Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 360

Search results for: vinyl-containing compounds

360 Aroma Composition and Polyphenol Content of Ciders Available in Latvian Market

Authors: Rita Riekstina-Dolge, Zanda Kruma, Daina Karklina

Abstract:

Aroma forming volatiles are important components of fermented beverages. The aim of current research is to evaluate the volatile compounds and phenolic compounds of commercial ciders. Volatile aroma compounds and TPC of seven commercial ciders were determined. Extraction of aroma compounds was performed using solid phase microextraction (DVB/Car/PDMS fibre). Analysis of volatile aroma compounds was made using a Perkin Elmer Clarus 500 GC/MS. Total phenol content (TPC) was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method and results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The highest volatile compounds were in apple ciders with pear flavor. The highest TPC and lower content of volatile compounds were detected in French ciders.

Keywords: cider, TPC, volatile compounds

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359 Analysis of Coal Tar Compositions Produced from Sub-Bituminous Kalimantan Coal Tar

Authors: D. S. Fardhyanti, A. Damayanti

Abstract:

Coal tar is a liquid by-product of coal pyrolysis processes. This liquid oil mixture contains various kinds of useful compounds such as benzoic aromatic compounds and phenolic compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. The coal tar was collected by pyrolysis process of coal obtained from PT Kaltim Prima Coal and Arutmin-Kalimantan. The experiments typically occurred at the atmospheric pressure in a laboratory furnace at temperatures ranging from 300 to 550oC with a heating rate of 10oC/min and a holding time of 1 hour at the pyrolysis temperature. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to analyze the coal tar components. The obtained coal tar has the viscosity of 3.12 cp, the density of 2.78 g/cm3, the calorific value of 11,048.44 cal/g, and the molecular weight of 222.67. The analysis result showed that the coal tar contained more than 78 chemical compounds such as benzene, cresol, phenol, xylene, naphtalene, etc. The total phenolic compounds contained in coal tar are 33.25% (PT KPC) and 17.58% (Arutmin-Kalimantan). The total naphtalene compounds contained in coal tar is 14.15% (PT KPC) and 17.13% (Arutmin-Kalimantan).

Keywords: Coal tar, pyrolysis, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy.

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358 The Effect of Drying Conditions on the Presence of Volatile Compounds in Cranberries

Authors: Karina Ruse, Martins Sabovics, Tatjana Rakcejeva, Lija Dukalska, Ruta Galoburda, Laima Berzina

Abstract:

the research was accomplished on fresh in Latvia wild growing cranberries and cranberry cultivars. The aim of the study was to evaluate effect of pretreatment method and drying conditions on the volatile compounds composition in cranberries. Berries pre-treatment methods were: perforation, halving and steam-blanching. The berries before drying in a cabinet drier were pre-treated using all three methods, in microwave vacuum drier – using a steam-blanching and halving. Volatile compounds in cranberries were analysed using GC-MS of extracts obtained by SPME. During present research 21 various volatile compounds were detected in fresh cranberries: the cultivar 'Steven' - 15, 'Bergman' and 'Early black' – 13, 'Ben Lear' and 'Pilgrim' – 11 and wild cranberries – 14 volatile compounds. In dried cranberries 20 volatile compounds were detected. Mathematical data processing allows drawing a conclusion that there exists the significant influence of cranberry cultivar, pre-treatment method and drying condition on volatile compounds in berries and new volatile compound formation.

Keywords: volatile compounds, cranberries, convective drier, microwave-vacuum drier

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357 The Relations of Volatile Compounds, Some Parameters and Consumer Preference of Commercial Fermented Milks in Thailand

Authors: Suttipong Phosuksirikul, Rawichar Chaipojjana, Arunsri Leejeerajumnean

Abstract:

The aim of research was to define the relations between volatile compounds, some parameters (pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solid (TSS), lactic acid bacteria count) and consumer preference of commercial fermented milks. These relations tend to be used for controlling and developing new fermented milk product. Three leading commercial brands of fermented milks in Thailand were evaluated by consumers (n=71) using hedonic scale for four attributes (sweetness, sourness, flavour, and overall liking), volatile compounds using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS, pH, TA, TSS and LAB count. Then the relations were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA data showed that all of four attributes liking scores were related to each other. They were also related to TA, TSS and volatile compounds. The related volatile compounds were mainly on fermented produced compounds including acetic acid, furanmethanol, furfural, octanoic acid and the volatiles known as artificial fruit flavour (beta pinene, limonene, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin). These compounds were provided the information about flavour addition in commercial fermented milk in Thailand.

