Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4573

Search results for: Electric power standard

4573 Analyzing the Effect of Ambient Temperature and Loads Power Factor on Electric Generator Power Rating

Authors: Ahmed Elsebaay, Maged A. Abu Adma, Mahmoud Ramadan

Abstract:

This study presents a technique clarifying the effect of ambient air temperature and loads power factor changing from standard values on electric generator power rating. The study introduces an optimized technique for selecting the correct electric generator power rating for certain application and operating site ambient temperature. The de-rating factors due to the previous effects will be calculated to be applied on a generator to select its power rating accurately to avoid unsafe operation and save its lifetime. The information in this paper provides a simple, accurate, and general method for synchronous generator selection and eliminates common errors.

Keywords: Ambient temperature, de-rating factor, electric generator, power factor.

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4572 Assessing the Ways of Improving the Power Saving Modes in the Ore-Grinding Technological Process

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka

Abstract:

Monitoring the distribution of electric power consumption in the technological process of ore grinding is conducted. As a result, the impacts of the mill filling rate, the productivity of the ore supply, the volumetric density of the grinding balls, the specific density of the ground ore, and the relative speed of the mill rotation on the specific consumption of electric power have been studied. The power and technological factors affecting the reactive power generated by the synchronous motors, operating within the technological scheme are studied. A block diagram for evaluating the power consumption modes of the technological process is presented, which includes the analysis of the technological scheme, the determination of the place and volumetric density of the ore-grinding mill, the evaluation of the technological and power factors affecting the energy saving process, as well as the assessment of the electric power standards.

Keywords: Electric power standard, factor, ore grinding, power consumption, reactive power, technological.

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4571 Advanced Simulation of Power Consumption of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Ilya Kavalchuk, Hayrettin Arisoy, Alex Stojcevski, Aman Maun Than Oo

Abstract:

Electric vehicles are one of the most complicated electric devices to simulate due to the significant number of different processes involved in electrical structure of it. There are concurrent processes of energy consumption and generation with different onboard systems, which make simulation tasks more complicated to perform. More accurate simulation on energy consumption can provide a better understanding of all energy management for electric transport. As a result of all those processes, electric transport can allow for a more sustainable future and become more convenient in relation to the distance range and recharging time. This paper discusses the problems of energy consumption simulations for electric vehicles using different software packages to provide ideas on how to make this process more precise, which can help engineers create better energy management strategies for electric vehicles.

Keywords: Electric Vehicles, EV, Power Consumption, Power Management, Simulation.

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4570 Volume Density of Power of Multivector Electric Machine

Authors: Aldan A. Sapargaliyev, Yerbol A. Sapargaliyev

Abstract:

Since the invention, the electric machine (EM) can be defined as oEM – one-vector electric machine, as it works due to one-vector inductive coupling with use of one-vector electromagnet. The disadvantages of oEM are large size and limited efficiency at low and medium power applications. This paper describes multi-vector electric machine (mEM) based on multi-vector inductive coupling, which is characterized by the increased surface area of ​​the inductive coupling per EM volume, with a reduced share of inefficient and energy-consuming part of the winding, in comparison with oEM’s. Particularly, it is considered, calculated and compared the performance of three different electrical motors and their power at the same volumes and rotor frequencies. It is also presented the result of calculation of correlation between power density and volume for oEM and mEM. The method of multi-vector inductive coupling enables mEM to possess 1.5-4.0 greater density of power per volume and significantly higher efficiency, in comparison with today’s oEM, especially in low and medium power applications. mEM has distinct advantages, when used in transport vehicles such as electric cars and aircrafts.

Keywords: Electric machine, electric motor, electromagnet, efficiency of electric motor.

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4569 Restructuring Kuwait Electric Power System: Mandatory or Optional?

Authors: Osamah A. Alsayegh

Abstract:

Kuwait-s electric power system is vertically integrated organization owned and operated by the government. For more than five decades, the government of Kuwait has provided relatively reliable electric services to consumers with subsidized electric service fees. Given the country-s rapid socio-economical development and consequently the increase of electricity demand, a question that inflicts itself: Is it necessary to reform the power system to face the fast growing demand? This paper recommends that the government should consider the private sector as a partner in operating the power system. Therefore, power system restructuring is needed to allow such partnership. There are challenges that prevent such restructuring. Abstract recommendations toward resolving these challenges are proposed.

