSPT, coupled-TMM.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1847
2875 Calculation of Density for Refrigerant Mixtures in Sub Critical Regions for Use in the Buildings
Authors: Mohammad Reza Mobinipouya, Zahra Barzegar
Accurate and comprehensive thermodynamic properties of pure and mixture of refrigerants are in demand by both producers and users of these materials. Information about thermodynamic properties is important initially to qualify potential candidates for working fluids in refrigeration machinery. From practical point of view, Refrigerants and refrigerant mixtures are widely used as working fluids in many industrial applications, such as refrigerators, heat pumps, and power plants The present work is devoted to evaluating seven cubic equations of state (EOS) in predicting gas and liquid phase volumetric properties of nine ozone-safe refrigerants both in super and sub-critical regions. The evaluations, in sub-critical region, show that TWU and PR EOS are capable of predicting PVT properties of refrigerants R32 within 2%, R22, R134a, R152a and R143a within 1% and R123, R124, R125, TWU and PR EOS's, from literature data are 0.5% for R22, R32, R152a, R143a, and R125, 1% for R123, R134a, and R141b, and 2% for R124. Moreover, SRK EOS predicts PVT properties of R22, R125, and R123 to within aforementioned errors. The remaining EOS's predicts volumetric properties of this class of fluids with higher errors than those above mentioned which are at most 8%.In general, the results are in favor of the preference of TWU and PR EOS over other remaining EOS's in predicting densities of all mentioned refrigerants in both super and sub critical regions. Typically, this refrigerant is known to offer advantages such as ozone depleting potential equal to zero, Global warming potential equal to 140, and no toxic.
Keywords: Refrigerant, cooling systems, Sub-CriticalRegions, volumetric properties, efficiency.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2027
2874 Is It Important to Measure the Volumetric Mass Density of Nanofluids?
Authors: Z. Haddad, C. Abid, O. Rahli, O. Margeat, W. Dachraoui, A. Mataoui
The present study aims to measure the volumetric mass density of NiPd-heptane nanofluids synthesized using a one step method known as thermal decomposition of metal-surfactant complexes. The particle concentration is up to 7.55g/l and the temperature range of the experiment is from 20°C to 50°C. The measured values were compared with the mixture theory and good agreement between the theoretical equation and measurement were obtained. Moreover, the available nanofluids volumetric mass density data in the literature is reviewed.
Keywords: NiPd nanoparticles, nanofluids, volumetric mass density, stability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2566
2873 Optimizing PelletPAVE™ Rubberized Asphalt Mix Design Using Gyratory Compaction and Volumetrics
Authors: H. Al-Baghli
In this investigation, rubberized HMA technology was examined to address the most critical forms of pavement distresses in the State of Kuwait, namely, high temperature rutting, and moisture induced raveling. PelletPAVE™ additive was selected as the preferred technology, since it offered a convenient method of directly modifying the exiting local HMA recipe without having to polymer modify the bitumen. Experimental work, using various Pelletpave contents was carried out at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) to design an optimum rubberized HMA formulation prior to conducting a pilot-scale road trial. With the aid of a gyratory compactor, the compaction and volumetric properties of HMAs containing 2.5% and 3.0% Pelletpave additive were investigated at a range of bitumen contents, all by mass of total mix.
Keywords: Modified bitumen, rubberized hot mix asphalt, gyratory compaction, volumetric properties.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 182
2872 Performance Evaluation and Modeling of a Conical Plunging Jet Aerator
Authors: Surinder Deswal, D. V. S. Verma
Aeration by a plunging water jet is an energetically attractive way to effect oxygen-transfer than conventional oxygenation systems. In the present study, a new type of conical shaped plunging aeration device is fabricated to generate hollow inclined ined plunging jets (jet plunge angle of π/3 ) to investigate its oxygen transfer capacity. The results suggest that the volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient and oxygen-transfer efficiency of the conical plunging jet aerator are competitive with other types of aeration systems. Relationships of volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient with jet power per unit volume and jet parameters are also proposed. The suggested relationships predict the volumetric oxygentransfer coefficient within a scatter of ± 15% . Further, the application of Support Vector Machines on the experimental data revealed its utility in the prediction of volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient and development of conical plunging jet aerators.