Keywords: Fermented milk, volatile compounds, preference, PCA.

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356 Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction of Volatile and Furanic Compounds in Coated Fish Sticks: Effect of the Extraction Temperature

Authors: M. Trinidad Pérez-Palacios, Catarina Petisca, Olívia Pinho, Isabel M.P.L.V.O. Ferreira

Abstract:

This work evaluated the effect of temperature on headspace solid-phase microextraction of volatile and furanic compounds in coated fish sticks. The major goal was the analysis of the samples as consumed, to reproduce volatile compounds people feel when consuming those products. Extraction at 37 ºC (the human body temperature) throughout the HS-SPME analysis of volatile and furanic compounds in coated fish was compared with higher extraction temperatures, which are frequently used for this kind of determinations. The profile of volatile compounds found in deepfried (F) and non-fried (NF) coated fish at 37 and 50 ºC was different from that obtained at 80 ºC. Concerning furan and its derivatives, an extra formation of these compounds was observed at higher extraction temperatures. The analysis of volatile and furanic compounds in fish coated sticks simulating the cooking and eating conditions can be reliably carried out setting the headspace absorption temperature at 37 ºC.

Keywords: Analysis of samples as consumed, fish coated sticks, furans, headspace extraction temperature, volatiles.

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355 Synthesis and Reactions of Sulphone Hydrazides

Authors: Mohamed E. Khalifa

Abstract:

The chemistry of sulphone hydrazide has gained increase interest in both synthetic organic chemistry and biological fields and has considerable value. The therapeutic importance of these compounds is the attractive force to continue research in such a point. The present review covers the literature up to date for the synthesis, reactions and applications of such compounds.

Keywords: Sulphone hydrazide compounds, Reactions, Synthesis, Biological activities.

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354 Effects of Additives on Thermal Decompositions of Carbon Black/High Density Polyethylene Compounds

Authors: Orathai Pornsunthorntawee, Wareerom Polrut, Nopphawan Phonthammachai

Abstract:

In the present work, the effects of additives, including contents of the added antioxidants and type of the selected metallic stearates (either calcium stearate (CaSt) or zinc stearate (ZnSt)), on the thermal stabilities of carbon black (CB)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) compounds were studied. The results showed that the AO contents played a key role in the thermal stabilities of the CB/HDPE compounds — the higher the AO content, the higher the thermal stabilities. Although the CaSt-containing compounds were slightly superior to those with ZnSt in terms of the thermal stabilities, the remaining solid residue of CaSt after heated to the temperature of 600 °C (mainly calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique) seemed to catalyze the decomposition of CB in the HDPE-based compounds. Hence, the quantification of CB in the CaSt-containing compounds with a muffle furnace gave an inaccurate CB content — much lower than actual value. However, this phenomenon was negligible in the ZnSt-containing system.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Stearate, Carbon black, Polyethylene.

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353 Preparation and Characterization of Maltodextrin Microcapsules Containing Walnut Green Husk Extract

Authors: Fatemeh Cheraghali, Saeedeh Shojaee-Aliabadi, Seyede Marzieh Hosseini, Leila Mirmoghtadaie

Abstract:

In recent years, the field of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds is one of the main research topics in the food industry. Application of agricultural residues is mainly cheap, and available resources are receiving increased attention. Walnut green husk is one of the agricultural residues that is considered as natural compounds with biological properties because of phenolic compounds. In this study, maltodextrin 10% was used for microencapsulation of walnut green husk extract. At first, the extract was examined to consider extraction yield, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activation. The results showed the extraction yield of 81.43%, total phenolic compounds of 3997 [mg GAE/100 g], antioxidant activity [DPPH] of 84.85% for walnut green husk extract. Antioxidant activity is about 75%-81% and by DPPH. At the next stage, microencapsulation was done by spry-drying method. The microencapsulation efficiency was 72%-79%. The results of SEM tests confirmed this microencapsulation process. In addition, microencapsulated and free extract was more effective on gram-positive bacteria’s rather than the gram-negative ones. According to the study, walnut green husk can be used as a cheap antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds due to sufficient value of phenolic compounds.