Keywords: Deregulation, electricity market, ISO, private sector.

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4568 Dynamic Programming Based Algorithm for the Unit Commitment of the Transmission-Constrained Multi-Site Combined Heat and Power System

Authors: A. Rong, P. B. Luh, R. Lahdelma

Abstract:

High penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) such as solar power and wind power into the energy system has caused temporal and spatial imbalance between electric power supply and demand for some countries and regions. This brings about the critical need for coordinating power production and power exchange for different regions. As compared with the power-only systems, the combined heat and power (CHP) systems can provide additional flexibility of utilizing RES by exploiting the interdependence of power and heat production in the CHP plant. In the CHP system, power production can be influenced by adjusting heat production level and electric power can be used to satisfy heat demand by electric boiler or heat pump in conjunction with heat storage, which is much cheaper than electric storage. This paper addresses multi-site CHP systems without considering RES, which lay foundation for handling penetration of RES. The problem under study is the unit commitment (UC) of the transmission-constrained multi-site CHP systems. We solve the problem by combining linear relaxation of ON/OFF states and sequential dynamic programming (DP) techniques, where relaxed states are used to reduce the dimension of the UC problem and DP for improving the solution quality. Numerical results for daily scheduling with realistic models and data show that DP-based algorithm is from a few to a few hundred times faster than CPLEX (standard commercial optimization software) with good solution accuracy (less than 1% relative gap from the optimal solution on the average).

Keywords: Dynamic programming, multi-site combined heat and power system, relaxed states, transmission-constrained generation unit commitment.

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4567 An Intelligent Approach for Management of Hybrid DG System

Authors: Ali Vaseghi Ardekani, Hamid Reza Forutan, Amir Habibi, Ali Reza Rajabi, Hasan Adloo

Abstract:

Distributed generation units (DGs) are grid-connected or stand-alone electric generation units located within the electric distribution system at or near the end user. It is generally accepted that centralized electric power plants will remain the major source of the electric power supply for the near future. DGs, however, can complement central power by providing incremental capacity to the utility grid or to an end user. This paper presents an efficient power dispatching model for hybrid wind-Solar power generation system, to satisfy some essential requirements, such as dispersed electric power demand, electric power quality and reducing generation cost and so on. In this paper, presented some elements of the main parts in the hybrid system; and then made fundamental dispatching strategies according to different situations; then pointed out four improving measures to improve genetic algorithm, such as: modify the producing way of selection probability, improve the way of crossover, protect excellent chromosomes, and change mutation range and so on. Finally, propose a technique for solving the unit's commitment for dispatching problem based on an improved genetic algorithm.

Keywords: Power Quality, Wind-Solar System, Genetic Algorithm, Hybrid System.

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4566 Educational Plan and Program of the Subject Maintenance of Electric Power Equipment

Authors: Rade Ciric, Sasa Mandic

Abstract:

Students of Higher Education Technical School of Professional Studies in Novi Sad follow the subject ‘Maintenance of Electric Power Equipment’ at the Electrotechnical Department. This paper presents educational plan and program of the subject Maintenance of Electric Power Equipment. The course deals with the problems of preventive and investing maintenance of transformer stations (TS), performing and maintenance of grounding of TS and pillars, as well as tracing and detection the location of the cables failure. There is a special elaborated subject concerning the safe work conditions for the electrician during network maintenance, as well as the basics of making and keeping technical documentation of the equipment.

Keywords: Educational plan and program, electric power equipment, maintenance, technical documentation, safe work.

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4565 Determinants of Investment in Fixed Assets in Electric Power Industry - An Econometric Analysis

Authors: S. L. Tulasi Devi, R. N. Rao

Abstract:

This paper focuses attention on specific aspects of entrepreneurial decisions relating to investment, both in the total fixed investments and plant & machinery (separately). Demand and financial factors, internal and external, are considered in the investment analysis. Finally the influence of determinants of fixed investment and investment plans are examined in Electric Power industry in India.