Keywords: Conical plunging jet, oxygen-transfer efficiency, support vector machines, volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1859
2871 Experimental Study of Different Types of Concrete in Uniaxial Compression Test
Authors: Khashayar Jafari, Mostafa Jafarian Abyaneh, Vahab Toufigh
Polymer concrete (PC) is a distinct concrete with superior characteristics in comparison to ordinary cement concrete. It has become well-known for its applications in thin overlays, floors and precast components. In this investigation, the mechanical properties of PC with different epoxy resin contents, ordinary cement concrete (OCC) and lightweight concrete (LC) have been studied under uniaxial compression test. The study involves five types of concrete, with each type being tested four times. Their complete elastic-plastic behavior was compared with each other through the measurement of volumetric strain during the tests. According to the results, PC showed higher strength, ductility and energy absorption with respect to OCC and LC.
Keywords: Polymer concrete, ordinary cement concrete, lightweight concrete, uniaxial compression test, volumetric strain.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1021
2870 Study of Ether Species Effects on Physicochemical Properties of Palm Oil Ether Monoesters as Novel Biodiesels
Authors: Hejun Guo, Shenghua Liu
Five palm oil ether monoesters utilized as novel biodiesels were synthesized and structurally identified in the paper. The investigation was made on the effect of ether species on physicochemical properties of the palm oil ether monoesters. The results showed that density, kinematic viscosity, smoke point, and solidifying point increase linearly with their –CH2 group number in certain relationships. Cetane number is enhanced whereas heat value decreases linearly with –CH2 group number. In addition, the influencing regularities of the volumetric content of the palm oil ether monoesters on the fuel properties were also studied when the ether monoesters are used as diesel fuel additives.
Keywords: Biodiesel, palm oil ether monoester, ether species, physicochemical property.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1392
2869 Oxygen Transfer by Multiple Inclined Plunging Water Jets
Authors: Surinder Deswal
Abstract:There has been a growing interest in the oxygenation by plunging water jets in the last few years due to their inherent advantages, like energy-efficient, low operation cost, etc. Though a lot of work has been reported on the oxygen-transfer by single plunging water jets but very few studies have been carried out using multiple plunging jets. In this paper, volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient and oxygen-transfer efficiency has been studied experimentally for multiple inclined plunging jets (having jet plunge angle of 60 0 ) in a pool of water for different configurations, in terms of varying number of jets and jet diameters. This research suggests that the volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient and oxygentransfer efficiency of the multiple inclined plunging jets for air-water system are significantly higher than those of a single vertical as well as inclined plunging jet for same flow area and other similar conditions. The study also reveals that the oxygen-transfer increase with increase in number of multiple jets under similar conditions, which will be most advantageous and energy-efficient in practical situations when large volumes of wastewaters are to be treated. A relationship between volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient and jet parameters is also proposed. The suggested relationship predicts the volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient for multiple inclined plunging jet(s) within a scatter of ±15 percent. The relationship will be quite useful in scale-up and in deciding optimum configuration of multiple inclined plunging jet aeration system.
Keywords: Multiple inclined plunging jets, jet plunge angle, volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient, oxygen-transfer efficiency.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1666
2868 Durability Properties of Foamed Concrete with Fiber Inclusion
Authors: Hanizam Awang, Muhammad Hafiz Ahmad
An experimental study was conducted on foamed concrete with synthetic and natural fibres consisting of AR-glas, polypropylene, steel, kenaf and oil palm fibre. The foamed concrete mixtures produced had a target density of 1000kg/m3 and a mix ratio of (1:1.5:0.45). The fibres were used as additives. The inclusion of fibre was maintained at a volumetric fraction of 0.25 and 0.4%. The water absorption, thermal and shrinkage were determined to study the effect of the fibre on the durability properties of foamed concrete. The results showed that AR-glass fibre has the lowest percentage value of drying shrinkage compared to others.