Keywords: Biopolymer, microencapsulation, Spray-drying, Walnut green husk.

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352 Removal of Nitrogen Compounds from Industrial Wastewater Using Sequencing Batch Reactor: The Effects of React Time

Authors: Ali W. Alattabi, Khalid S. Hashim, Hassnen M. Jafer, Ali Alzeyadi

Abstract:

This study was performed to optimise the react time (RT) and study its effects on the removal rates of nitrogen compounds in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating synthetic industrial wastewater. The results showed that increasing the RT from 4 h to 10, 16 and 22 h significantly improved the nitrogen compounds’ removal efficiency, it was increased from 69.5% to 95%, 75.7 to 97% and from 54.2 to 80.1% for NH3-N, NO3-N and NO2-N respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the RT of 22 h was the optimum for nitrogen compounds removal efficiency.

Keywords: Ammonia-nitrogen, retention time, nitrate, nitrite, sequencing batch reactor, sludge characteristics.

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351 Optimization for Subcritical Water Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Rambutan Peels

Authors: Nuttawan Yoswathana, M. N. Eshtiaghi

Abstract:

Rambutan is a tropical fruit which peel possesses antioxidant properties. This work was conducted to optimize extraction conditions of phenolic compounds from rambutan peel. Response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to optimize subcritical water extraction (SWE) on temperature, extraction time and percent solvent mixture. The results demonstrated that the optimum conditions for SWE were as follows: temperature 160°C, extraction time 20min. and concentration of 50% ethanol. Comparison of the phenolic compounds from the rambutan peels in maceration 6h, soxhlet 4h, and SWE 20min., it indicated that total phenolic content (using Folin-Ciocalteu-s phenol reagent) was 26.42, 70.29, and 172.47mg of tannic acid equivalent (TAE) per g dry rambutan peel, respectively. The comparative study concluded that SWE was a promising technique for phenolic compounds extraction from rambutan peel, due to much more two times of conventional techniques and shorter extraction times.

Keywords: Subcritical water extraction, Rambutan peel, phenolic compounds, response surface methodology

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350 Comparative Studies on Interactions of Synthetic and Natural Compounds with Hen Egg-White Lysozyme

Authors: Seifollah Bahramikia

Abstract:

Amyloid aggregation of polypeptides is related to a growing number of pathologic states known as amyloid disorders. In recent years, blocking or reversing amyloid aggregation via the use of small compounds are considered as two useful approaches in hampering the development of these diseases. In this research, we have compared the ability of several manganese-salen derivatives, as synthetic compounds, and apigenin, as a natural flavonoid, to inhibit of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) aggregation, as an in vitro model system. Different spectroscopic analyses such as Thioflavin T (ThT) and Anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence, Congo red (CR) absorbance along with transmission electron microscopy were used in this work to monitor the HEWL aggregation kinetic and inhibition. Our results demonstrated that both type of compounds were capable to prevent the formation of lysozyme amyloid aggregation in vitro. In addition, our data indicated that synthetic compounds had higher activity to inhibit of the β-sheet structures relative to natural compound. Regarding the higher antioxidant activities of the salen derivatives, it can be concluded that in addition to aromatic rings of each of the compounds, the potent antioxidant properties of salen derivatives contributes to lower lysozyme fibril accumulation.

Keywords: Aggregation, anti-amyloidogenic, apigenin, hen egg white lysozyme, salen derivatives.

