Management Prospects of Winery By-Products Based on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Grape Skins: The Case of Greek Ionian Islands
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32870
Management Prospects of Winery By-Products Based on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Grape Skins: The Case of Greek Ionian Islands

Authors: Marinos Xagoraris, Iliada K. Lappa, Charalambos Kanakis, Dimitra Daferera, Christina Papadopoulou, Georgios Sourounis, Charilaos Giotis, Pavlos Bouchagier, Christos S. Pappas, Petros A. Tarantilis, Efstathia Skotti


The aim of this work was to recover phenolic compounds from grape skins produced in Greek varieties of the Ionian Islands in order to form the basis of calculations for their further utilization in the context of the circular economy. Isolation and further utilization of phenolic compounds is an important issue in winery by-products. For this purpose, 37 samples were collected, extracted, and analyzed in an attempt to provide the appropriate basis for their sustainable exploitation. Extraction of the bioactive compounds was held using an eco-friendly, non-toxic, and highly effective water-glycerol solvent system. Then, extracts were analyzed using UV-Vis, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. Also, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were measured. LC-MS chromatography showed qualitative differences between different varieties. Peaks were attributed to monomeric 3-flavanols as well as monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric proanthocyanidins. The FT-IR and Raman spectra agreed with the chromatographic data and contributed to identifying phenolic compounds. Grape skins exhibited high total phenolic content (TPC), and it was proved that during vinification, a large number of polyphenols remained in the pomace. This study confirmed that grape skins from Ionian Islands are a promising source of bioactive compounds, suggesting their utilization under a bio-economic and environmental strategic framework.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, grape skin, phenolic compounds, waste recovery.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 465


