Preparation and Characterization of Maltodextrin Microcapsules Containing Walnut Green Husk Extract
In recent years, the field of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds is one of the main research topics in the food industry. Application of agricultural residues is mainly cheap, and available resources are receiving increased attention. Walnut green husk is one of the agricultural residues that is considered as natural compounds with biological properties because of phenolic compounds. In this study, maltodextrin 10% was used for microencapsulation of walnut green husk extract. At first, the extract was examined to consider extraction yield, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activation. The results showed the extraction yield of 81.43%, total phenolic compounds of 3997 [mg GAE/100 g], antioxidant activity [DPPH] of 84.85% for walnut green husk extract. Antioxidant activity is about 75%-81% and by DPPH. At the next stage, microencapsulation was done by spry-drying method. The microencapsulation efficiency was 72%-79%. The results of SEM tests confirmed this microencapsulation process. In addition, microencapsulated and free extract was more effective on gram-positive bacteria’s rather than the gram-negative ones. According to the study, walnut green husk can be used as a cheap antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds due to sufficient value of phenolic compounds.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1474678Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 268
 Safer, A. M., & Al-Nughamish, A. J. (1999). Hepatotoxicity induced by the anti-oxidant food additive, butylated hydroxytoluene BHT, in rats. An electron microscopical study. Histology and histopathology.
 Kornsteiner, M., Wagner, K. H., & Elmadfa, I. (2006). Tocopherols and total phenolics in 10 different nut types. Food chemistry, 98(2), 381-387.
 Baratta, M. T., Dorman, H. D., Deans, S. G., Biondi, D. M., &Ruberto, G. (1998). Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of laurel, sage, rosemary, oregano and coriander essential oils. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 10(6), 618-627.
 Miraliakbari, H., &Shahidi, F. (2008). Oxidative stability of tree nut oils. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 56(12), 4751-4759.
 Isanga, J., & Zhang, G. N. (2007). Biologically active components and nutraceuticals in peanuts and related products: review. Food Reviews International, 23(2), 123-140.
 Ghasemi, K., Ghasemi, Y., Ehteshamnia, A., Nabavi, S. M., Nabavi, S. F., Ebrahimzadeh, M. A., &Pourmorad, F. (2011). Influence of environmental factors on antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoids contents of walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husks. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(7), 1128-1133.
 Pereira, J. A., Oliveira, I., Sousa, A., Ferreira, I. C., Bento, A., &Estevinho, L. (2008). Bioactive properties and chemical composition of six walnuts (Juglans regia L.) cultivars. Food and chemical toxicology, 46(6), 2103-2111.
 Announce. Walnut distribution in Iran. Coordination center of science and technology of walnut. URL: www.kiccwalnut.ir/Upload/iran.pdf. Accessed 2014 November 4 (in Persian).
 Haji akhondi, A., and Bale, A. (2013). Herbal medicine guide. Printing, Publishing Center of Islamic Azad University. PP: 110-115 (In Perssian).
 Stampar F, Solar A, Hudina M, Veberic R, Colaric M. (2006). Traditional walnut liqueur cocktail of phenolics. Food Chemistry .95: 627-631.
 Farhang B. Encapsulation of Bioactive Compounds in Liposomes prepared with Milk Fat
 Globule Membrane-Derived Phospholipids. Guelph; 2013.
 Martin A, Varona S, Navarrete A, Cocero MJ. (2010). Encapsulation and Co-Precipitation Processes with Supercritical Fluids: Applications with Essential Oils. The OpenChemical Engineering Journal. 4: 31-41.
 Sherry M, Charcosset C, Fessi H, Greige-Gerges H. (2014). Essential oils encapsulated in liposomes: a review. Journal of Liposome Research.52: 1-8.
 Gaudreau, H., Champagne, C. P., Remondetto, G. E., Gomaa, A., &Subirade, M. (2016). Co-encapsulation of Lactobacillus helveticus cells and green tea extract: Influence on cell survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Journal of Functional Foods, 26, 451-459.
 Augustin M A, Sanguansri L. (2012). Challenges in developing delivery systems for food additives, nutraceuticals and dietary supplements. Encapsulation technologies and delivery system for food ingredients and nutraceuticals.82: 19-48. S. Alipour, H. Montaseri, M. Tafaghodi, Colloids Surf. B 81 (2010) 521–529.
 Sansone F, Mencherini E, Picerno P, Amore M, Patrizia R A, Lauro M R. (2011). Maltodextrin/pectin micro particles by spray drying as carrier for nutraceutical extracts. Journal of Food Engineering .105:468-476. Y.H. Cho, J. Park, J. Food Sci. 68 (2003) 534–538.
 Diaz-Bandera D, Villanueva-Carvajal A, Dublan-Garcia O, Quintero-Salazar B, Domingues-Lopez A. (2015). Assessing release kinetics and dissolution of spray-dried Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract encapsulated with different carrier agents. LWT - Food Scienceand Technology.15: 1 – 27.
 Hosseini, S. M., Hosseini, H., Mohammadifar, M. A., Mortazavian, A. M., Mohammadi, A., Khosravi-Darani, K. & Khaksar, R. (2013). Incorporation of essential oil in alginate microparticles by multiple emulsion/ionic gelation process. International journal of biological macromolecules, 62: 582-588.
 Rezai S, Jafari M, Khamiri M, Bayat H. (2015). Extraction walnut green husk Shahmirzad and effect of solvent and method on antioxidant activity of extraction. Food Technology & Nutrition, 12:1-8.