Keywords: Determinants, Electric Power Industry, Fixed Assets, Econometric Analysis.

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4564 Review, Analysis and Simulation of Advanced Technology Solutions of Selected Components in Power Electronics Systems (PES) of More Electric Aircraft

Authors: Lucjan Setlak, Emil Ruda

Abstract:

The subject of this paper is to review, comparative analysis and simulation of selected components of power electronic systems (PES), consistent with the concept of a more electric aircraft (MEA). Comparative analysis and simulation in software environment MATLAB / Simulink were carried out on the base of a group of representatives of civil aircraft (B-787, A-380) and military (F-22 Raptor, F-35) in the context of multi-pulse converters used in them (6- and 12-pulse, and 18- and 24-pulse), which are key components of high-tech electronics on-board power systems of autonomous power systems (ASE) of modern aircraft (airplanes of the future).

Keywords: Converters, electrical machinery, more electric aircraft, MEA, power electronics systems, PES.

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4563 Design and Control Algorithms for Power Electronic Converters for EV Applications

Authors: Ilya Kavalchuk, Mehdi Seyedmahmoudian, Ben Horan, Aman Than Oo, Alex Stojcevski

Abstract:

The power electronic components within Electric Vehicles (EV) need to operate in several important modes. Some modes directly influence safety, while others influence vehicle performance. Given the variety of functions and operational modes required of the power electronics, it needs to meet efficiency requirements to minimize power losses. Another challenge in the control and construction of such systems is the ability to support bidirectional power flow. This paper considers the construction, operation, and feasibility of available converters for electric vehicles with feasible configurations of electrical buses and loads. This paper describes logic and control signals for the converters for different operations conditions based on the efficiency and energy usage bases.

Keywords: Electric Vehicles, Electrical Machines Control, Power Electronics, Powerflow Regulations.

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4562 Exploring the Challenging Issues with Synchrophasor Technology Deployments in Electric Power Grids

Authors: Emmanuel U. Oleka, Anil Khanal, Ali R. Osareh, Gary L. Lebby

Abstract:

Synchrophasor technology is fast being deployed in electric power grids all over the world and is fast changing the way the grids are managed. This trend is to continue until the entire power grids are fully connected so they can be monitored and controlled in real-time. Much achievement has been made in the synchrophasor technology development and deployment, and there are still much more to be achieved. For instance, real-time power grid control and protection potentials of synchrophasor are yet to be explored. It is of necessity that researchers keep in view the various challenges that still need to be overcome in expanding the frontiers of synchrophasor technology. This paper outlines the major challenges that should be dealt with in order to achieve the goal of total power grid visualization, monitoring, and control using synchrophasor technology.

Keywords: Electric power grid, Grid Visualization, Phasor Measurement Unit, Synchrophasor Technology.

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4561 An Analysis of Blackouts for Electric Power Transmission Systems

Authors: Karamitsos Ioannis, Orfanidis Konstantinos

Abstract:

In this paper an analysis of blackouts in electric power transmission systems is implemented using a model and studied in simple networks with a regular topology. The proposed model describes load demand and network improvements evolving on a slow timescale as well as the fast dynamics of cascading overloads and outages.

Keywords: Blackout, Generator, Load, Power Load.

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4560 Concept of Automation in Management of Electric Power Systems

Authors: Richard Joseph, Nerey Mvungi

Abstract:

An electric power system includes a generating, a transmission, a distribution, and consumers subsystems. An electrical power network in Tanzania keeps growing larger by the day and become more complex so that, most utilities have long wished for real-time monitoring and remote control of electrical power system elements such as substations, intelligent devices, power lines, capacitor banks, feeder switches, fault analyzers and other physical facilities. In this paper, the concept of automation of management of power systems from generation level to end user levels was determined by using Power System Simulator for Engineering (PSS/E) version 30.3.2.

Keywords: Automation, Distribution subsystem, Generating subsystem, PSS/E, TANESCO, Transmission subsystem.

