Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30238
Effects of Synchronous Music on Gymnastics' Motor Skills Performance among Undergraduate Female Students in Physical Education College

Authors: Sanaa Ali Ahmed Alrashid


The present study aimed to investigate the effect of synchronous music in Gymnastics' motor skill performance among undergraduate female students in physical education college at Basra University. The researcher used experimental design. 20 female students of physical education divided equally into two groups, (10) experimental group with music, (10) control group without music. All participants complete 6 weeks in testing. Data analysis based on T-test shows significant difference at (α = 0.05) in all skills level between experimental and control groups in favor of experimental group. Results of this study contribute to developing the role of synchronous music in improving gymnastic skills performance.

Keywords: Music, Performance, synchronous, motor skill

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2165


[1] Southard, Dan and Andrew Mircale, “Rhythmicity ritual, and motor performance: a Study of free throw shooting in rashet ball” Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, Vol. 64(3), 284-290. 1993.
[2] Southrad, Dan, Amos, Blake, “Rhythmicity and pre performance ritual: stabilizing a flexible system”, Research Quarterly for Exercise and sport, 67(3), 288-296. 1996.
[3] Crust, L.. Perceived importance of components of asynchronous music during circuit training. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26, 1547-1555. 2008. Doi: 10.1080/02640410802315427.
[4] Crust L., Clough P.J. The influence of rhythm and personality in the endurance response to motivational asynchronous music .Journal of Sports Sciences.24:187–195. 2006 (PubMed).
[5] Terry, P. C., Dinsdale, S. L., Karageorghis, C. I., & Lane, A. M. Use and perceived effectiveness of pre-competition mood regulation strategies among athletes. In M. Katsikitis (Ed.), Psychology bridging the Tasman: Science culture and practice – Proceedings of the 2006 Joint Conference of the Australian Psychological Society and the New Zealand Psychological Society (pp. 420-424). 2006. Melbourne, VIC: Australian Psychological Society.
[6] Ayers, L. P. The influence of music on speed in the six day bicycle race. American Physical Education Review, 16, 321-325. 1911.
[7] Becker, N., Chambliss, C., Marsh, C., and Montemayor, R... Effect of mellow and frenetic music and stimulating and relaxing scents on walking by seniors. Erceptual & Motor Skills, 80, 411-415. doi:10.2466/PMS.80.2.411-415. 1995.
[8] Simpson, S. D., &Karageorghis, C. I. The effects of synchronous music on400-m sprint performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24, 1095-1102. 2006. Doi:10.1080/0264041050043278.
[9] Karageorghis, C. I., Mouzourides, D. A., Priest, D., Sasso, T. A., Morrish, D. J., &Walley, C. L. Psychophysical and ergogenic effects of synchronous music during treadmill walking. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 31, 18-36. 2009. Retrieved from
[10] Karageorghis, C. I., & Terry, P. C. The psychological, psychophysical and ergogenic effects of music in sport: a review and synthesis. In A. J. Bateman& J. R. Bale (Eds.), Sporting sounds: relationships between sport and music. 2008. (pp. 59-84). London, United Kingdom: Routledge.
[11] Hall, K. G., & Erickson, B. The effects of preparatory arousal on sixty meter dash performance. The Applied Research in Coaching and Athletics Annual, 10, 70-79. 1995.
[12] Karageorghis, C. I., Drew, K. M., & Terry, P. C. Effects of pretest stimulative and sedative music on grip strength. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 83, 1347-1352. doi:10.2466/PMS.83.7.1347-1352. 1996.
[13] Eliakim, M., Meckel, Y., Nemet, D., & Eliakim, A. The effect of music during warm-up on consecutive anaerobic performance in elite adolescent volleyball players. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28, 321-325. 2007. Doi: 10.1055/s-2006-924360.
[14] Atkinson, G., Wilson, D., & Eubank, M. Effects of music on work-rate distribution during a cycling time trial. International Journal of Sports. Medicine, 25, 611-615. 2004. doi:10.1055/s-2004-815715.
[15] Elliott, D., Carr, S., & Orme, D. The effect of motivational music on submaximal exercise. European Journal of Sport Science, 5, 97-106. 2005. Doi: 10.1080/17461390500171310.
[16] Lim, H. B. T., Atkinson, G., Karageorghis, C., & Eubank, M. Effects of differentiated music on cycling time trial. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 30, 435-442. 2009. Doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1112140.
[17] Rendi, M., Szabo, A., &Szabo, T. Performance enhancement with music in rowing sprint. The Sport Psychologist, 22, 175-182. 2008. Retrieved from
[18] Bharani, A., Sahu, A., & Mathew, V. Effect of passive distraction on treadmill exercise test performance in healthy males using music. International Journal of Cardiology, 97, 305-306. 2004. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2003.05.048.