Keywords: Foamed concrete, Fibres, Durability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4575
2867 The Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Organo-Clay-Modified Bitumen, Calcareous Aggregate, and Organo-Clay Blends
Authors: A. Gürses, T. B. Barın, Ç. Doğar
Bitumen has been widely used as the binder of aggregate in road pavement due to its good viscoelastic properties, as a viscous organic mixture with various chemical compositions. Bitumen is a liquid at high temperature and it becomes brittle at low temperatures, and this temperature-sensitivity can cause the rutting and cracking of the pavement and limit its application. Therefore, the properties of existing asphalt materials need to be enhanced. The pavement with polymer modified bitumen exhibits greater resistance to rutting and thermal cracking, decreased fatigue damage, as well as stripping and temperature susceptibility; however, they are expensive and their applications have disadvantages. Bituminous mixtures are composed of very irregular aggregates bound together with hydrocarbon-based asphalt, with a low volume fraction of voids dispersed within the matrix. Montmorillonite (MMT) is a layered silicate with low cost and abundance, which consists of layers of tetrahedral silicate and octahedral hydroxide sheets. Recently, the layered silicates have been widely used for the modification of polymers, as well as in many different fields. However, there are not too much studies related with the preparation of the modified asphalt with MMT, currently. In this study, organo-clay-modified bitumen, and calcareous aggregate and organo-clay blends were prepared by hot blending method with OMMT, which has been synthesized using a cationic surfactant (Cetyltrymethylammonium bromide, CTAB) and long chain hydrocarbon, and MMT. When the exchangeable cations in the interlayer region of pristine MMT were exchanged with hydrocarbon attached surfactant ions, the MMT becomes organophilic and more compatible with bitumen. The effects of the super hydrophobic OMMT onto the micro structural and mechanic properties (Marshall Stability and volumetric parameters) of the prepared blends were investigated. Stability and volumetric parameters of the blends prepared were measured using Marshall Test. Also, in order to investigate the morphological and micro structural properties of the organo-clay-modified bitumen and calcareous aggregate and organo-clay blends, their SEM and HRTEM images were taken. It was observed that the stability and volumetric parameters of the prepared mixtures improved significantly compared to the conventional hot mixes and even the stone matrix mixture. A micro structural analysis based on SEM images indicates that the organo-clay platelets dispersed in the bitumen have a dominant role in the increase of effectiveness of bitumen - aggregate interactions.
Keywords: Hot mix asphalt, stone matrix asphalt, organo clay, Marshall Test, calcareous aggregate, modified bitumen.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1086
2866 Effect of Inlet Valve Variable Timing in the Spark Ignition Engine on Achieving Greener Transport
Authors: Osama H. Ghazal, Yousef S. Najjar, Kutaeba J. AL-Khishali
The current emission legislations and the large concern about the environment produced very numerous constraints on both governments and car manufacturers. Also the cost of energy increase means a reduction in fuel consumption must be met, without largely affecting the current engine production and performance. It is the intension to contribute towards the development and pursuing, among others on variable valve timing (VVT), for improving the engine performance. The investigation of the effect of (IVO) and (IVC) to optimize engine torque and volumetric efficiency for different engine speeds was considered. Power, BMEP and BSFC were calculated and presented to show the effect of varying inlet valve timing on them for all cases. A special program used to carry out the calculations. The analysis of the results shows that the reduction of 10% of (IVO) angle gave an improvement of around 1.3% in torque, BSFC, and volumetric efficiency, while a 10% decrease in (IVC) caused a 0.1% reduction in power, torque, and volumetric efficiency.
