Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 444

Search results for: Date palm Fruit

444 Extraction and Characterisation of Protein Fraction from Date Palm Fruit Seeds

Authors: Ibrahim A. Akasha, Lydia Campbell, Stephen R. Euston

Abstract:

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seeds are waste streams which are considered a major problem to the food industry. They contain potentially useful protein (10-15% of the whole date-s weight). Global production, industrialisation and utilisation of dates are increasing steadily. The worldwide production of date palm fruit has increased from 1.8 million tons in 1961 to 6.9 million tons in 2005, thus from the global production of dates are almost 800.000 tonnes of date palm seeds are not currently used [1]. The current study was carried out to convert the date palm seeds into useful protein powder. Compositional analysis showed that the seeds were rich in protein and fat 5.64 and 8.14% respectively. We used several laboratory scale methods to extract proteins from seed to produce a high protein powder. These methods included simple acid or alkali extraction, with or without ultrafiltration and phenol trichloroacetic acid with acetone precipitation (Ph/TCA method). The highest protein content powder (68%) was obtained by Ph/TCA method with yield of material (44%) whereas; the use of just alkali extraction gave the lowest protein content of 8%, and a yield of 32%.

Keywords: Date palm seed, Phoenix dactylifera L., extraction of date palm seed protein

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443 Predicting Oil Content of Fresh Palm Fruit Using Transmission-Mode Ultrasonic Technique

Authors: Sutthawee Suwannarat, Thanate Khaorapapong, Mitchai Chongcheawchamnan

Abstract:

In this paper, an ultrasonic technique is proposed to predict oil content in a fresh palm fruit. This is accomplished by measuring the attenuation based on ultrasonic transmission mode. Several palm fruit samples with known oil content by Soxhlet extraction (ISO9001:2008) were tested with our ultrasonic measurement. Amplitude attenuation data results for all palm samples were collected. The Feedforward Neural Networks (FNNs) are applied to predict the oil content for the samples. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of the FNN model for predicting oil content percentage are 7.6186 and 5.2287 with the correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9193.

Keywords: Non-destructive, ultrasonic testing, oil content, fresh palm fruit, neural network.

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442 Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) From Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fiber via Simultaneous Ultrasonic and Alkali Treatment

Authors: Ridzuan Ramli, Norhafzan Junadi, Mohammad D.H. Beg, Rosli M. Yunus

Abstract:

In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) cellulose which was earlier isolated from oil palm EFB fibre. In order to isolate the cellulose, the chlorination method was carried out. Then, the MCC was prepared by simultaneous ultrasonic and alkali treatment from the isolated α-cellulose. Based on mass balance calculation, the yields for MCC obtained from EFB was 44%. For fiber characterization, it is observed that the chemical composition of the hemicellulose and lignin for all samples decreased while composition for cellulose increased. The structural property of the MCC was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and the result shows that the MCC produced is a cellulose-I polymorph, with 73% crystallinity.

Keywords: Oil palm empty fruit bunch, microcrystalline cellulose, ultrasonic, alkali treatment, X-ray diffraction.

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441 Waste Lubricating Oil Treatment by Adsorption Process Using Different Adsorbents

Authors: Nabil M. Abdel-Jabbar, Essam A.H. Al Zubaidy, Mehrab Mehrvar

Abstract:

Waste lubricating oil re-refining adsorption process by different adsorbent materials was investigated. Adsorbent materials such as oil adsorbent, egg shale powder, date palm kernel powder, and acid activated date palm kernel powder were used. The adsorption process over fixed amount of adsorbent at ambient conditions was investigated. The adsorption/extraction process was able to deposit the asphaltenic and metallic contaminants from the waste oil to lower values. It was found that the date palm kernel powder with contact time of 4 h was able to give the best conditions for treating the waste oil. The recovered solvent could be also reused. It was also found that the activated bentonite gave the best physical properties followed by the date palm kernel powder.

Keywords: activated bentonite, egg shale powder, datepalm kernel powder, used oil treatment, used oilcharacteristics.