[19] Hayakawa, Y., Miki, H., Takada, K., & Tanaka, K. (2000). Effects of music on mood during bench stepping exercise. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90, 307–314. 2009.
[20] Anshel, M.H., & Marisi, D.Q. Effects of music and rhythm on physical performance. Research Quarterly, 49, 109–113. 1978.
[21] Uppal, A.K., &Datta, U. Cardio respiratory response of junior high school girls to exercise performed with and without music. Journal of Physical Education and Sports Science, 2, 52–56. 1990.
[22] Michel, W., &Wanner, H.U. Effect of music on sports performance. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Sport medizin, 23, 141–159. 1973.
[23] Terry, P. C., & Karageorghis, C. I. Psychophysical effects of music in sport and exercise: An update on theory, research, and application. In M. Katsikitis (Ed.), Psychology bridging the Tasman: Science, culture, and practice- Proceedings of the 2006 Joint Conference of the APS and NZPS. 2006, (pp.415-424). Melbourne, VIC: Australian Psychological Society. Retrieved from Karageorghis.pdf.
[24] Shmidt, R.A, Treffener, p.J, Shaw, B.K. &Turvey, M.T, “Dynamical aspects of learning on inter limbi rhythmic movement pattern”, Journal of Motor Behavior, 24(6), 67-84. 1992.
[25] SmolenskyV.M. Gymnastics for physical Education majors, Physical Education and Culture, Muscow, 1996.
[26] Karageorghis, C.I., Jones, L., & Stuart, D.P. Psychological effects of music tempi during exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29, 613–619. 2008.
[27] Karageorghis, C.I., & Terry, P.C. The magic of music in movement. Sport and Medicine Today, 5, 38-41. 2001.
[28] M. Clynes and J. Walker, Neurobiologic functions of rhythm time and pulse in music. In: M. Clynes, Editor, Music, mind and brain: The neuropsychology of music, Plenum Press, New York, NY. 1982, pp. 171–216.
[29] Styns, F., van Noorden, L., Moelants, D., Leman, and M.: Walking on music. Hum. Mov. Sci. 26(5), 769-85. 2007.
[30] Karageorghis, C. I., & Jones, J. (2000).Effects of synchronous and asynchronous music in cycle ergometry. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 16.
[31] Steinbach, P. Rocking the house. Athletic Business, 8, 66-69. 2008. Retrieved from
[32] Tubino, M. J. G., de Souza, B. C., &Valladão, R. An analysis about the contents of the officials and popular anthems of the main soccer teams of the city of Rio de Janeiro from the Primeira República to the Estado Novo. Fitness & Performance Journal, 8, 56-67. 2009. Retrieved from
[33] Zatorre, R. J. Halpern, A. R. Perry, D. W. Meyer E., and Evans, A.C. Hearing in the mind’s ear: a PET investigation of musical imagery and perception, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 8, 1996, pp. 29–46.
[34] Chaudhary, Laura. "Brain Workout". South China Morning Post,
[35] Biddle, S, and Mutrie, N. Psychology of physical activity and exercise. A health related perspective. Springer Vertag London Ltd. 1991.
[36] Copeland, B. L., & Franks, B. D. Effects of types and intensities of background music on treadmill endurance. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 31, 100-103.1991. Retrieved from
[37] Szmedra, L., & Bacharach, D. W. Effect of music on perceived exertion, plasma lactate, norepinephrine and cardiovascular hemodynamics during treadmill running. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 19, 32-37. 1998. Doi: 10.1055/s-2007-971876.
[38] Bacon, C., Myers, T., & Karageorghis, C. I. Effect of music-movement synchrony on exercise oxygen consumption. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 52, 359-365 2012.
[39] Khalfa, S., Dalla Bella, S., Roy, M., Peretz, I., &Lupien, S. J. Effects of relaxing music on salivary cortisol level after psychological stress. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 999, 364-376. 2003.
[40] Karageorghis, C. I. Music in sport and exercise: Theory and practice. The Sport Journal, 2. 1999. Retrieved from
[41] Karageorghis, C. I., & Priest, D. Music in sport and exercise: An update on research and application. The Sport Journal, 11.2008. Retrieved from and-application.
[42] Karageorghis, C. I., & Priest, D. Music in the exercise domain: A review and synthesis (Part I). International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5, 44-66. 2012a.
[43] Terry, P. C., Karageorghis, C. I., MecozziSaha, A., &D’Auria, S. Effects of synchronous music on treadmill running among elite tri athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 15, 52-57. 2012. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2011.06.003.
[44] Priest, D. L., Karageorghis, C. I., & Sharp, N. C. C. The characteristics and effects of motivational music in exercise settings: The possible influence of gender, age, frequency of attendance, and time of attendance. Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness, 44, 77-86. 2004. Retrieved from physical-fitness/.