Keywords: Green transportation, inlet valve variable timing, performance, spark ignition engines.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2741
2865 Layer-by-Layer Deposition of Poly (Ethylene Imine) Nanolayers on Polypropylene Nonwoven Fabric. Electrostatic and Thermal Properties
Authors: Dawid Stawski, Silviya Halacheva, Dorota Zielińska
The surface properties of many materials can be readily and predictably modified by the controlled deposition of thin layers containing appropriate functional groups and this research area is now a subject of widespread interest. The layer-by-layer (lbl) method involves depositing oppositely charged layers of polyelectrolytes onto the substrate material which are stabilized due to strong electrostatic forces between adjacent layers. This type of modification affords products that combine the properties of the original material with the superficial parameters of the new external layers. Through an appropriate selection of the deposited layers, the surface properties can be precisely controlled and readily adjusted in order to meet the requirements of the intended application. In the presented paper a variety of anionic (poly(acrylic acid)) and cationic (linear poly(ethylene imine), polymers were successfully deposited onto the polypropylene nonwoven using the lbl technique. The chemical structure of the surface before and after modification was confirmed by reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, volumetric analysis and selective dyeing tests. As a direct result of this work, new materials with greatly improved properties have been produced. For example, following a modification process significant changes in the electrostatic activity of a range of novel nanocomposite materials were observed. The deposition of polyelectrolyte nanolayers was found to strongly accelerate the loss of electrostatically generated charges and to increase considerably the thermal resistance properties of the modified fabric (the difference in T50% is over 20oC). From our results, a clear relationship between the type of polyelectrolyte layer deposited onto the flat fabric surface and the properties of the modified fabric was identified.
Keywords: Layer-by-layer technique, polypropylene nonwoven, surface modification, surface properties.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2388
2864 Microalgal Lipid Production by Microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2
Authors: Ratanaporn Leesing, Supaporn Kookkhunthod, Ngarmnit Nontaso
Abstract:The objective of this work is to produce heterotrophic microalgal lipid in flask-batch fermentation. Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 supported maximum values of 0.374 g/L/d, 0.478 g lipid/g cells, and 0.112 g/L/d for volumetric lipid production rate, and specific yield of lipid, and specific rate of lipid production, respectively when culture was performed on BG-11 medium supplemented with 50g/L glucose. Among the carbon sources tested, maximum cell yield coefficient (YX/S, g/L), maximum specific yield of lipid (YP/X, g lipid/g cells) and volumetric lipid production rate (QP, g/L/d) were found of 0.728, 0.237, and 0.619, respectively, using sugarcane molasses as carbon source. The main components of fatty acid from extracted lipid were palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid which similar to vegetable oils and suitable for biodiesel production.
Keywords: Microalgal lipid, Chlorella sp. KKU-S2, kineticparameters, biodiesel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2599
2863 Treatment of Petroleum Refinery Wastewater by using UASB Reactors
Authors: H.A. Gasim, S.R.M. Kutty, M.H. Isa, M.P.M. Isa
Abstract:Petroleum refineries discharged large amount of wastewater -during the refining process- that contains hazardous constituents that is hard to degrade. Anaerobic treatment process is well known as an efficient method to degrade high strength wastewaters. Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanker (UASB) is a common process used for various wastewater treatments. Two UASB reactors were set up and operated in parallel to evaluate the treatment efficiency of petroleum refinery wastewater. In this study four organic volumetric loading rates were applied (i.e. 0.58, 0.89, 1.21 and 2.34 kg/m3·d), two loads to each reactor. Each load was applied for a period of 60 days for the reactor to acclimatize and reach steady state, and then the second load applied. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals were satisfactory with the removal efficiencies at the loadings applied were 78, 82, 83 and 81 % respectively.
Keywords: Petroleum refinery wastewater, anaerobic treatment, UASB, organic volumetric loading rateProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2334
2862 Anaerobic Treatment of Petroleum Refinery Wastewater
Authors: H. A. Gasim, S. R. M. Kutty, M. Hasnain Isa
Abstract:Anaerobic treatment has many advantages over other biological method particularly when used to treat complex wastewater such as petroleum refinery wastewater. In this study two Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors were operated in parallel to treat six volumetric organic loads (0.58, 1.21, 0.89, 2.34, 1.47 and 4.14 kg COD/m3·d) to evaluate the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. The reactors were continuously adapting to the changing of operation condition with increase in the removal efficiency or slight decrease until the last load which was more than two times the load, at which the reactor stressed and the removal efficiency decreased to 75% with effluent concentration of 1746 mg COD/L. Other parameters were also monitored such as pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acid and gas production rate. The UASB reactor was suitable to treat petroleum refinery wastewater and the highest COD removal rate was 83% at 1215 kg/m3·d with COD concentration about 356 mg/L in the effluent.