[1] Food and Agricultural Organization (29 July 2018), FAOSTAT, Retrieved from URL:
[2] Ministry of Rural Development and Food (2018), Retrieved from URL:
[3] Moletta, R. (2005). Winery and distillery wastewater treatment by anaerobic digestion. Water Science and Technology, 51(1), 137–144. doi:10.2166/wst.2005.0017
[4] Arvanitoyannis, I. S., Ladas, D., & Mavromatis, A. (2006). Potential uses and applications of treated wine waste: a review. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 41(5), 475–487. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.01111.x
[5] Lafka, T.-I., Sinanoglou, V., & Lazos, E. S. (2007). On the extraction and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from winery wastes. Food Chemistry, 104(3), 1206–1214. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.068
[6] Koubaa, M., Mhemdi, H., & Vorobiev, E. (2015). Seed oil polyphenols: Rapid and sensitive extraction method and high resolution–mass spectrometry identification. Analytical Biochemistry, 476, 91–93. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2015.02.025
[7] Babbar, N., Oberoi, H. S., & Sandhu, S. K. (2014). Therapeutic and Nutraceutical Potential of Bioactive Compounds Extracted from Fruit Residues. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55(3), 319–337. doi:10.1080/10408398.2011.653734
[8] Díaz-Álvarez, A. E., Francos, J., Lastra-Barreira, B., Crochet, P., & Cadierno, V. (2011). Glycerol and derived solvents: new sustainable reaction media for organic synthesis. Chemical Communications, 47(22), 6208. doi:10.1039/c1cc10620a
[9] Philippi, K., Tsamandouras, N., Grigorakis, S., & Makris, D. P. (2016). Ultrasound-Assisted Green Extraction of Eggplant Peel (Solanum melongena) Polyphenols Using Aqueous Mixtures of Glycerol and Ethanol: Optimisation and Kinetics. Environmental Processes, 3(2), 369–386. doi:10.1007/s40710-016-0140-8
[10] Apostolakis, A., Grigorakis, S., & Makris, D. P. (2014). Optimization and comparative kinetics study of polyphenol extraction from olive leaves (Olea europaea) using heated water/glycerol mixtures. Separation and Purification Technology, 128, 89–95. doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2014.03.010
[11] Karakashov, B., Grigorakis, S., Loupassaki, S., & Makris, D. P. (2015). Optimization of polyphenol extraction from Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s Wort) using aqueous glycerol and response surface methodology. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 2(1), 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.jarmap.2014.11.002
[12] Singleton, V. L., Orthofer, R., & Lamuela-Raventós, R. M. (1999).
[14] Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology, 152–178. doi:10.1016/s0076-6879(99)99017-1
[13] Singh, R. P., Chidambara Murthy, K. N., & Jayaprakasha, G. K. (2002). Studies on the Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) Peel and Seed Extracts Using in vitro Models. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(1), 81–86. doi:10.1021/jf010865b
[14] Kallithraka, S., Mohdaly, A. A.-A., Makris, D. P., & Kefalas, P. (2005). Determination of major anthocyanin pigments in Hellenic native grape varieties (Vitis vinifera sp.): association with antiradical activity. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 18(5), 375–386. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2004.02.010
[15] Makris D.P. and Kefalas, P. (2013). Characterization of Polyphenolic Phytochemicals in Red Grape Pomace. International Journal of Waste Resources. 3:2. doi:10.4172/2252-5211.1000126.
[16] Cheng, V. J., Bekhit, A. E.-D. A., McConnell, M., Mros, S., & Zhao, J. (2012). Effect of extraction solvent, waste fraction, and grape variety on the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of extracts from wine residue from cool climate. Food Chemistry, 134(1), 474–482. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.103
[17] Wu, Q., Wang, M., & Simon, J. E. (2003). Determination of Proanthocyanidins in Grape Products by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric Detection under Low Collision Energy. Analytical Chemistry, 75(10), 2440–2444. doi:10.1021/ac0262311
[18] Amico, V., Napoli, E., Renda, A., Ruberto, G., Spatafora, C., & Tringali, C. (2004). Constituents of grape pomace from the Sicilian cultivar `Nerello Mascalese’. Food Chemistry, 88(4), 599–607. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.02.022
[19] Pati, S., Losito, I., Gambacorta, G., Notte, E. L., Palmisano, F., & Zambonin, P. G. (2006). Simultaneous separation and identification of oligomeric procyanidins and anthocyanin-derived pigments in raw red wine by HPLC-UV-ESI-MSn. Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 41(7), 861–871. doi:10.1002/jms.1044
[20] Lago-Vanzela, E. S., Da-Silva, R., Gomes, E., García-Romero, E., & Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I. (2011). Phenolic Composition of the Edible Parts (Flesh and Skin) of Bordô Grape (Vitis labrusca) Using HPLC–DAD–ESI-MS/MS. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(24), 13136–13146. doi:10.1021/jf203679n
[21] Karoui, R., Downey, G., & Blecker, C. (2010). Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Coupled with Chemometrics: A Tool for the Analysis of Intact Food Systems and the Exploration of Their Molecular Structure−Quality Relationships − A Review. Chemical Reviews, 110(10), 6144–6168. doi:10.1021/cr100090k.
[22] Nogales-Bueno, J., Baca-Bocanegra, B., Rooney, A., Miguel Hernández-Hierro, J., José Heredia, F., & Byrne, H. J. (2017). Linking ATR-FTIR and Raman features to phenolic extractability and other attributes in grape skin. Talanta, 167, 44–50. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2017.02.008
[23] Hanlin, R. L., Hrmova, M., Harbertson, J. F., Downey, M.O. (2010). Review: Condensed tannin and grape cell wall interactions and their impact on tannin extractability into wine. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 16(1), 173–188. doi:10.1111/j.1755-0238.2009.00068.x
[24] Heredia-Guerrero, J. A., Benítez, J. J., Domínguez, E., Bayer, I. S., Cingolani, R., Athanassiou, A., & Heredia, A. (2014). Infrared and Raman spectroscopic features of plant cuticles: a review. Frontiers in Plant Science, 5. doi:10.3389/fpls.2014.00305
[25] Bancuta, O.R, Chilian, A., Bancuta I., Ion, R.M., Setnescu R., Setnescu, T., Gheboianu, A., Lungulescu M., (2015). FT-IR and UV-VIS Characterization of grape extracts used as antioxidants in polymers. Revue Roumaine de Chimie, 60(5-6), 571-577.
[26] Fernández, K., & Agosin, E. (2007). Quantitative Analysis of Red Wine Tannins Using Fourier-Transform Mid-Infrared Spectrometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(18), 7294–7300. doi:10.1021/jf071193d
[27] Ping, L., Pizzi, A., Guo, Z. D., & Brosse, N. (2012). Condensed tannins from grape pomace: Characterization by FTIR and MALDI TOF and production of environment-friendly wood adhesive. Industrial Crops and Products, 40, 13–20. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.02.039
[28] Boulet, J. C., Williams, P., & Doco, T. (2007). A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study of wine polysaccharides. Carbohydrate Polymers, 69(1), 79–85. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2006.09.003
[29] Kacuráková, M. (2000). FT-IR study of plant cell wall model compounds: pectic polysaccharides and hemicelluloses. Carbohydrate Polymers, 43(2), 195–203. doi:10.1016/s0144-8617(00)00151-x