Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30576
Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction of Volatile and Furanic Compounds in Coated Fish Sticks: Effect of the Extraction Temperature

Authors: M. Trinidad Pérez-Palacios, Catarina Petisca, Olívia Pinho, Isabel M.P.L.V.O. Ferreira


This work evaluated the effect of temperature on headspace solid-phase microextraction of volatile and furanic compounds in coated fish sticks. The major goal was the analysis of the samples as consumed, to reproduce volatile compounds people feel when consuming those products. Extraction at 37 ºC (the human body temperature) throughout the HS-SPME analysis of volatile and furanic compounds in coated fish was compared with higher extraction temperatures, which are frequently used for this kind of determinations. The profile of volatile compounds found in deepfried (F) and non-fried (NF) coated fish at 37 and 50 ºC was different from that obtained at 80 ºC. Concerning furan and its derivatives, an extra formation of these compounds was observed at higher extraction temperatures. The analysis of volatile and furanic compounds in fish coated sticks simulating the cooking and eating conditions can be reliably carried out setting the headspace absorption temperature at 37 ºC.

Keywords: volatiles, Analysis of samples as consumed, fish coated sticks, furans, headspace extraction temperature

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1705


[1] D. S. Mottram, "Flavour formation in meat and meat products: a review", Food Chem., vol. 62, pp. 415-424, Aug. 1998.
[2] W.W. Nawar, "Volatile components of the frying process", Grasas y Aceites, vol. 49, pp. 271-274, May 1998.
[3] International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), "Dry cleaning some chlorinated solvents and other industrial chemicals" in Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon, France, 1995.
[4] US Department of Health and Human Service. 11th Report on Carcinogens Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, Research triangle park, NC, 2005.
[5] A. Becalski, S. Hayward, T. Krakalovich, L. Pelletier, V. Roscoe, and E. Vavasour, "Development of an analytical method and survey of foods for furan, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran with estimated exposure", Food Addit. Cont., vol. 6, pp. 764-775, June 2010.
[6] P.S. Sujatha, "Monitoring cytotoxic potentials of furfuryl alcohol and 2- furyl methyl ketone in mice", Food Chem. Toxicol., vol. 46, pp. 286- 292, Jan. 2008.
[7] J.H.E. Arts, H. Muijser, M.J. Appel, K.C. Frieke, J.G.M. Bessems, and R.A. Woutersen, "Subacute (28-day) toxicity of furfural in Fischer 344 rats: a comparison of the oral and inhalation route", Food Chem. Toxicol., vol. 42, pp. 1389-1399, March 2004.
[8] T. Pérez-Palacios, J. Ruiz, D. Mart├¡n, R. Grau, and T. Antequera, "Influence of pre-cure freezing on the profile of volatile compounds during the processing of Iberian hams", J. Sci. Food Agric., vol. 90, pp. 882-890, Apr. 2010.
[9] B. Ramos, O. Pinho, and I.M.P.L.V.O. Ferreira, "Volatile profile and sensory characteristics of creams used as fillers of bakery products: home made egg creams vs industrial creams", J. Food Sci., vol. 3, pp. 255-268, 2009.
[10] European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), "Results on the monitoring of furan levels in food", The EFSA Journal, vol. 304, pp. 1-23, 2009.
[11] European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), "Update of results on the monitoring of furan levels in food", The EFSA Journal, vol. 8, pp. 1702- 1720, 2010.
[12] K. Kaseleht, and E. Leitner, "Optimization of the automated SPME method for the analysis of volatile compounds in traditional Estonian food (Kama and Kvass) using GC/MS", Austrian Food Chem. Conf. WKO, Eisenstadt, Austria. pp. 384-389, May 2008.
[13] M. M. Mazida, M. M. Salleh, and H. Osman, "Analysis of volatile aroma compounds of fresh chilli ( Capsicum annuum ) during stages of maturity using solid phase microextraction (SPME )", J. Food Comp. Anal., vol.18, pp. 427-437, Aug. 2005.
[14] J. Ruiz, R. Cava, J. Ventanas, and M. T. Jensen, "Headspace solid microextraction for the analysis of volatiles in a meat product: dry-cured iberian ham", J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 46, pp. 4688-4694, Nov. 1998.
[15] O. Pinho, C. Peres, and I.M.P.L.V.O. Ferreira, "Solid-phase microextraction of volatile compounds in "Terrincho" ewe cheese: Comparison of different fibers", J. Chromatog. A, vol. 1011, pp. 1-9, Sept. 2003.
[16] R. Ram├¡rez, M. Estévez, D. Morcuende, and R. Cava, "Effect of the type of frying culinary fat on volatile compounds isolated in fried pork loin chops by using SPME-GC-MS", J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 52, pp. 7637-7643, Decemb. 2004.
[17] US Food Drug and Administration (US FDA), "Furan in foods-Thermal treatment", Washington, DC, 2004,
[18] European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Report of the scientific panel on contaminantes in the food chain on provisional findings on furan in food. The EFSA Journal, 137, 1-20. 2004.
[19] US Food Drug and Administration (US FDA), "Determination of furan in foods", Washington, CD, 2006,
[20] H. Z. Senyuva, and V. Gokmen, "Analysis of fruan in foods. Is headspace sampling a fit-for-purpose technique?" Food Addit. Cont., vol. 22, pp. 1198-1202, Aug. 2005.
[21] M. S. Altaki, F. J. Santos, and M. T. Galceran, "Analysis of furan in foods by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography- ion trap mass spectrometry", J. Chromatog. A, vol. 1146, pp. 103-109, Jan. 2007.
[22] F. Bianchi, M. Careri, A. Mangia, and M. Musci, "Development and validation of a solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of furan in baby-food", J. Chromatog. A, vol. 1102, pp. 268-272, Octob. 2006.
[23] T. Kim, S. Kim, and K-G. Lee, "Analysis of furan in heat-processed foods consumed in Korea using solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS)", Food Chem., vol. 123, pp. 1328-1333, June 2010.
[24] C. Crews, and L. Castle, "A review of the occurrence, formation and analysis of furan in heat-processed foods", Trends Food Sci. & Technol., vol. 18, pp. 365-372, July 2007.
[25] E. Muriel, T. Antequera, M. J. Petr├│n, A.I. Andrés, and J. Ruiz, "Volatile compounds in Iberian dry-cured loin", Meat Sci., vol. 68, pp. 391-400, Nov 2004.
[26] M. L. Tim├│n, A.I. Carrapiso, A. Jurado, J. Lagemaat, "A study of the aroma of fried bacon and fried pork loin", J. Sci. Food Agric., vol. 84, pp. 825-831, June 2004.