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349 Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Screening of 3-Hydroxy-2-[3-(2/3/4-Methoxybenzoyl)Thioureido]Butyric Acid

Authors: M. S. M. Yusof, R. Ramli, S. K. C. Soh, N. Ismail, N. Ngah

Abstract:

This study presents the synthesis of a series of methoxybenzoylthiourea amino acid derivatives. The compounds were obtained from the reactions between 2/3/4-methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate with threonine. All of the compounds were characterized via mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and FT-IR spectroscopy. Mass spectra for all of the compounds showed the presence of molecular ion [M]+ peaks at m/z 312, which are in agreement to the calculated molecular weight. For 1H NMR spectra, the presence of OCH3, C=S-NH and C=O-NH protons were observed within range of δH 3.8-4.0 ppm, 11.1-11.5 ppm and 10.0-11.5 ppm, respectively. 13C NMR spectra in all compounds displayed the presence of OCH3, C=O-NH, C=O-OH and C=S carbon resonances within range of δC 55.0-57.0 ppm, 165.0-168.0 ppm, 170.0-171.0 ppm and 180.0-182.0 ppm, respectively. In UV spectra, two absorption bands have been observed and both were assigned to the n-π* and π-π* transitions. Six vibrational modes of v(N-H), v(O-H), v(C=O-OH), v(C=O-NH), v(C=C) aromatic and v(C=S) appeared in the FT-IR spectra within the range of 3241-3467 cm-1, 2976-3302 cm-1, 1720-1768 cm-1, 1655-1672 cm-1, 1519-1525 cm-1 and 754-763 cm-1, respectively. The antibacterial activity for all of the compounds was screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. However, no activity was observed.

Keywords: Methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate, amino acid, threonine, antibacterial.

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348 Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Human Breath by Optical Fiber Sensing

Authors: C. I. L. Justino, L. I. B. Silva, K. Duarte, A. C. Freitas, T. A. P. Rocha-Santos, A. C. Duarte

Abstract:

This work proposes an optical fiber system (OF) for sensing various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath for the diagnosis of some metabolic disorders as a non-invasive methodology. The analyzed VOCs are alkanes (i.e., ethane, pentane, heptane, octane, and decane), and aromatic compounds (i.e., benzene, toluene, and styrene). The OF displays high analytical performance since it provides near real-time responses, rapid analysis, and low instrumentation costs, as well as it exhibits useful linear range and detection limits; the developed OF sensor is also comparable to a reference methodology (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) for the eight tested VOCs.

Keywords: Breath analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, optical fiber sensor, volatile organic compounds

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347 Estimation and Removal of Chlorophenolic Compounds from Paper Mill Waste Water by Electrochemical Treatment

Authors: R. Sharma, S. Kumar, C. Sharma

Abstract:

A number of toxic chlorophenolic compounds are formed during pulp bleaching. The nature and concentration of these chlorophenolic compounds largely depends upon the amount and nature of bleaching chemicals used. These compounds are highly recalcitrant and difficult to remove but are partially removed by the biochemical treatment processes adopted by the paper industry. Identification and estimation of these chlorophenolic compounds has been carried out in the primary and secondary clarified effluents from the paper mill by GCMS. Twenty-six chorophenolic compounds have been identified and estimated in paper mill waste waters. Electrochemical treatment is an efficient method for oxidation of pollutants and has successfully been used to treat textile and oil waste water. Electrochemical treatment using less expensive anode material, stainless steel electrodes has been tried to study their removal. The electrochemical assembly comprised a DC power supply, a magnetic stirrer and stainless steel (316 L) electrode. The optimization of operating conditions has been carried out and treatment has been performed under optimized treatment conditions. Results indicate that 68.7% and 83.8% of cholorphenolic compounds are removed during 2 h of electrochemical treatment from primary and secondary clarified effluent respectively. Further, there is a reduction of 65.1, 60 and 92.6% of COD, AOX and color, respectively for primary clarified and 83.8%, 75.9% and 96.8% of COD, AOX and color, respectively for secondary clarified effluent. EC treatment has also been found to increase significantly the biodegradability index of wastewater because of conversion of non- biodegradable fraction into biodegradable fraction. Thus, electrochemical treatment is an efficient method for the degradation of cholorophenolic compounds, removal of color, AOX and other recalcitrant organic matter present in paper mill waste water.

Keywords: Chlorophenolics, effluent, electrochemical treatment, wastewater.