Keywords: Petroleum refinery wastewater, anaerobic digestion, UASB, organic volumetric loading rateProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2802
2861 Assessing the Ways of Improving the Power Saving Modes in the Ore-Grinding Technological Process
Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka
Monitoring the distribution of electric power consumption in the technological process of ore grinding is conducted. As a result, the impacts of the mill filling rate, the productivity of the ore supply, the volumetric density of the grinding balls, the specific density of the ground ore, and the relative speed of the mill rotation on the specific consumption of electric power have been studied. The power and technological factors affecting the reactive power generated by the synchronous motors, operating within the technological scheme are studied. A block diagram for evaluating the power consumption modes of the technological process is presented, which includes the analysis of the technological scheme, the determination of the place and volumetric density of the ore-grinding mill, the evaluation of the technological and power factors affecting the energy saving process, as well as the assessment of the electric power standards.
Keywords: Electric power standard, factor, ore grinding, power consumption, reactive power, technological.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 765
2860 Microbial Oil Production by Isolated Oleaginous Yeast Torulaspora globosa YU5/2
Authors: Ratanaporn Leesing, Ratanaporn Baojungharn
Abstract:Microbial oil was produced by soil isolated oleaginous yeast YU5/2 in flask-batch fermentation. The yeast was identified by molecular genetics technique based on sequence analysis of the variable D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA and it was identified as Torulaspora globosa. T. globosa YU5/2 supported maximum values of 0.520 g/L/d, 0.472 g lipid/g cells, 4.16 g/L, and 0.156 g/L/d for volumetric lipid production rate, and specific yield of lipid, lipid concentration, and specific rate of lipid production respectively, when culture was performed in nitrogen-limiting medium supplemented with 80g/L glucose. Among the carbon sources tested, maximum cell yield coefficient (YX/S, g/L), maximum specific yield of lipid (YP/X, g lipid/g cells) and volumetric lipid production rate (QP, g/L/d) were found of 0.728, 0.237, and 0.619, respectively, using sweet potato tubers hydrolysates as carbon source.
Keywords: Microbial oil, oleaginous yeast, Torulasporaglobosa YU5/2, sweet potato tubers, kinetic parameters.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2026
2859 The Effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) Polymer Modifier on Properties of Bitumen
Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Alireza Kiasat, Ferdows Karimi Alkouhi
In order to use bitumen in hot mix asphalt, it must have specific characteristics. There are some methods to reach these properties. Using polymer modifiers are one of the methods to modify the bitumen properties. In this paper the effect of Styrene- Butadiene-Rubber that is one of the bitumen polymer modifiers on rheology properties of bitumen is studied. In this regard, the rheological properties of base bitumen and the modified bitumen with 3, 4, and 5 percent of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) were analysed. The results show that bitumen modified with 5 percent of SBR has the best performance than the other samples.
Keywords: Bitumen, polymer modifier, styrene-butadienerubber, rheological properties.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4082
2858 Identifying Chaotic Architecture: Origins of Nonlinear Design Theory
Authors: Mohammadsadegh Zanganehfar
Through the emergence of modern architecture, an aggressive desire for new design theories appeared through the works of architects and critics. The discourse of complexity and volumetric composition happened to be an important and controversial issue in the discipline of architecture which was discussed through a general point of view in Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown's book “Complexity and contradiction in architecture” in 1966, this paper attempts to identify chaos theory as a scientific model of complexity and its relation to architecture design theory by conducting a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary critical approach through architecture and basic sciences resources. Accordingly, we identify chaotic architecture as the correlation between chaos theory and the discipline of architecture, and as an independent nonlinear design theory with specific characteristics and properties.
Keywords: Architecture complexity, chaos theory, fractals, nonlinear dynamic systems, nonlinear ontology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 691
2857 Review of the Software Used for 3D Volumetric Reconstruction of the Liver
Authors: P. Strakos, M. Jaros, T. Karasek, T. Kozubek, P. Vavra, T. Jonszta
In medical imaging, segmentation of different areas of human body like bones, organs, tissues, etc. is an important issue. Image segmentation allows isolating the object of interest for further processing that can lead for example to 3D model reconstruction of whole organs. Difficulty of this procedure varies from trivial for bones to quite difficult for organs like liver. The liver is being considered as one of the most difficult human body organ to segment. It is mainly for its complexity, shape versatility and proximity of other organs and tissues. Due to this facts usually substantial user effort has to be applied to obtain satisfactory results of the image segmentation. Process of image segmentation then deteriorates from automatic or semi-automatic to fairly manual one. In this paper, overview of selected available software applications that can handle semi-automatic image segmentation with further 3D volume reconstruction of human liver is presented. The applications are being evaluated based on the segmentation results of several consecutive DICOM images covering the abdominal area of the human body.