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440 Physical and Rheological Properties of Asphalt Modified with Cellulose Date Palm Fibers

Authors: Howaidi M. Al-Otaibi, Abdulrahman S. Al-Suhaibani, Hamad A. Alsoliman

Abstract:

Fibers are extensively used in civil engineering applications for many years. In this study, empty fruit bunch of date palm trees were used to produce cellulose fiber that were used as additives in the asphalt binder. Two sizes (coarse and fine) of cellulose fibers were pre-blended in PG64-22 binder with various contents of 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, 6%, and 7.5% by weight of asphalt binder. The physical and rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt binders were tested by using conventional tests such as penetration, softening point and viscosity; and SHRP test such as dynamic shear rheometer. The results indicated that the fiber modified asphalt binders were higher in softening point, viscosity, and complex shear modulus, and lower in penetration compared to pure asphalt. The fiber modified binders showed an improvement in rheological properties since it was possible to raise the control binder (pure asphalt) PG from 64 to 70 by adding 6% (by weight) of either fine or coarse fibers. Such improvement in stiffness of fiber modified binder is expected to improve pavement resistance to rutting.

Keywords: Cellulose date palm fiber, fiber modified asphalt, physical properties, rheological properties.

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439 Acoustic Detection of the Red Date Palm Weevil

Authors: Mohammed A. Al-Manie, Mohammed I. Alkanhal

Abstract:

In this paper, acoustic techniques are used to detect hidden insect infestations of date palm tress (Phoenix dactylifera L.). In particular, we use an acoustic instrument for early discovery of the presence of a destructive insect pest commonly known as the Red Date Palm Weevil (RDPW) and scientifically as Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier). This type of insect attacks date palm tress and causes irreversible damages at late stages. As a result, the infected trees must be destroyed. Therefore, early presence detection is a major part in controlling the spread and economic damage caused by this type of infestation. Furthermore monitoring and early detection of the disease can asses in taking appropriate measures such as isolating or treating the infected trees. The acoustic system is evaluated in terms of its ability for early discovery of hidden bests inside the tested tree. When signal acquisitions is completed for a number of date palms, a signal processing technique known as time-frequency analysis is evaluated in terms of providing an estimate that can be visually used to recognize the acoustic signature of the RDPW. The testing instrument was tested in the laboratory first then; it was used on suspected or infested tress in the field. The final results indicate that the acoustic monitoring approach along with signal processing techniques are very promising for the early detection of presence of the larva as well as the adult pest in the date palms.

Keywords: Acoustic emissions, acoustic sensors, nondestructivetests, Red Date Palm Weevil, signal processing..

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438 Economic Loss due to Ganoderma Disease in Oil Palm

Authors: K. Assis, K. P. Chong, A. S. Idris, C. M. Ho

Abstract:

Oil palm or Elaeis guineensis is considered as the golden crop in Malaysia. But oil palm industry in this country is now facing with the most devastating disease called as Ganoderma Basal Stem Rot disease. The objective of this paper is to analyze the economic loss due to this disease. There were three commercial oil palm sites selected for collecting the required data for economic analysis. Yield parameter used to measure the loss was the total weight of fresh fruit bunch in six months. The predictors include disease severity, change in disease severity, number of infected neighbor palms, age of palm, planting generation, topography, and first order interaction variables. The estimation model of yield loss was identified by using backward elimination based regression method. Diagnostic checking was conducted on the residual of the best yield loss model. The value of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was used to measure the forecast performance of the model. The best yield loss model was then used to estimate the economic loss by using the current monthly price of fresh fruit bunch at mill gate.

Keywords: Ganoderma, oil palm, regression model, yield loss, economic loss.

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437 Fatty Acids Derivatives and Steroidal Saponins: Abundance in the Resistant Date Palm to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, Causal Agent of Bayoud Disease

Authors: R. Gaceb-Terrak, F. Rahmania

Abstract:

Takerbucht is the only cultivar of date palm known as being resistant to the bayoud disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (F.o.a.). In the aim to understand more about the defense mechanisms implied, we realized phytochemical analyses of this cultivar leaflets and roots and this, for the first time, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The examination of our results shows that fifty-four molecules have been detected, fourteen of which are common to leaflets and roots. This study revealed also the organs' richness in derivatives fatty acids: both saturated and unsaturated are represented mainly by methyl esters of Hexadecanoic and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acids. 1-Dodecanethiol, derivative Dodecanoic acid is only present in roots. It’s of great interest to note that the screening revealed the steroidal saponins abundance, among which Yamogenin acetate and Diosgenin, exclusively detected in Takerbucht. They may play an essential role, in the date palm resistance to the bayoud disease.

Keywords: Analysis by GC-MS, leaflets and roots of resistant date palm to F.o.a., derivatives fatty acids, steroidal saponins.