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346 Phenolic Compounds and Antimicrobial Properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel Extracts

Authors: P. Rahnemoon, M. Sarabi Jamab, M. Javanmard Dakheli, A. Bostan

Abstract:

In recent years, tendency to use of natural antimicrobial agents in food industry has increased. Pomegranate peels containing phenolic compounds and anti-microbial agents, are counted as valuable source for extraction of these compounds. In this study, the extraction of pomegranate peel extract was carried out at different ethanol/water ratios (40:60, 60:40, and 80:20), temperatures (25, 40, and 55 ˚C), and time durations (20, 24, and 28 h). The extraction yield, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins were measured. ‎Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel extracts were determined against some food-borne ‎microorganisms such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, ‎‎Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by agar diffusion and MIC methods. Results showed that at ethanol/water ratio 60:40, 25 ˚C and 24 h maximum amount of phenolic compounds ‎(‎‎349.518‎‏ ‏mg gallic acid‏/‏g dried extract), ‎flavonoids (250.124 mg rutin‏/‏g dried extract), anthocyanins (252.047 ‎‏‏mg ‎cyanidin‎3‎glucoside‏/‏‎100 g dried extract), and the strongest antimicrobial activity were obtained. ‎All extracts’ antimicrobial activities were demonstrated against every tested ‎‎microorganisms.‎Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest sensitivity among the tested ‎‎‎microorganisms.

Keywords: Antimicrobial agents, phenolic compounds, pomegranate peel, solvent extraction.

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345 Phase Equilibrium of Volatile Organic Compounds in Polymeric Solvents Using Group Contribution Methods

Authors: E. Muzenda

Abstract:

Group contribution methods such as the UNIFAC are of major interest to researchers and engineers involved synthesis, feasibility studies, design and optimization of separation processes as well as other applications of industrial use. Reliable knowledge of the phase equilibrium behavior is crucial for the prediction of the fate of the chemical in the environment and other applications. The objective of this study was to predict the solubility of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in glycol polymers and biodiesel. Measurements can be expensive and time consuming, hence the need for thermodynamic models. The results obtained in this study for the infinite dilution activity coefficients compare very well those published in literature obtained through measurements. It is suggested that in preliminary design or feasibility studies of absorption systems for the abatement of volatile organic compounds, prediction procedures should be implemented while accurate fluid phase equilibrium data should be obtained from experiment.

Keywords: Volatile organic compounds, Prediction, Phaseequilibrium, Environmental, Infinite dilution.

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344 In vitro Anti-tubercular Screening of Newly Synthesized Benzimidazole Derivatives

Authors: M. Shahar Yar, M. Mustaqeem Abdullah, Jaseela Majeed

Abstract:

A series of 1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-3-(substituted phenyl)-2-propen-1-one were allowed to react with hydrazine hydrate and phenyl hydrazine in submitted reactions to get pyrazoline and phenyl pyrazoline derivatives. All the compounds entered for screening at the Tuberculosis Antimicrobial Acquisition and Coordinating Facility (TAACF) for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain (ATCC 27294) using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) susceptibility test. The results expressed as MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) in μg/mL. Among the fifteen compounds, eight compounds were found to have MIC values less than 10 μg/mL. These were subjected for cytotoxicity assay in VERO cells to determine CC50 (cytotoxic concentration 50%) values and finally SI (Selectivity Index) were calculated. Compound (XV) 2-[5-(4- fluorophenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-3-pyrazolyl]-1Hbenzimidazole was considered the best candidate of the series that could be a good starting point to develop new lead compounds in the fight against tuberculosis.

Keywords: anti-tubercular activity, benzimidazole, pyrazoline.

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343 Removal of Pharmaceutical Compounds by a Sequential Treatment of Ozonation Followed by Fenton Process: Influence of the Water Matrix

Authors: Almudena Aguinaco, Olga Gimeno, Fernando J. Beltrán, Juan José P. Sagasti

Abstract:

A sequential treatment of ozonation followed by a Fenton or photo-Fenton process, using black light lamps (365 nm) in this latter case, has been applied to remove a mixture of pharmaceutical compounds and the generated by-products both in ultrapure and secondary treated wastewater. The scientifictechnological innovation of this study stems from the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide from the direct ozonation of pharmaceuticals, and can later be used in the application of Fenton and photo-Fenton processes. The compounds selected as models were sulfamethoxazol and acetaminophen. It should be remarked that the use of a second process is necessary as a result of the low mineralization yield reached by the exclusive application of ozone. Therefore, the influence of the water matrix has been studied in terms of hydrogen peroxide concentration, individual compound concentration and total organic carbon removed. Moreover, the concentration of different iron species in solution has been measured.