Keywords: Image segmentation, semi-automatic, software, 3D volumetric reconstruction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4097
2856 Remarks on Some Properties of Decision Rules
Authors: Songlin Yang, Ying Ge
Abstract:This paper shows that some properties of the decision rules in the literature do not hold by presenting a counterexample. We give sufficient and necessary conditions under which these properties are valid. These results will be helpful when one tries to choose the right decision rules in the research of rough set theory.
Keywords: set, Decision table, Decision rule, coverage factor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1267
2855 Gamma Irradiation Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Hard Ferrites
Authors: F. Abbas Pour Khotbehsara, B. Salehpour, A. Kianvash
Abstract:Many industrial materials like magnets need to be tested for the radiation environment expected at linear colliders (LC) where the accelerator and detectors will be subjected to large influences of beta, neutron and gamma’s over their life Gamma irradiation of the permanent sample magnets using a 60Co source was investigated up to an absorbed dose of 700Mrad shows a negligible effect on some magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B. In this work it has been tried to investigate the change of some important properties of Barium hexa ferrite. Results showed little decreases of magnetic properties at doses rang of 0.5 to 2.5 Mrad. But at the gamma irradiation dose up to 10 Mrad it is showed a few increase of properties. Also study of gamma irradiation of Nd-Fe-B showed considerably increase of magnetic properties.
Keywords: Gamma ray irradiation, Hard Ferrite, Magnetic coefficient, Radiation dose.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2451
2854 The Influence of Pad Thermal Diffusivity over Heat Transfer into the PCBs Structure
Authors: Mihai Brânzei, Ioan Plotog, Ion Pencea
Abstract:The Pads have unique values of thermophysical properties (THP) having important contribution over heat transfer into the PCB structure. Materials with high thermal diffusivity (TD) rapidly adjust their temperature to that of their surroundings, because the HT is quick in compare to their volumetric heat capacity (VHC). In the paper is presenting the diffusivity tests (ASTM E1461 flash method) for PCBs with different core materials. In the experiments, the multilayer structure of PCBA was taken into consideration, an equivalent property referring to each of experimental structure be practically measured. Concerning to entire structure, the THP emphasize the major contribution of substrate in establishing of reflow soldering process (RSP) heat transfer necessities. This conclusion offer practical solution for heat transfer time constant calculation as function of thickness and substrate material diffusivity with an acceptable error estimation.
Keywords: heat transfer time constant, packaging, reflowsoldering process, thermal diffusivity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2227
2853 Process of Reprivatization of Agricultural Properties in the Selected European Countries
Authors: Adam Niewiadomski
Abstract:Political transition of agricultural properties in Poland and the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) after 1989 had to include not only Reprivatization but also the issue of returning the properties in kind to their former owners. Restitution in kind applied in GDR to all forms of ownership which were subject to expropriation between 1933 and 1989 except for properties taken over during Soviet occupation in 1945-49. This issue was one of the flashpoints during the process of ownership changes. Privatization, limited as it was, took place in unequal legal environment where only one group of owners was privileged. Executing restitution in kind created a feeling of uncertainty among potential real estate buyers.
Keywords: Reprivatization, agricultural properties, German Democratic Republic, PrivatizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1214
2852 Evaluation of the Elastic Mechanical Properties of a Hybrid Adhesive Material
Authors: Moudar H. A. Zgoul, Amin Al Zamer
Adhesive materials and adhesion have been the focal point of multiple research works related to numerous applications, particularly, aerospace, and aviation industries. To enhance the properties of conventional adhesive materials, additives have been introduced to the mix in order to enhance their mechanical and physical properties by creating a hybrid adhesive material. The evaluation of the mechanical properties of such hybrid adhesive materials is thus of an essential requirement for the purpose of properly modeling their behavior accurately. This paper presents an approach/tool to simulate the behavior such hybrid adhesives in a way that will allow researchers to better understand their behavior while in service.