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436 The Effect in vitro of Flavonoid Aglycones Extracts from Roots of Date Palm Cultivars on Fusarium oxysporum F. Sp. albedinis

Authors: T. Azouaoui – Ait Kettout, R. Gaceb – Terrak, F. Rahmania

Abstract:

Date production in North Africa is facing a worrying slowdown and a decline because of Fusarium wilt or bayoud date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L., caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (F. o. a). The objective of this work is to study the in vitro effect of flavonoid aglycones extracted from the roots of two cultivars of date palm (one sensitive to bayoud (Deglet Nour) and the other resistant (Takerboucht)) on the growth and production fusaric acid of the pathogen. Results show that during the first week of development of F. o. a on potato dextrose liquid medium, the flavonoid aglycones extracts of the susceptible cultivar roots stimulates mycelial growth as well as conidiogenesis of F.o.a, nevertheless it has no effect on the synthesis of fusaric acid. However, the flavonoid aglycones extract of resistant cultivar roots stimulates mycelial growth and decreases both the number of conidia production and fusaric acid. It therefore appears possible that the resistant cultivar aglycones have two types of action: they either inhibit the synthesis of fusaric acid, or they metabolize this toxin into hydrosoluble product, this is called detoxification.

Keywords: Flavonoid Aglycones, date palm, fusaric acid, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis.

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435 The Synergistic Effects of Using Silicon and Selenium on Fruiting of Zaghloul Date Palm (Phoenix dectylifera L.)

Authors: M. R. Gad El- Kareem, A. M. K. Abdel Aal, A. Y. Mohamed

Abstract:

During 2011 and 2012 seasons, Zaghloul date palms received four sprays of silicon (Si) at 0.05 to 0.1% and selenium (Se) at 0.01 to 0.02%. Growth, nutritional status, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in response to application of silicon and selenium were investigated. Single and combined applications of silicon at 0.05 to 0.1% and selenium at 0.01 to 0.02% was very effective in enhancing the leaf area, total chlorophylls, percentages of N, P and K in the leaves, yield, bunch weight as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in relative to the check treatment. Silicon was superior to selenium in this respect. Combined application was favorable than using each alone in this connection. Treating Zaghloul date palms four times with a mixture of silicon at 0.05% + selenium at 0.01% resulted in an economical yield and producing better fruit quality.

Keywords: Date Palms, Zaghloul, Silicon, Selenium, leaf area.

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434 Use of NMMO Pretreatment for Biogas Production from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

Authors: Ria Millati, Fiametta A. Purwandari, Adhitya P. Sanjaya, Muhammad N. Cahyanto, I. Sarvari Horvath, Claes Niklasson, Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

Abstract:

Pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with N-Methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) to enhance biogas production was investigated. The pretreatments were performed at 90 and 120ºC for 1, 3, and 5 h using three different concentrations of NMMO of 73%, 79%, and 85%. The pretreated OPEFB was subsequently anaerobically digested to produce biogas. After pretreatment, there were no significant changes of the main composition of OPEFB and the maximum total solid recovery was 92%. The amorphous phase was increased up to 78% at pretreatment condition using 85% NMMO solution for 3 h at 120oC. In general, higher concentration of NMMO and higher temperature resulted in increased amorphous form and higher biogas production. The best results of biogas production reached enhancement of methane yield of 148% compared to the untreated OPEFB and increased in digestion of 94% compared to starch as reference.

Keywords: Oil palm empty fruit bunch, pretreatment, NMMO, biogas.

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433 Structural Characteristics of Batch Processed Agro-Waste Fibres

Authors: E. I. Akpan, S. O. Adeosun, G. I. Lawal, S. A. Balogun, X. D. Chen

Abstract:

The characterisation of agro-wastes fibres for composite applications from Nigeria using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has been done. Fibres extracted from groundnut shell, coconut husk, rice husk, palm fruit bunch and palm fruit stalk are processed using two novel cellulose fibre production methods developed by the authors. Cellulose apparent crystallinity calculated using the deconvolution of the diffractometer trace shows that the amorphous portion of cellulose was permeable to hydrolysis yielding high crystallinity after treatment. All diffratograms show typical cellulose structure with well-defined 110, 200 and 040 peaks. Palm fruit fibres had the highest 200 crystalline cellulose peaks compared to others and it is an indication of rich cellulose content. Surface examination of the resulting fibres using SEM indicates the presence of regular cellulose network structure with some agglomerated laminated layer of thin leaves of cellulose microfibrils. The surfaces were relatively smooth indicating the removal of hemicellulose, lignin and pectin.