Keywords: Fenton, photo-Fenton, ozone, pharmaceutical compounds, hydrogen peroxide, water treatment

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342 Study on Leakage Current Waveforms of Porcelain Insulator due to Various Artificial Pollutants

Authors: Waluyo, Parouli M. Pakpahan, Suwarno, Maman A. Djauhari

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of leakage current waveforms which appears on porcelain insulator surface due to existence of artificial pollutants. The tests have been done using the chemical compounds of NaCl, Na2SiO3, H2SO4, CaO, Na2SO4, KCl, Al2SO4, MgSO4, FeCl3, and TiO2. The insulator surface was coated with those compounds and dried. Then, it was tested in the chamber where the high voltage was applied. Using correspondence analysis, the result indicated that the fundamental harmonic of leakage current was very close to the applied voltage and third harmonic leakage current was close to the yielded leakage current amplitude. The first harmonic power was correlated to first harmonic amplitude of leakage current, and third harmonic power was close to third harmonic one. The chemical compounds of H2SO4 and Na2SiO3 affected to the power factor of around 70%. Both are the most conductive, due to the power factor drastically increase among the chemical compounds.

Keywords: Chemical compound, harmonic, porcelain insulator, leakage current.

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341 Effect of Blanching on the Quality of Microwave Vacuum Dried Dill (Anethum graveolens L.)

Authors: Evita Straumite, Zanda Kruma, Ruta Galoburda, Kaiva Saulite

Abstract:

Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) is a popular herb used in many regions, including Baltic countries. Dill is widely used for flavoring foods and beverages due to its pleasant spicy aroma. The aim of this work was to determine the best blanching method for processing of dill prior to microwave vacuum drying based on sensory properties, color and volatile compounds in dried product. Two blanching mediums were used – water and steam, and for part of samples microwave pretreatment was additionally used. Evaluation of dried dill volatile aroma compounds, color changes and sensory attributes was performed. Results showed that blanching significantly influences the quality of dried dill. After evaluation of volatile aroma compounds, color and sensory properties of microwave vacuum dried dill, as the best method for dill pretreatment was established blanching at 90 °C for 30 s.

Keywords: dried dill, sensory panel, sensory properties, aroma compounds, color

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340 Management Prospects of Winery By-Products Based on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Grape Skins: The Case of Greek Ionian Islands

Authors: Marinos Xagoraris, Iliada K. Lappa, Charalambos Kanakis, Dimitra Daferera, Christina Papadopoulou, Georgios Sourounis, Charilaos Giotis, Pavlos Bouchagier, Christos S. Pappas, Petros A. Tarantilis, Efstathia Skotti

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to recover phenolic compounds from grape skins produced in Greek varieties of the Ionian Islands in order to form the basis of calculations for their further utilization in the context of the circular economy. Isolation and further utilization of phenolic compounds is an important issue in winery by-products. For this purpose, 37 samples were collected, extracted, and analyzed in an attempt to provide the appropriate basis for their sustainable exploitation. Extraction of the bioactive compounds was held using an eco-friendly, non-toxic, and highly effective water-glycerol solvent system. Then, extracts were analyzed using UV-Vis, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. Also, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were measured. LC-MS chromatography showed qualitative differences between different varieties. Peaks were attributed to monomeric 3-flavanols as well as monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric proanthocyanidins. The FT-IR and Raman spectra agreed with the chromatographic data and contributed to identifying phenolic compounds. Grape skins exhibited high total phenolic content (TPC), and it was proved that during vinification, a large number of polyphenols remained in the pomace. This study confirmed that grape skins from Ionian Islands are a promising source of bioactive compounds, suggesting their utilization under a bio-economic and environmental strategic framework.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, grape skin, phenolic compounds, waste recovery.

