Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31168
Phenolic Compounds and Antimicrobial Properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel Extracts

Authors: P. Rahnemoon, M. Sarabi Jamab, M. Javanmard Dakheli, A. Bostan


In recent years, tendency to use of natural antimicrobial agents in food industry has increased. Pomegranate peels containing phenolic compounds and anti-microbial agents, are counted as valuable source for extraction of these compounds. In this study, the extraction of pomegranate peel extract was carried out at different ethanol/water ratios (40:60, 60:40, and 80:20), temperatures (25, 40, and 55 ˚C), and time durations (20, 24, and 28 h). The extraction yield, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins were measured. ‎Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel extracts were determined against some food-borne ‎microorganisms such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, ‎‎Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by agar diffusion and MIC methods. Results showed that at ethanol/water ratio 60:40, 25 ˚C and 24 h maximum amount of phenolic compounds ‎(‎‎349.518‎‏ ‏mg gallic acid‏/‏g dried extract), ‎flavonoids (250.124 mg rutin‏/‏g dried extract), anthocyanins (252.047 ‎‏‏mg ‎cyanidin‎3‎glucoside‏/‏‎100 g dried extract), and the strongest antimicrobial activity were obtained. ‎All extracts’ antimicrobial activities were demonstrated against every tested ‎‎microorganisms.‎Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest sensitivity among the tested ‎‎‎microorganisms.

Keywords: Antimicrobial Agents, Phenolic Compounds, solvent extraction, pomegranate peel

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1474


[1] M. Silvan, E. Mingo, M. Hidalgo, S. Pascual-Teresa, A.V. Carrascosa, A.J. Martinez-Rodriguez. Antibacterial activity of a grape seed extract and its fractions against Campylobacter spp. Food Control, 29: 25- 31. 2013.
[2] I. Ahmad, A.Z. Beg. Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens. J Ethnopharmacol 74: 113-133. 2001.
[3] E. McCarrell, S. Gould, M. Fielder, A. Kelly, W. El Sankary, D. Naughton. Antimicrobial activities of pomegranate rind extracts: enhancement by addition of metal salts and vitamin C. BMC Complement Altern Med 8: 64- 70. 2008.
[4] E.H. Endo, D.A. Garcia Cortez, T. Ueda Nakamura, C.V. Nakamura, B.P.D. Filho. Potent antifungal activity of extracts and pure compound isolated from pomegranate peels and synergism with fluconazole against Candida ablicans. Research in Microbiology 161, 534-540. 2010.
[5] A. Tehranifar, Y. Selahvarzi, M. Kharrazi, V. Jahanbakhsh. High potential of agro-industrial by-products of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) as the powerful antifungal and antioxidant substances. Ind Crops Prod 34: 1523-1527. 2011.
[6] H. Hayrapetyan, W.C. Hazeleger, R.R. Beumer. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by ‎pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract in meat paté at different temperatures. Food Control, ‎‎23: 66-72.‎ 2012.
[7] B. Gullon, M. E. Pintado, J. PerezAlvarez, M. Viuda-Martos. Assessment of polyphenolic profile and antibacterial activity of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum) our obtained from co-product of juice extraction. Food Control, 59: 94-98. 2016.
[8] W. Qu, Zh. Pan, H. Ma. Extraction modeling and activities of antioxidants from pomegranate marc. Food Eng 99: 16–23. 2010.
[9] M. Cam, N.C. Icyer, F. Erdogan. Pomegranate peel phenolics: Microencapsulation, storage stability and potential ingredient for functional food development. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 55: 117- 123.
[10] U. Fischer, R. Carle, D. Kammerer. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel, mesocarp, aril and differently produced juices by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. Food chemistry 127, 807-821. 2014.
[11] V. Singleton, R. Orthofer, R. Raventos. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by mean of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology, 299: 152- 178. 1999.
[12] M. Blasa, M. Candiracci, A. Accorsi, P. M. Piacentini, M. C. Albertini, E. Piatti. Raw Millefori honey is packed full of antioxidants. J. Food Chem, 9: 217−222. 2005.
[13] G.W. Cheng, P.J. Breen. Activity of phenylalanine ammonialyase ‎‎(PLA) and ‎concentration of anthocyanins and phenolics in developing ‎strawberry fruit. ‎J.Am.Soc.Hort.Sci, 116:865- 869. 1991.
[14] R.L. Jackman, R.Y. Yada, M.A. Tung, R.A. Speers. Anthocyanins as food colorants-a review. J. Food Biochem, 11: 201-247. 1987.
[15] H. Wijngaard, N. Brunton. The optimization of extraction of antioxidants from apple pomace by pressurized liquids. J. Agri. Food Chemi. 57, 10625–10631. 2009.
[16] Y.F. Shang, S.M. Kim, B.H. Um. Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction of antioxidants from black bamboo leaves. Food Chem, 154, 164-170. 2014.
[17] M. Çam and Y. HisIl. Pressurized water extraction of polyphenols from pomegranate peels. Food Chem, 123: 878-885. 2010.
[18] I.M. Ibrahium. Efficiency of pomegranate peel extract as antimicrobial, antioxidant and protective agents. J. Agri Sci, 6 (4): 338-344. 2010.
[19] Y. Wang, H. He, J. Yang, Y. De, X. Hao. New monoterpenoid coumarins from Clausena anisumolens. J. Molecules, 13: 931- 937. 2008.
[20] D. Oliveira, A. Salvador, A. Smânia, Jr.E. Smânia, M. Maraschin, S. Ferreira. Antimicrobial activity ‎and composition profile grape pomace extracts obtained by supercritical fluid. J. Biotechnol, 164: 423- 432.‎‎ 2013.
[21] N.S. Al-Zoreky. Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit peels. Int J Food Microbiol, 134: 244- 248. 2009.
[22] W. Qu, A. Breksa, Zh. Pan, H. Ma. Quantitative determinate of major polyphenol constituents in pomegranate products. J Food Chem, 132: 1585- 1591. 2012.