Keywords: X-ray diffraction, SEM, cellulose, deconvolution, crystallinity.

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432 Influence of the Compression Force and Powder Particle Size on Some Physical Properties of Date Fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) Tablets

Authors: Djemaa Megdoud, Messaoud Boudaa, Fatima Ouamrane, Salem Benamara

Abstract:

In recent years, the compression of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit powders (DP) to obtain date tablets (DT) has been suggested as a promising form of valorization of non commercial valuable date fruit (DF) varieties. To further improve and characterize DT, the present study aims to investigate the influence of the DP particle size and compression force on some physical properties of DT. The results show that independently of particle size, the hardness (y) of tablets increases with the increase of the compression force (x) following a logarithmic law (y = a ln (bx) where a and b are the constants of model). Further, a full factorial design (FFD) at two levels, applied to investigate the erosion %, reveals that the effects of time and particle size are the same in absolute value and they are beyond the effect of the compression. Regarding the disintegration time, the obtained results also by means of a FFD show that the effect of the compression force exceeds 4 times that of the DP particle size. As final stage, the color parameters in the CIELab system of DT immediately after their obtaining are differently influenced by the size of the initial powder.

Keywords: Powder, valorization, tablets, date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.), hardness, erosion, disintegration time, color.

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431 Effects of Coupling Agent and Flame Retardant on the Performances of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

Authors: R. Ridzuan, M. D. H. Beg, M. Y. Rosli, M. H. Rohaya, A. A. Astimar S. Samahani, I. Zawawi

Abstract:

Alkali treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres (TEFBF) and untreated EFBF fibers (UEFBF) were incorporated in polypropylene (PP) with and without malic anhydride grafted PP (MAPP) and magnesium hydroxide as flame retardant (FR) to produce TEFBF-PP and UEFBF-PP composites by the melt casting method. The composites were characterized by mechanical and burning tests along with a scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The significant improvement in flexural modulus (133%) and flame retardant property (60%) of TEFBF-PP composite with MAPP and FR is observed. The improved mechanical property is discussed by the development of encapsulated textures.

Keywords: Empty fruit bunch fibers, polypropylene, mechanical property, flame retardant.

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430 Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as a New Organic Filler for Electrical Tree Inhibition

Authors: M. H. Ahmad, A. A. A. Jamil, H. Ahmad, M. A. M. Piah, A. Darus, Y. Z. Arief, N. Bashir

Abstract:

The use of synthetic retardants in polymeric insulated cables is not uncommon in the high voltage engineering to study electrical treeing phenomenon. However few studies on organic materials for the same investigation have been carried. .This paper describes the study on the effects of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) microfiller on the tree initiation and propagation in silicone rubber with different weight percentages (wt %) of filler to insulation bulk material. The weight percentages used were 0 wt % and 1 wt % respectively. It was found that the OPEFB retards the propagation of the electrical treeing development. For tree inception study, the addition of 1(wt %) OPEFB has increase the tree inception voltage of silicone rubber. So, OPEFB is a potential retardant to the initiation and growth of electrical treeing occurring in polymeric materials for high voltage application. However more studies on the effects of physical and electrical properties of OPEFB as a tree retardant material are required.

Keywords: Oil palm empty fruit bunch, electrical tree, siliconerubber, fillers.

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429 Effect of Gibberellic Acid and 2,4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on Fruit Development and Fruit Quality of Wax Apple

Authors: Nguyen Minh Tuan, Yen Chung–Ruey

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid and 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on flower number, fruit growth and fruit quality of wax apple. GA3 and 2,4-D were applied at small bud and petal fall stage. Number of flower, fruit set, fruit drop, fruit crack, fruit growth and fruit quality were recorded. Results indicated that spraying with 10 ppm GA3 had the best results in number of flower. GA3 spray at 30 ppm gave the faster rate of fruit growth than the other treatments. Fruit set, fruit size as well as fruit weight markedly improved by spraying 30 ppm GA3, followed by 10 ppm GA3 compared to untreated control. Moreover, spray GA3 at 30 ppm was the most effective and increased total soluble solids, reduced titratable acidity and fruit drop. On the other hand, it was noticed that with 10 ppm 2,4-D application also enhanced the fruit growth rate, improved physiological and biochemical characters of fruit compared to untreated control. It was concluded that both GA3 and 2,4-D spray have positive effects on fruit development, reduced fruit drop, fruit crack and improved fruit quality of wax apple under field conditions.