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339 Emission of Volatile Organic Compounds from the Residential Combustion of Pyrenean Oak and Black Poplar

Authors: M. Evtyugina, C. A. Alves, A. I. Calvo, T. Nunes, L. Tarelho, M. Duarte, S. O. Prozil

Abstract:

Smoke from domestic wood burning has been identified as a major contributor to air pollution, motivating detailed emission measurements under controlled conditions. A series of experiments was performed to characterise the emissions from wood combustion in a fireplace and in a woodstove of two common species of trees grown in Spain: Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica) and black poplar (Populus nigra). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaust emissions were collected in Tedlar bags, re-sampled in sorbent tubes and analysed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection. Pyrenean oak presented substantially higher emissions in the woodstove than in the fireplace, for the majority of compounds. The opposite was observed for poplar. Among the 45 identified species, benzene and benzenerelated compounds represent the most abundant group, followed by oxygenated VOCs and aliphatics. Emission factors obtained in this study are generally of the same order than those reported for residential experiments in the USA.

Keywords: Fireplace, VOC emissions, woodstove.

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338 Product Yields and Chemical Compounds of Cogongrass by Pyrolysis in Twin Screw Feeder

Authors: Kittiphop Promdee, Tharapong Vitidsant

Abstract:

Continuous pyrolysis of Cogongrass by control temperature in the novel pyrolysis reactor were conducted at three difference temperatures 400, 450 and 500°C. Preliminary calculate of the product yields founded the liquid yield of Cogongrass was highest of 41.45 %, at 500 oC. Indicated that the liquid yield from Cogongrass had good received yields because it gave over 40 % and its produced more liquid than that solid and gas. The compounds detected in bio-oil from Cogongrass showed the functional group, especially; Phenol, Phenol, 2,5-dimethyl, Phenol, 3-methyl, 2- methyl-1,3-oxathiofane, Benzene,1-ethyl-4-methoxy, 2-Cyclopenten- 1-one,2,3-dimethyl, 2- Cyclopenten-1- one, 3-Methyl.

Keywords: Pyrolysis, Cogongrass, Product Yields, Chemical Compounds, Twin Screw Feeder.

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337 Mechanisms of Ginger Bioactive Compounds Extract Using Soxhlet and Accelerated Water Extraction

Authors: M. N. Azian, A. N. Ilia Anisa, Y. Iwai

Abstract:

The mechanism for extraction bioactive compounds from plant matrix is essential for optimizing the extraction process. As a benchmark technique, a soxhlet extraction has been utilized for discussing the mechanism and compared with an accelerated water extraction. The trends of both techniques show that the process involves extraction and degradation. The highest yields of 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol in soxhlet extraction were 13.948, 7.12, 10.312 and 2.306 mg/g, respectively. The optimum 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol extracted by the accelerated water extraction at 140oC were 68.97±3.95 mg/g at 3min, 18.98±3.04 mg/g at 5min, 5.167±2.35 mg/g at 3min and 14.57±6.27 mg/g at 3min, respectively. The effect of temperature at 3mins shows that the concentration of 6-shogaol increased rapidly as decreasing the recovery of 6-gingerol.

Keywords: Mechanism, bioactive compounds, soxhlet extraction, accelerated water extraction.

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336 Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Influents of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in Jordan

Authors: O. A. Al-Mashaqbeh, A. M. Ghrair, D. Alsafadi, S. S. Dalahmeh, S. L. Bartelt-Hunt, D. D. Snow

Abstract:

Grab samples were collected in the summer to characterize selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the influent of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jordan. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was utilized to determine the concentrations of 18 compounds of PPCPs. Among all of the PPCPs analyzed, eight compounds were detected in the influent samples (1,7-dimethylxanthine, acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, morphine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim). However, five compounds (amphetamine, cimetidine, diphenhydramine, methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and sulfachloropyridazine) were not detected in collected samples (below the detection limits <0.005 ng/l). Moreover, the results indicated that the highest concentration levels detected in collected samples were caffeine, acetaminophen, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, cotinine and carbamazepine at concentration of 182.5 µg/L, 28.7 µg/l, 7.47 µg/l, 4.67 µg/l and 1.54 µg/L, respectively. In general, most of compounds concentrations measured in wastewater in Jordan are within the range for wastewater previously reported in India wastewater except caffeine.

Keywords: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products, wastewater, Jordan.