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4559 Determination of the Characteristics for Ferroresonance Phenomenon in Electric Power Systems

Authors: Sezen Yildirim, Tahir Çetin Akinci, Serhat Seker, Nazmi Ekren

Abstract:

Ferroresonance is an electrical phenomenon in nonlinear character, which frequently occurs in power system due to transmission line faults and single or more-phase switching on the lines as well as usage of the saturable transformers. In this study, the ferroresonance phenomena are investigated under the modeling of the West Anatolian Electric Power Network of 380 kV in Turkey. The ferroresonance event is observed as a result of removing the loads at the end of the lines. In this sense, two different cases are considered. At first, the switching is applied at 2nd second and the ferroresonance affects are observed between 2nd and 4th seconds in the voltage variations of the phase-R. Hence the ferroresonance and nonferroresonance parts of the overall data are compared with each others using the Fourier transform techniques to show the ferroresonance affects.

Keywords: Ferroresonance, West Anatolian Electric Power System, Power System Modeling, Switching, Spectral Analysis.

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4558 Energy Management System in HEV Using PI Controller

Authors: S. Saravanan, G. Sugumaran

Abstract:

Nowadays the use of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) is increasing dramatically. The HEV is mainly dependent on electricity and there is always a need for storage of charge. Fuel Cell (FC), Batteries and Ultra Capacitor are being used for the proposed HEV as an electric power source or as an energy storage unit. The aim of developing an energy management technique is to utilize the sources according to the requirement of the vehicle with help of controller. This increases the efficiency of hybrid electric vehicle to reduce the fuel consumption and unwanted emission. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) in FC is done using (Perturb & Observe) algorithm. In this paper, the control of automobiles at variable speed is achieved effectively.

Keywords: Batteries, Energy Management System (EMS), Fuel Cell (FC), Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT).

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4557 Design of an Experimental Setup to Study the Drives of Battery Electric Vehicles

Authors: Valery Vodovozov, Zoja Raud, Tõnu Lehtla

Abstract:

This paper describes the design considerations of an experimental setup for research and exploring the drives of batteryfed electric vehicles. Effective setup composition and its components are discussed. With experimental setup described in this paper, durability and functional tests can be procured to the customers. Multiple experiments are performed in the form of steady-state system exploring, acceleration programs, multi-step tests (speed control, torque control), load collectives or close-to-reality driving tests (driving simulation). Main focus of the functional testing is on the measurements of power and energy efficiency and investigations in driving simulation mode, which are used for application purposes. In order to enable the examination of the drive trains beyond standard modes of operation, different other parameters can be studied also.

Keywords: Electric drive, electric vehicle, propulsion, test bench.

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4556 Environmental Efficiency of Electric Power Industry of the United States: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

Authors: Alexander Y. Vaninsky

Abstract:

Importance of environmental efficiency of electric power industry stems from high demand for energy combined with global warming concerns. It is especially essential for the world largest economies like that of the United States. The paper introduces a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model of environmental efficiency using indicators of fossil fuels utilization, emissions rate, and electric power losses. Using DEA is advantageous in this situation over other approaches due to its nonparametric nature. The paper analyzes data for the period of 1990 - 2006 by comparing actual yearly levels in each dimension with the best values of partial indicators for the period. As positive factors of efficiency, tendency to the decline in emissions rates starting 2000, and in electric power losses starting 2004 may be mentioned together with increasing trend of fuel utilization starting 1999. As a result, dynamics of environmental efficiency is positive starting 2002. The main concern is the decline in fossil fuels utilization in 2006. This negative change should be reversed to comply with ecological and economic requirements.

Keywords: Environmental efficiency, electric power industry, DEA, United States.