Keywords: Wax apple, GA3, 2, 4-D, fruit growth, fruit quality.

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428 Stress Relaxation of Date at Different Temperature and Moisture Content of Product: A New Approach

Authors: D. Zare, M. Alirezaei, S.M. Nassiri

Abstract:

Iran is one of the greatest producers of date in the world. However due to lack of information about its viscoelastic properties, much of the production downgraded during harvesting and postharvesting processes. In this study the effect of temperature and moisture content of product were investigated on stress relaxation characteristics. Therefore, the freshly harvested date (kabkab) at tamar stage were put in controlled environment chamber to obtain different temperature levels (25, 35, 45, and 55 0C) and moisture contents (8.5, 8.7, 9.2, 15.3, 20, 32.2 %d.b.). A texture analyzer TAXT2 (Stable Microsystems, UK) was used to apply uniaxial compression tests. A chamber capable to control temperature was designed and fabricated around the plunger of texture analyzer to control the temperature during the experiment. As a new approach a CCD camera (A4tech, 30 fps) was mounted on a cylindrical glass probe to scan and record contact area between date and disk. Afterwards, pictures were analyzed using image processing toolbox of Matlab software. Individual date fruit was uniaxially compressed at speed of 1 mm/s. The constant strain of 30% of thickness of date was applied to the horizontally oriented fruit. To select a suitable model for describing stress relaxation of date, experimental data were fitted with three famous stress relaxation models including the generalized Maxwell, Nussinovitch, and Pelege. The constant in mentioned model were determined and correlated with temperature and moisture content of product using non-linear regression analysis. It was found that Generalized Maxwell and Nussinovitch models appropriately describe viscoelastic characteristics of date fruits as compared to Peleg mode.

Keywords: Stress relaxation, Viscoelastic properties, Date, Texture analyzer.

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427 Salt-Tolerance of Tissue-Cultured Date Palm Cultivars under Controlled Environment

Authors: L. Al-Mulla, N. R. Bhat, M. Khalil

Abstract:

A study was conducted in greenhouse environment to determine the response of five tissue-cultured date palm cultivars, Al- Ahamad, Nabusaif, Barhee, Khalas, and Kasab to irrigation water salinity of 1.6, 5, 10, or 20 dS/ m. The salinity level of 1.6dS/m, was used as a control. The effects of high salinity on plant survival were manifested at 360 days after planting (DAP) onwards. Three cultivars, Khalas, Kasab and Barhee were able to tolerate 10 dS/m salinity level at 24 months after the start of study. Khalas tolerated the highest salinity level of 20 dS/ m and 'Nabusaif' was found to be the least tolerant cv. The average heights of palms and the number of fronds were decreased with increasing salinity levels as time progressed.

Keywords: Acclimatization, Irrigation water salinity, Kuwait, Land degradation.

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426 Effect of S-Girdling on Fruit Growth and Fruit Quality of Wax Apple

Authors: Minh Tuan, Nguyen, Chung –Ruey, Yen

Abstract:

The study was performed to evaluate the effect of Sgirdling, fruit thinning plus bagging with 2,4-D application, fruit thinning plus bagging on growth and quality of wax apple fruit. Girdling was applied three week before flowering. The 2,4-D was sprayed at the small bud and petal fall stage. The effect of all treatments on fruit growth was measured weekly. The physical and biochemical quality characteristics of the fruits were recorded. The results showed that no significant effect on number of bud among treatments. S-girdling, 2,4-D application produced the lowest bud drop, fruit drop compared to untreated control. Moreover, S-girdling enhanced faster fruit growth producing the best final fruit length and diameter than the control treatment. It was also observed that Sgirdling greatly increased fruit set, fruit weight as well as total soluble solid, reduced fruit crack, and titratable acidity. In conclusion, S-girdling had a distinctive and significant effect on most of the fruit quality characteristics assessed. Application 2,4-D was also recommended as the industry norm to increase fruit set, and fruit quality in wax apple.

Keywords: Wax apple, S-girdling, 2, 4-D, fruit bagging, fruit thinning.