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335 Wasteless Solid-Phase Method for Conversion of Iron Ores Contaminated with Silicon and Phosphorus Compounds

Authors: А. V. Panko, Е. V. Ablets, I. G. Kovzun, М. А. Ilyashov

Abstract:

Based upon generalized analysis of modern know-how in the sphere of processing, concentration and purification of iron-ore raw materials (IORM), in particular, the most widespread ferrioxide-silicate materials (FOSM), containing impurities of phosphorus and other elements compounds, noted special role of nanotechnological initiatives in improvement of such processes. Considered ideas of role of nanoparticles in processes of FOSM carbonization with subsequent direct reduction of ferric oxides contained in them to metal phase, as well as in processes of alkali treatment and separation of powered iron from phosphorus compounds. Using the obtained results the wasteless method of solid-phase processing, concentration and purification of IORM and FOSM from compounds of phosphorus, silicon and other impurities was developed and it excels known methods of direct iron reduction from iron ores and metallurgical slimes.

Keywords: Iron ores, solid-phase reduction, nanoparticles in reduction and purification of iron from silicon and phosphorus, wasteless method of ores processing.

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334 Synthesis of Mg/B Containing Compound in a Modified Microwave Oven

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş

Abstract:

Magnesium containing boron compounds with hexagonal structure have been drawn much attention due to their superconductive nature. The main target of this work is new modified microwave oven by on our own has an ability about passing through a gas in the oven medium for attainment of oxygen-free compounds such as c-BN.  Mg containing boride was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere using amorphous boron and magnesium source in appropriate molar ratio. Microwave oven with oxygen free environment has been modified to aimed to obtain magnesium boride without oxygen. Characterizations were done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Mg containing boride, generally named magnesium boride, with amorphous character without oxygen is obtained via designed microwave oven system.

Keywords: Magnesium containing boron compounds, modified microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR.

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333 Acetalization of Carbonyl Compounds by Using Al2 (HPO4)3 under Green Condition Mg HPO4

Authors: Fariba Jafari, Samaneh Heydarian

Abstract:

Al2(HPO4)3 was easily prepared and used as a solid acid in acetalization of carbonyl compounds at room temperature and under solvent-free conditions. The protection was done in short reaction times and in good to high isolated yields. The cheapness and availability of this reagent with easy procedure and work-up make this method attractive for the organic synthesis.

Keywords: Acetalization, acid catalysis, carbonylcompounds, green condition, protection.

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332 Optimization of Deglet-Nour Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Phenol Extraction Conditions

Authors: Lekbir Adel, Alloui-Lombarkia Ourida, Mekentichi Sihem, Noui Yassine, Baississe Salima

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity from Deglet-Nour variety. The extraction of active components from natural sources depends on different factors. The knowledge of the effects of different extraction parameters is useful for the optimization of the process, as well for the ability to predict the extraction yield. The effects of extraction variables, namely types of solvent (methanol, ethanol and acetone) and extraction time (1h, 6h, 12h and 24h) on phenolics extraction yield were evaluated. It has been shown that the time of extraction and types of solvent have a statistically significant influence on the extraction of phenolic compounds from Deglet-Nour variety. The optimised conditions yielded values of 80.19 ± 6.37 mg GAE/100 g FW for TPC, 2.34 ± 0.27 mg QE/100 g FW for TFC and 90.20 ± 1.29% for antioxidant activity were methanol solvent and 6 hours of time. According to the results obtained in this study, Deglet-Nour variety can be considered as a natural source of phenolic compounds with good antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: Deglet-Nour variety, Date palm Fruit, Phenolic compounds, Total flavonoids, Antioxidant activity, Extraction, Optimization.

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331 Development of Fen4/C And Fen2/C Catalysts for Hydrodesulfurization and Hydrodearomitization of Model Compounds of Heavy Oil

Authors: Chaojie Song, Lianhui Ding, Craig Fairbridge, Hansan Liu, Rob Hui, Jiujun Zhang

Abstract:

Two novel hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts: FeN4/C and FeN2/C, were prepared using an impregnation-pyrolysis method. The two materials were investigated as catalysts for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodearomitization (HDA) of model compounds. The turnover frequency of the two FeN catalysts is comparable to (FeN4/C) or even higher (FeN2/C) than that of MoNi/Al2O3. The FeN4/C catalyst also exhibited catalytic activity toward HDA.

Keywords: catalyst, FeN2/C, FeN4/C, HDS, HDA

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