Keywords: Adhesive materials, analysis, hybrid adhesives, mechanical properties, simulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 801
2851 Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Properties of CrSiN Coating
Authors: Dhiflaoui Hafedh, Khlifi Kaouthar, Ben Cheikh Larbi Ahmed
Abstract:The present study deals with the characterization of CrSiN coatings obtained by PVD magnetron sputtering systems. CrSiN films were deposited with different Si contents, in order to check the effect of at.% variation on the different properties of the Cr–N system. Coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for thickness measurements, X-ray diffraction. Surface morphology and the roughness characteristics were explored using AFM, Mechanicals properties, elastic and plastic deformation resistance of thin films were investigated using nanoindentation test. We observed that the Si addition improved the hardness and the Young’s modulus of the Cr–N system. Indeed, the hardness value is 18,56 GPa for CrSiN coatings. Besides, the Young’s modulus value is 224,22 GPa for CrSiN coatings for Si content of 1.2 at.%.
Keywords: Thin film, mechanicals properties, PVD.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1814
2850 Effect of 2wt% Cu Addition on the Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Peak Aged Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni Alloy at Various Strain Rates
Authors: A. Hossain, A. S. W. Kurny, M. A. Gafur
Effect of 2wt% Cu addition on tensile properties and fracture behavior of Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni alloy at various strain rates were studied. The solution treated Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni (-2Cu) alloys, were aged isochronally for 1 hour at temperatures up to 300oC. The uniaxial tension test was carried out at strain rate ranging from 10-4s-1 to 10-2s-1 in order to investigate the strain rate dependence of tensile properties. Tensile strengths were found to increase with ageing temperature and the maximum being attained ageing for 1 hr at 225oC (peak aged condition). Addition of 2wt% Cu resulted in an increase in tensile properties at all strain rates. Evaluation of tensile properties at three different strain rates (10-4, 10-3 and 10-2 s-1) showed that strain rates affected the tensile properties significantly. At higher strain rates the strength was better but ductility was poor. Microstructures of broken specimens showed that both the void coalescence and the interface debonding affect the fracture behavior of the alloys
Keywords: Al-Si-Mg-Ni-Cu alloy, tensile properties, strain rate, SEM.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1792
2849 Experimental Study on Thermomechanical Properties of New-Generation ODS Alloys
Authors: O. Khalaj, B. Mašek, H. Jirková, J. Svoboda
By using a combination of new technologies together with an unconventional use of different types of materials, specific mechanical properties and structures of the material can be achieved. Some possibilities are enabled by a combination of powder metallurgy in the preparation of a metal matrix with dispersed stable particles achieved by mechanical alloying and hot consolidation. This paper explains the thermomechanical properties of new generation of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened alloys (ODS) within three ranges of temperature with specified deformation profiles. The results show that the mechanical properties of new ODS alloys are significantly affected by the thermomechanical treatment.
Keywords: Hot forming, ODS, alloys, thermomechanical, Fe-Al, Al2O3.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 824
2848 Improvement in Properties of Ni-Cr-Mo-V Steel through Process Control
Authors: Arnab Majumdar, Sanjoy Sadhukhan
Abstract:Although gun barrel steels are an important variety from defense view point, available literatures are very limited. In the present work, an IF grade Ni-Cr-Mo-V high strength low alloy steel is produced in Electric Earth Furnace-ESR Route. Ingot was hot forged to desired dimension with a reduction ratio of 70-75% followed by homogenization, hardening and tempering treatment. Sample chemistry, NMIR, macro and micro structural analyses were done. Mechanical properties which include tensile, impact, and fracture toughness were studied. Ultrasonic testing was done to identify internal flaws. The existing high strength low alloy Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel shows improved properties in modified processing route and heat treatment schedule in comparison to properties noted earlier for manufacturing of gun barrels. The improvement in properties seems to withstand higher explosive loads with the same amount of steel in gun barrel application.
Keywords: Gun barrel steels, IF grade, physical properties, thermal and mechanical processing, mechanical properties, ultrasonic testing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2098