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425 Response of Wax Apple Cultivars by Applied S-Girdling on Fruit Development and Fruit Quality

Authors: Nguyen Minh, Tuan, Chung-Ruey, Yen, Bui Lan, Anh

Abstract:

The study was carried out to evaluated effect of S-gridling on fruit growth and quality of wax apple. The study was laid in Random completed block design with four replicated. Four treatment were applied as follows: S-girdling, fruit thinning plus bagging with 2,4-D sprayed, fruit thinning plus bagging and the control treatment. 2,4D was sprayed at the small bud and petal fall stage. Girdling was applied three week before flowering. The effect of all treatments on fruit growth was measured weekly. Number of flower, fruit set, fruit drop, fruit crack, and fruit quality were recorded. The result indicated that S-girdling, 2,4D application produced the lowest bud drop, fruit drop compared to untreated control. S-girdling improved faster fruit growth producing the best final fruit length and diameter compared to untreated control. S-girdling also markedly enhanced fruit set, fruit weight, and total soluble solid, reduced fruit crack, titratable acidity. On the other hand, it was noticed that with 2,4-D application also increased the fruit growth rate, improved physiological and biochemical characters of fruit than control treatment. It was concluded that S-girdling was recommended as the industry norm to increase fruit set, fruit quality in wax apple. 2,4D application had a distinctive and significant effect on most of the fruit quality characteristics assessed.

Keywords: S-girdling, 2, 4D, wax apple, fruit growth, fruit quality.

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424 Response of Wax Apple Cultivars by Applied GA3 and 2,4-D on Fruit Growth and Fruit Quality

Authors: Minh Tuan, Nguyen, Chung-Ruey Yen

Abstract:

The experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of GA3, 2,4-D on fruit growth and fruit quality of wax apple. The experiment consisted of Red A, Monulla, Atu, Red B cultivars. GA3 and 2,4-D were applied at the small bud and petal fall stage. Physiological, biochemical characters of fruit were recoded. The result showed application of GA3, 2,4-D greatly response in increasing fruit set for all treatment as compared to control. Fruit weight, fruit size were increased at 10 ppm 2,4-D in ‘Red A’, ‘Red B’, however it was also enhancing at 10 ppm GA3 in ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’. For ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’ fruit crack reduced by 10 ppm 2,4-D application, but ‘Red B’, ‘Red A’ gave least fruit crack at 10 and 30 ppm GA3, respectively. ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’ and ‘Red B’ resulted in response well to 10 ppm GA3 on improving TSS, whereas application of 30 ppm GA3 greatly enhancing TSS in ‘Red A’. For ‘Atu’ titratable acidity markedly reduced by 10 ppm GA3 application, but spraying with 30 ppm GA3 greatly response in reducing titratable acidity in ‘Red A’, ‘Red B’ and ‘Monulla’. It was concluded that GA3, 2,4-D can be an effective tool to enhancing fruit set, fruit growth as well as improving fruit quality of wax apple.

Keywords: Wax apple, GA3, 2, 4-D, fruit growth, fruit quality. Abbreviations: GA3, gibberellic acid; 2, 4-D, 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

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423 Impact Modified Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber/Poly(Lactic) Acid Composite

Authors: Mohammad D. H. Beg, John O. Akindoyo, Suriati Ghazali, Abdullah A. Mamun

Abstract:

In this study, composites were fabricated from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber and poly(lactic) acid by extrusion followed by injection moulding. Surface of the fiber was pre-treated by ultrasound in an alkali medium and treatment efficiency was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Effect of fiber treatment on composite was characterized by tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM) and impact strength (IS). Furthermore, biostrong impact modifier was incorporated into the treated fiber composite to improve its impact properties. Mechanical testing showed an improvement of up to 23.5% and 33.6% respectively for TS and TM of treated fiber composite above untreated fiber composite. On the other hand incorporation of impact modifier led to enhancement of about 20% above the initial IS of the treated fiber composite.

Keywords: Fiber treatment, impact modifier, natural fibers, ultrasound.

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422 Influence of Fermentation Conditions on Humic Acids Production by Trichoderma viride Using an Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as the Substrate

Authors: F. L. Motta, M. H. A. Santana

Abstract:

Humic acids (HA) were produced by a Trichoderma viride strain under submerged fermentation in a medium based on the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and the main variables of the process were optimized by using response surface methodology. A temperature of 40°C and concentrations of 50g/L EFB, 5.7g/L potato peptone and 0.11g/L (NH4)2SO4 were the optimum levels of the variables that maximize the HA production, within the physicochemical and biological limits of the process. The optimized conditions led to an experimental HA concentration of 428.4±17.5 mg/L, which validated the prediction from the statistical model of 412.0mg/L. This optimization increased about 7–fold the HA production previously reported in the literature. Additionally, the time profiles of HA production and fungal growth confirmed our previous findings that HA production preferably occurs during fungal sporulation. The present study demonstrated that T. viride successfully produced HA via the submerged fermentation of EFB and the process parameters were successfully optimized using a statistics-based response surface model. To the best of our knowledge, the present work is the first report on the optimization of HA production from EFB by a biotechnological process, whose feasibility was only pointed out in previous works.