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4555 On using PEMFC for Electrical Power Generation on More Electric Aircraft

Authors: Jenica Ileana Corcau, Liviu Dinca

Abstract:

The electrical power systems of aircrafts have made serious progress in recent years because the aircrafts depend more and more on the electricity. There is a trend in the aircraft industry to replace hydraulic and pneumatic systems with electrical systems, achieving more comfort and monitoring features and enlarging the energetic efficiency. Thus, was born the concept More Electric Aircraft. In this paper is analyzed the integration of a fuel cell into the existing electrical generation and distribution systems of an aircraft. The dynamic characteristics of fuel cell systems necessitate an adaptation of the electrical power system. The architecture studied in this paper consists of a 50kW fuel cell, a dc to dc converter and several loads. The dc to dc converter is used to step down the fuel cell voltage from about 625Vdc to 28Vdc.

Keywords: Electrical power system, More Electric Aircraft, Fuel Cell, dc to dc converter

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4554 Electromagnetic Assessment of Submarine Power Cable Degradation Using Finite Element Method and Sensitivity Analysis

Authors: N. Boutra, N. Ravot, J. Benoit, O. Picon

Abstract:

Submarine power cables used for offshore wind farms electric energy distribution and transmission are subject to numerous threats. Some of the risks are associated with transport, installation and operating in harsh marine environment. This paper describes the feasibility of an electromagnetic low frequency sensing technique for submarine power cable failure prediction. The impact of a structural damage shape and material variability on the induced electric field is evaluated. The analysis is performed by modeling the cable using the finite element method, we use sensitivity analysis in order to identify the main damage characteristics affecting electric field variation. Lastly, we discuss the results obtained.

Keywords: Electromagnetism, defect, finite element method, sensitivity analysis, submarine power cables.

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4553 Tri-Axis Receiver for Wireless Micro-Power Transmission

Authors: Nan-Chyuan Tsai, Sheng-Liang Hsu

Abstract:

An innovative tri-axes micro-power receiver is proposed. The tri-axes micro-power receiver consists of two sets 3-D micro-solenoids and one set planar micro-coils in which iron core is embedded. The three sets of micro-coils are designed to be orthogonal to each other. Therefore, no matter which direction the flux is present along, the magnetic energy can be harvested and transformed into electric power. Not only dead space of receiving power is mostly reduced, but also transformation efficiency of electromagnetic energy to electric power can be efficiently raised. By employing commercial software, Ansoft Maxwell, the preliminary simulation results verify that the proposed micro-power receiver can efficiently pick up the energy transmitted by magnetic power source. As to the fabrication process, the isotropic etching technique is employed to micro-machine the inverse-trapezoid fillister so that the copper wire can be successfully electroplated. The adhesion between micro-coils and fillister is much enhanced.

Keywords: Wireless Power Transmission, Magnetic Flux, Tri-axes Micro-power Receiver

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4552 Control Strategy for Two-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle by Using Fuzzy Controller

Authors: Jia-Shiun Chen, Hsiu-Ying Hwang

Abstract:

Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce pollution and improve fuel economy. Power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide two power paths between the internal combustion engine (ICE) and energy storage system (ESS) through the gears of an electrically variable transmission (EVT). EVT allows ICE to operate independently from vehicle speed all the time. Therefore, the ICE can operate in the efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map. The two-mode powertrain can operate in input-split or compound-split EVT modes and in four different fixed gear configurations. Power-split architecture is advantageous because it combines conventional series and parallel power paths. This research focuses on input-split and compound-split modes in the two-mode power-split powertrain. Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) for an internal combustion engine (ICE) and PI control for electric machines (EMs) are derived for the urban driving cycle simulation. These control algorithms reduce vehicle fuel consumption and improve ICE efficiency while maintaining the state of charge (SOC) of the energy storage system in an efficient range.

Keywords: Hybrid electric vehicle, fuel economy, two-mode hybrid, fuzzy control.

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4551 A Dynamic Programming Model for Maintenance of Electric Distribution System

Authors: Juha Korpijärvi, Jari Kortelainen

Abstract:

The paper presents dynamic programming based model as a planning tool for the maintenance of electric power systems. Every distribution component has an exponential age depending reliability function to model the fault risk. In the moment of time when the fault costs exceed the investment costs of the new component the reinvestment of the component should be made. However, in some cases the overhauling of the old component may be more economical than the reinvestment. The comparison between overhauling and reinvestment is made by optimisation process. The goal of the optimisation process is to find the cost minimising maintenance program for electric power distribution system.

