Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32451
Optimization Approach on Flapping Aerodynamic Characteristics of Corrugated Airfoil

Authors: Wei-Hsin Sun, Jr-Ming Miao, Chang-Hsien Tai, Chien-Chun Hung


The development of biomimetic micro-aerial-vehicles (MAVs) with flapping wings is the future trend in military/domestic field. The successful flight of MAVs is strongly related to the understanding of unsteady aerodynamic performance of low Reynolds number airfoils under dynamic flapping motion. This study explored the effects of flapping frequency, stroke amplitude, and the inclined angle of stroke plane on lift force and thrust force of a bio-inspiration corrugated airfoil with 33 full factorial design of experiment and ANOVA analysis. Unsteady vorticity flows over a corrugated thin airfoil executing flapping motion are computed with time-dependent two-dimensional laminar incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the conformal hybrid mesh. The tested freestream Reynolds number based on the chord length of airfoil as characteristic length is fixed of 103. The dynamic mesh technique is applied to model the flapping motion of a corrugated airfoil. Instant vorticity contours over a complete flapping cycle clearly reveals the flow mechanisms for lift force generation are dynamic stall, rotational circulation, and wake capture. The thrust force is produced as the leading edge vortex shedding from the trailing edge of airfoil to form a reverse von Karman vortex. Results also indicated that the inclined angle is the most significant factor on both the lift force and thrust force. There are strong interactions between tested factors which mean an optimization study on parameters should be conducted in further runs.

Keywords: biomimetic, MAVs, aerodynamic, ANOVA analysis.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2024


[1] Mueller T. J. (ed.), "Fixed and Flapping Wing Aerodynamics for Micro Air Vehicle Applications". Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics, 195, AIAA, Reston, VA, 2001, pp. 453-471.
[2] Triantafyllou G. S., Triantafyllou M. S. and Grosenbaugh M. A., "Optimal Thrust Development in Oscillating Foils with Application to Fish Propulsion". Journal of Fluids and Structures, Vol. 7, 1993, pp. 205-224.
[3] Lai, J.C.S., Platzer, M.F., "The Characteristics of a Plunging Airfoil at Zero Free-stream Velocity". AIAA Journal, Vol. 39, 2001, pp. 531-534.
[4] Jones, K. D., Dohring, C. M., and Platzer, M. F., "Experimental and Computational Investigation of the Knoller-Betz Effect". AIAA Journal, Vol. 36, No. 7, 1998, pp. 1240-1246.
[5] Anderson, J.M., Streitlien, K., Barrett, D.S., Triantafyllou, M.S., "Oscillating Foils of High Propulsive Efficiency". Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 360, 1998, pp. 41-72.
[6] Ellington, C. P., "The Novel Aerodynamics of Insect Flight: Applications to Micro-Air-Vehicles". Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 202, No.23, 1999, pp. 3439-3448.
[7] Dickinson, M. H., Lehmann, F. O., and Sane, S. P., "Wing Rotation and the Aerodynamic Basis of Insect Flight". Science, Vol. 284, 1999, pp. 1954-1960.
[8] Kawamura, Y., Soudal, S., Nishimoto, S., Ellington, C.P., Clapping-Wing Micro Air Vehicle of Insect Size. In: N. Kato, S. Kamimura (eds.) Bio-Mechanisms of Swimming and Flying, Springer Verlag, 2008.
[9] Ansari, A.A., Phillips, N., Stabler, G., Wilkins, P.C., ┼╗bikowski, R., and Knowles, K. "Experimental Investigation of Some aspects of Insect-Like Flapping Flight Aerodynamics for Application to Micro Air Vehicles". Exp. Fluids, Vol. 46, 2009, pp. 777-798.
[10] Jones, K. D. and Platzer, M. F., "Design and Development Considerations for Biologically Inspired Flapping-Wing Micro Air Vehicles". Exp. Fluids, Vol. 46, 2009, pp. 799-810.
[11] Tuncer,I. H., Platzer, M. F., "Thrust Generation due to Airfoil Flapping". AIAA Journal, Vol. 34, 1996, pp. 509-515.
[12] Isogai, K., Shinmoto, Y., Watanabe, Y., "Effect of Dynamic Stall on Propulsive Efficiency and Thrust of a Flapping Airfoil". AIAA Journal, Vol. 37, 1999, pp. 1145-1151.
[13] Isaac, K. M., Rolwes, J., and Colozza, A., " Aerodynamics of a Flapping and Pitching Wing Using Simulations and Experiments". AIAA Journal, Vol. 46, 2008, pp. 1505-1515.
[14] Chandar, D., and Damodaran, M., "Computational Study of Unsteady Low Reynolds Number Airfoil Aerodynamics on Moving Overlapping Meshes," AIAA Journal, Vol. 46, 2008, pp. 429-438.
[15] Miao, J. M. and Ho, M. H., " Effect of Flexure on Aerodynamic Propulsive Efficiency of Flapping Flexible Airfoil". Journal of Fluids and Structures, Vol. 22, 2006, pp. 401-419.
[16] Miao, J. M., Sun, W. S., and Tai, C. H., "Numerical Analysis on Aerodynamic Force Generation of Biplane Counter-Flapping Flexible Airfoils". Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 46, No. 5, 2009, pp. 1785-1794.
[17] Wang, Z. J. " Two Dimensional Mechanism of Hovering". Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 85, 2000, pp. 2216-2219.
[18] Wang Z. J. " The Role of Drag in Insect Hovering". J. Exp. Biol,.Vol. 207. 2004, pp. 4147-4155.
[19] Tamai, M., Wang, Z., Rajagopalan, G., Hu, H., and He, G., "Aerodynamic Performance of a Corrugated Dragonfly Airfoil Compared with Smooth Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number". 45th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, Jan 8-11, 2007.
[20] Kesel , A. B. "Aerodynamic Characteristics of Dragonfly Wing Sections Compared with Technical Aerofoils". J. Exp. Biol. Vol. 203, 2000, pp. 3125-3135.
[21] Vargas, A., Mittal, R., and Dong, H., "A Computational Study of the Aerodynamic Performance of a Dragonfly Wing Section in Gliding Flight". Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, Vol. 3, 2008, pp. 1-13