Keywords: Empty fruit bunch, humic acids, submerged fermentation, Trichoderma viride.

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421 Deterioration of Groundwater in Arid Environments: What Impact in Oasis Dynamics? Case Study of Tafilalet, Morocco

Authors: W. EL Khoumsi, A. Hammani, M. Kuper, A. Bouaziz

Abstract:

Oases are complex and fragile agro-ecosystems. They have always existed in environments characterized by an arid climate, scarcity of rainfall, high temperatures and high evaporation. These palms have grown up despite the severity of the physical characteristics thanks to the water's existence and irrigation practice. The oases are generally spread along non-perennial rivers (wadis), shallow water table or deep artesian groundwater. However, the sustainability of oasis system is threatened by water scarcity and declining of water table levels particularly in arid areas. Located in the southern east area of Morocco, Tafilalet plain encompasses one of the largest palm groves in the kingdom. In recent years, this area has become increasingly threatened by water shortage and has seen a sharp deterioration under the effect of several combined anthropogenic and climatic factors. The Bayoud disease, successive years of drought, Hassan Addakhil dam construction etc are all factors that have affected both water and phoenicicole heritage of the area. The objective of this study is to understand the interaction between qualitative and quantitative degradation of groundwater resources, and the palm grove dynamics, while reviewing the assumption that groundwater resources contribute in a direct way to the conservation of this oasis agroecosystem. A historical analysis tracing both the oasis dynamics and the groundwater evolution has been established. Data were collected from satellite images, surveys with different actors (farmers, Regional Office for Agricultural Development, Basin agency...). They were complemented by a synthesis of numerous technical reports in the area. The results showed that within 40 years, the thickness of the groundwater table has dropped in 50 %. Along with this, there has been a downsizing of date palm by 50 %. Areas with higher groundwater level were the least affected by the downsizing. So we can say that the shallow groundwater contribute significantly and directly to the water supply of date palm through its root system, and largely ensures the oasis ecosystem sustainability.

Keywords: Oasis dynamics, Arid environments, Groundwater deterioration, Date palm.

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420 Optimization of Deglet-Nour Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Phenol Extraction Conditions

Authors: Lekbir Adel, Alloui-Lombarkia Ourida, Mekentichi Sihem, Noui Yassine, Baississe Salima

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity from Deglet-Nour variety. The extraction of active components from natural sources depends on different factors. The knowledge of the effects of different extraction parameters is useful for the optimization of the process, as well for the ability to predict the extraction yield. The effects of extraction variables, namely types of solvent (methanol, ethanol and acetone) and extraction time (1h, 6h, 12h and 24h) on phenolics extraction yield were evaluated. It has been shown that the time of extraction and types of solvent have a statistically significant influence on the extraction of phenolic compounds from Deglet-Nour variety. The optimised conditions yielded values of 80.19 ± 6.37 mg GAE/100 g FW for TPC, 2.34 ± 0.27 mg QE/100 g FW for TFC and 90.20 ± 1.29% for antioxidant activity were methanol solvent and 6 hours of time. According to the results obtained in this study, Deglet-Nour variety can be considered as a natural source of phenolic compounds with good antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: Deglet-Nour variety, Date palm Fruit, Phenolic compounds, Total flavonoids, Antioxidant activity, Extraction, Optimization.

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419 Synthesis of Activated Carbon Using Agricultural Wastes from Biodiesel Production

Authors: A. Buasri, N. Chaiyut, V. Loryuenyong, E. Phakdeepataraphan, S. Watpathomsub, V. Kunakemakorn

Abstract:

In this research, the optimum conditions for the synthesis of activated carbon from biodiesel wastes such as palm shells (PS) and Jatropha curcas fruit shells (JS) by chemical activation method using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an activating agent under nitrogen atmosphere were investigated. The effects of soaking in hydrofluoric acid (HF), impregnation ratio, activation temperature and activation time on adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB) and iodine (I2) solution were examined. The results showed that HF-treated activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption capacities by eliminating ash residues, which might fill up the pores. In addition, the adsorption capacities of methylene blue and iodine solution were also significantly influenced by the types of raw materials, the activation temperature and the activation time. The highest adsorption capacity of methylene blue 257.07mg/g and iodine 847.58mg/g were obtained from Jatropha curcas wastes.