Keywords: Dynamic programming, Electric distribution system, Maintenance

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4550 A Model Predictive Control Based Virtual Active Power Filter Using V2G Technology

Authors: Mahdi Zolfaghari, Seyed Hossein Hosseinian, Hossein Askarian Abyaneh, Mehrdad Abedi

Abstract:

This paper presents a virtual active power filter (VAPF) using vehicle to grid (V2G) technology to maintain power quality requirements. The optimal discrete operation of the power converter of electric vehicle (EV) is based on recognizing desired switching states using the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. A fast dynamic response, lower total harmonic distortion (THD) and good reference tracking performance are realized through the presented control strategy. The simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink validate the effectiveness of the scheme in improving power quality as well as good dynamic response in power transferring capability.

Keywords: Virtual active power filter, V2G technology, model predictive control, electric vehicle, power quality.

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4549 Design Techniques and Implementation of Low Power High-Throughput Discrete Wavelet Transform Tilters for JPEG 2000 Standard

Authors: Grigorios D. Dimitroulakos, N. D. Zervas, N. Sklavos, Costas E. Goutis

Abstract:

In this paper, the implementation of low power, high throughput convolutional filters for the one dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform and its inverse are presented. The analysis filters have already been used for the implementation of a high performance DWT encoder [15] with minimum memory requirements for the JPEG 2000 standard. This paper presents the design techniques and the implementation of the convolutional filters included in the JPEG2000 standard for the forward and inverse DWT for achieving low-power operation, high performance and reduced memory accesses. Moreover, they have the ability of performing progressive computations so as to minimize the buffering between the decomposition and reconstruction phases. The experimental results illustrate the filters- low power high throughput characteristics as well as their memory efficient operation.

Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform; JPEG2000 standard; VLSI design; Low Power-Throughput-optimized filters

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4548 A Neural Network Control for Voltage Balancing in Three-Phase Electric Power System

Authors: Dana M. Ragab, Jasim A. Ghaeb

Abstract:

The three-phase power system suffers from different challenging problems, e.g. voltage unbalance conditions at the load side. The voltage unbalance usually degrades the power quality of the electric power system. Several techniques can be considered for load balancing including load reconfiguration, static synchronous compensator and static reactive power compensator. In this work an efficient neural network is designed to control the unbalanced condition in the Aqaba-Qatrana-South Amman (AQSA) electric power system. It is designed for highly enhanced response time of the reactive compensator for voltage balancing. The neural network is developed to determine the appropriate set of firing angles required for the thyristor-controlled reactor to balance the three load voltages accurately and quickly. The parameters of AQSA power system are considered in the laboratory model, and several test cases have been conducted to test and validate the proposed technique capabilities. The results have shown a high performance of the proposed Neural Network Control (NNC) technique for correcting the voltage unbalance conditions at three-phase load based on accuracy and response time.

Keywords: Three-phase power system, reactive power control, voltage unbalance factor, neural network, power quality.

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4547 Study on Planning of Smart GRID using Landscape Ecology

Authors: Sunglim Lee, Susumu Fujii, Koji Okamura

Abstract:

Smart grid is a new approach for electric power grid that uses information and communications technology to control the electric power grid. Smart grid provides real-time control of the electric power grid, controlling the direction of power flow or time of the flow. Control devices are installed on the power lines of the electric power grid to implement smart grid. The number of the control devices should be determined, in relation with the area one control device covers and the cost associated with the control devices. One approach to determine the number of the control devices is to use the data on the surplus power generated by home solar generators. In current implementations, the surplus power is sent all the way to the power plant, which may cause power loss. To reduce the power loss, the surplus power may be sent to a control device and sent to where the power is needed from the control device. Under assumption that the control devices are installed on a lattice of equal size squares, our goal is to figure out the optimal spacing between the control devices, where the power sharing area (the area covered by one control device) is kept small to avoid power loss, and at the same time the power sharing area is big enough to have no surplus power wasted. To achieve this goal, a simulation using landscape ecology method is conducted on a sample area. First an aerial photograph of the land of interest is turned into a mosaic map where each area is colored according to the ratio of the amount of power production to the amount of power consumption in the area. The amount of power consumption is estimated according to the characteristics of the buildings in the area. The power production is calculated by the sum of the area of the roofs shown in the aerial photograph and assuming that solar panels are installed on all the roofs. The mosaic map is colored in three colors, each color representing producer, consumer, and neither. We started with a mosaic map with 100 m grid size, and the grid size is grown until there is no red grid. One control device is installed on each grid, so that the grid is the area which the control device covers. As the result of this simulation we got 350m as the optimal spacing between the control devices that makes effective use of the surplus power for the sample area.