Keywords: Activated Carbon, Palm Shells (PS), Jatropha Curcas Fruit Shells (JS), Agricultural Wastes, Biodiesel Wastes, Optimum Conditions.

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418 Fermentable Sugars from Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass for Bioethanol Production

Authors: U. A. Asli, H. Hamid, Z.A. Zakaria, A. N. Sadikin, R. Rasit

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of a dilute acid, lime and ammonia aqueous pretreatment on the fermentable sugars conversion from empty fruit bunch (EFB) biomass. The dilute acid treatment was carried out in an autoclave, at 121ºC with 4% of sulfuric acid. In the lime pretreatment, 3 wt % of calcium hydroxide was used, whereas the third method was done by soaking EFB with 28% ammonia solution. The EFB biomass was then subjected to a two-stage-acid hydrolysis process. Subsequently, the hydrolysate was fermented by using instant baker’s yeast to produce bioethanol. The highest glucose yield was 890 mg/g of biomass, obtained from the sample which underwent lime pretreatment. The highest bioethanol yield of 6.1mg/g of glucose was achieved from acid pretreatment. This showed that the acid pretreatment gave the most fermentable sugars compared to the other two pretreatments.

Keywords: Bioethanol, biomass, empty fruit bunch (EFB), fermentable sugars.

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417 Clay Palm Press: A Technique of Hand Building in Ceramics for Developing Conceptual Forms

Authors: Okewu E. Jonathan

Abstract:

There are several techniques of production in the field of ceramics. These different techniques overtime have been categorised under three methods of production which includes; casting, throwing and hand building. Hand building method of production is further broken down into other techniques and they include coiling, slabbing and pinching. Ceramic artists find the different hand building techniques to be very interesting, practicable and rewarding. This has encouraged ceramic artist in their various studios at different levels to experiment for further hand building techniques that could be unique and unusual. The art of “Clay Palm Press” is a development from studio experiment in a quest for uniqueness in conceptual ceramic practise. Clay palm press is a technique that requires no formal tutelage but at the same time, it is not easily comprehensible when viewed. It is a practice of putting semi-solid clay in the palm and inserting a closed fist pressure so as to take the imprint of the human palm. This clay production from the palm when dried, fired and explored into an art, work reveals an absolute awesomeness of what the palm imprint could result in.

Keywords: Ceramics, clay palm press, conceptual forms, hand building, technique.

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416 Effect of Oyster Mushroom on Biodegradation of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fibre

Authors: Mohammed Saidu, Afiz Busari, Ali Yuzir, Mohd Razman Salim

Abstract:

The problem of degradation of agricultural residues from palm oil industry is increasing due to its expansion. Lignocelloulosic waste from these industry represent large amount of unutilized resources, this is due to their high lignin content. Since white rot fungi are capable of degrading lignin, its potential for the degradation of lignocelloulosic waste from palm oil industry was accessed. The lignocellluloses content was measured before and after biodegradation and the rate of reduction was determined. From the results of the biodegradation, it was observed that hemicellulose reduces by 22.62%, cellulose by 20.97% and lignin by 10.65% from the initials lignocelluloses contents. Thus, to improve the digestibility of palm oil mesocarp fibre, treatment by white rot-fungi is recommended.

Keywords: Biological, lignocelluses, oil palm, white rot fungi.

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415 Study of Ether Species Effects on Physicochemical Properties of Palm Oil Ether Monoesters as Novel Biodiesels

Authors: Hejun Guo, Shenghua Liu

Abstract:

Five palm oil ether monoesters utilized as novel biodiesels were synthesized and structurally identified in the paper. The investigation was made on the effect of ether species on physicochemical properties of the palm oil ether monoesters. The results showed that density, kinematic viscosity, smoke point, and solidifying point increase linearly with their –CH2 group number in certain relationships. Cetane number is enhanced whereas heat value decreases linearly with –CH2 group number. In addition, the influencing regularities of the volumetric content of the palm oil ether monoesters on the fuel properties were also studied when the ether monoesters are used as diesel fuel additives.

Keywords: Biodiesel, palm oil ether monoester, ether species, physicochemical property.

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