Keywords: Landscape ecology, IT, smart grid, aerial photograph, simulation.

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4546 The Effect of Electric Field Distributions on Grains and Insect for Dielectric Heating Applications

Authors: S. Santalunai, T. Thosdeekoraphat, C. Thongsopa

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of electric field distribution which is an electric field intensity analysis. Consideration of the dielectric heating of grains and insects, the rice and rice weevils are utilized for dielectric heating analysis. Furthermore, this analysis compares the effect of electric field distribution in rice and rice weevil. In this simulation, two copper plates are used to generate the electric field for dielectric heating system and put the rice materials between the copper plates. The simulation is classified in two cases, which are case I one rice weevil is placed in the rice and case II two rice weevils are placed at different position in the rice. Moreover, the probes are located in various different positions on plate. The power feeding on this plate is optimized by using CST EM studio program of 1000 watt electrical power at 39 MHz resonance frequency. The results of two cases are indicated that the most electric field distribution and intensity are occurred on the rice and rice weevils at the near point of the probes. Moreover, the heat is directed to the rice weevils more than the rice. When the temperature of rice and rice weevils are calculated and compared, the rice weevils has the temperature more than rice is about 41.62 Celsius degrees. These results can be applied for the dielectric heating applications to eliminate insect.

Keywords: Copper plates, Electric field distribution, Dielectric heating.

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4545 Forming the Differential-Algebraic Model of Radial Power Systems for Simulation of both Transient and Steady-State Conditions

Authors: Saleh A. Al-Jufout

Abstract:

This paper presents a procedure of forming the mathematical model of radial electric power systems for simulation of both transient and steady-state conditions. The research idea has been based on nodal voltages technique and on differentiation of Kirchhoff's current law (KCL) applied to each non-reference node of the radial system, the result of which the nodal voltages has been calculated by solving a system of algebraic equations. Currents of the electric power system components have been determined by solving their respective differential equations. Transforming the three-phase coordinate system into Cartesian coordinate system in the model decreased the overall number of equations by one third. The use of Cartesian coordinate system does not ignore the DC component during transient conditions, but restricts the model's implementation for symmetrical modes of operation only. An example of the input data for a four-bus radial electric power system has been calculated.

Keywords: Mathematical Modelling, Radial Power System, Steady-State, Transients

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4544 Power Generation Scheduling of Thermal Units Considering Gas Pipelines Constraints

Authors: Sara Mohtashami, Habib Rajabi Mashhadi

Abstract:

With the growth of electricity generation from gas energy gas pipeline reliability can substantially impact the electric generation. A physical disruption to pipeline or to a compressor station can interrupt the flow of gas or reduce the pressure and lead to loss of multiple gas-fired electric generators, which could dramatically reduce the supplied power and threaten the power system security. Gas pressure drops during peak loading time on pipeline system, is a common problem in network with no enough transportation capacity which limits gas transportation and causes many problem for thermal domain power systems in supplying their demand. For a feasible generation scheduling planning in networks with no sufficient gas transportation capacity, it is required to consider gas pipeline constraints in solving the optimization problem and evaluate the impacts of gas consumption in power plants on gas pipelines operating condition. This paper studies about operating of gas fired power plants in critical conditions when the demand of gas and electricity peak together. An integrated model of gas and electric model is used to consider the gas pipeline constraints in the economic dispatch problem of gas-fueled thermal generator units.

Keywords:

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