Search results for: stiff problems
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2442

Search results for: stiff problems

2442 An eighth order Backward Differentiation Formula with Continuous Coefficients for Stiff Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Olusheye Akinfenwa, Samuel Jator, Nianmin Yoa

Abstract:

A block backward differentiation formula of uniform order eight is proposed for solving first order stiff initial value problems (IVPs). The conventional 8-step Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF) and additional methods are obtained from the same continuous scheme and assembled into a block matrix equation which is applied to provide the solutions of IVPs on non-overlapping intervals. The stability analysis of the method indicates that the method is L0-stable. Numerical results obtained using the proposed new block form show that it is attractive for solutions of stiff problems and compares favourably with existing ones.

Keywords: Stiff IVPs, System of ODEs, Backward differentiationformulas, Block methods, Stability.

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2441 Fifth Order Variable Step Block Backward Differentiation Formulae for Solving Stiff ODEs

Authors: S.A.M. Yatim, Z.B. Ibrahim, K.I. Othman, F. Ismail

Abstract:

The implicit block methods based on the backward differentiation formulae (BDF) for the solution of stiff initial value problems (IVPs) using variable step size is derived. We construct a variable step size block methods which will store all the coefficients of the method with a simplified strategy in controlling the step size with the intention of optimizing the performance in terms of precision and computation time. The strategy involves constant, halving or increasing the step size by 1.9 times the previous step size. Decision of changing the step size is determined by the local truncation error (LTE). Numerical results are provided to support the enhancement of method applied.

Keywords: Backward differentiation formulae, block backwarddifferentiation formulae, stiff ordinary differential equation, variablestep size.

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2440 An Efficient Computational Algorithm for Solving the Nonlinear Lane-Emden Type Equations

Authors: Gholamreza Hojjati, Kourosh Parand

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a class of second derivative multistep methods for solving some well-known classes of Lane- Emden type equations which are nonlinear ordinary differential equations on the semi-infinite domain. These methods, which have good stability and accuracy properties, are useful in deal with stiff ODEs. We show superiority of these methods by applying them on the some famous Lane-Emden type equations.

Keywords: Lane-Emden type equations, nonlinear ODE, stiff problems, multistep methods, astrophysics.

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2439 Implicit Two Step Continuous Hybrid Block Methods with Four Off-Steps Points for Solving Stiff Ordinary Differential Equation

Authors: O. A. Akinfenwa, N.M. Yao, S. N. Jator

Abstract:

In this paper, a self starting two step continuous block hybrid formulae (CBHF) with four Off-step points is developed using collocation and interpolation procedures. The CBHF is then used to produce multiple numerical integrators which are of uniform order and are assembled into a single block matrix equation. These equations are simultaneously applied to provide the approximate solution for the stiff ordinary differential equations. The order of accuracy and stability of the block method is discussed and its accuracy is established numerically.

Keywords: Collocation and Interpolation, Continuous HybridBlock Formulae, Off-Step Points, Stability, Stiff ODEs.

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2438 An Accurate Computation of Block Hybrid Method for Solving Stiff Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir

Abstract:

In this paper, self-starting block hybrid method of order (5,5,5,5)T is proposed for the solution of the special second order ordinary differential equations with associated initial or boundary conditions. The continuous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain four discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. The computational burden and computer time wastage involved in the usual reduction of second order problem into system of first order equations are avoided by this approach. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on stiff ordinary differential equations, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: Block Method, Hybrid, Linear Multistep Method, Self – starting, Special Second Order.

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2437 On the Approximate Solution of Continuous Coefficients for Solving Third Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir

Abstract:

This paper derived four newly schemes which are combined in order to form an accurate and efficient block method for parallel or sequential solution of third order ordinary differential equations of the form y''' = f(x, y, y', y''), y(α)=y0, y'(α)=β, y''(α)=η with associated initial or boundary conditions. The implementation strategies of the derived method have shown that the block method is found to be consistent, zero stable and hence convergent. The derived schemes were tested on stiff and non – stiff ordinary differential equations, and the numerical results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: Block Method, Hybrid, Linear Multistep, Self starting, Third Order Ordinary Differential Equations.

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2436 Fragility Assessment for Torsionally Asymmetric Buildings in Plan

Authors: S. Feli, S. Tavousi Tafreshi, A. Ghasemi

Abstract:

The present paper aims at evaluating the response of three-dimensional buildings with in-plan stiffness irregularities that have been subjected to two-way excitation ground motion records simultaneously. This study is broadly-based fragility assessment with greater emphasis on structural response at in-plan flexible and stiff sides. To this end, three type of three-dimensional 5-story steel building structures with stiffness eccentricities, were subjected to extensive nonlinear incremental dynamic analyses (IDA) utilizing Ibarra-Krawinkler deterioration models. Fragility assessment was implemented for different configurations of braces to investigate the losses in buildings with center of resisting (CR) eccentricities.

Keywords: Ibarra Krawinkler, fragility assessment, flexible and stiff side, center of resisting.

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2435 Parallel Block Backward Differentiation Formulas for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Khairil Iskandar Othman, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim, Mohamed Suleiman

Abstract:

A parallel block method based on Backward Differentiation Formulas (BDF) is developed for the parallel solution of stiff Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). Most common methods for solving stiff systems of ODEs are based on implicit formulae and solved using Newton iteration which requires repeated solution of systems of linear equations with coefficient matrix, I - hβJ . Here, J is the Jacobian matrix of the problem. In this paper, the matrix operations is paralleled in order to reduce the cost of the iterations. Numerical results are given to compare the speedup and efficiency of parallel algorithm and that of sequential algorithm.

Keywords: Backward Differentiation Formula, block, ordinarydifferential equations.

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2434 Response of Buildings with Soil-Structure Interaction with Varying Soil Types

Authors: Shreya Thusoo, Karan Modi, Rajesh Kumar, Hitesh Madahar

Abstract:

Over the years, it has been extensively established that the practice of assuming a structure being fixed at base, leads to gross errors in evaluation of its overall response due to dynamic loadings and overestimations in design. The extent of these errors depends on a number of variables; soil type being one of the major factor. This paper studies the effect of Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) on multistorey buildings with varying under-laying soil types after proper validation of the effect of SSI. Analysis for soft, stiff and very stiff base soils has been carried out, using a powerful Finite Element Method (FEM) software package ANSYS v14.5. Results lead to some very important conclusions regarding time period, deflection and acceleration responses.

Keywords: Dynamic response, multi-storey building, Soil-Structure Interaction.

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2433 Assessing the Corporate Identity of Malaysia Universities in the East Coast Region with the Market Conditions in Ensuring Self-Sustainability: A Study on Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Authors: Suffian H. Ayub, Mohammed R. Hamzah, Nor H. Abdullah, Sharipah N. Syed Azmy, Hishammudin S.

Abstract:

The liberalisation of the education industry has exposed the institute of higher learning (IHL) in Malaysia to the financial challenges. Without good financial standing, public institution will rely on the government funding. Ostensibly, this contradicts with the government’s aspiration to make universities self-sufficient. With stiff competition from private institutes of higher learning, IHL need to be prepared at the forefront level. The corporate identity itself is the entrance to the world of higher learning and it is in this uniqueness, it will be able to distinguish itself from competitors. This paper examined the perception of the stakeholders at one of the public universities in the east coast region in Malaysia on the perceived reputation and how the university communicate its preparedness for self-sustainability through corporate identity. The findings indicated while the stakeholders embraced the challenges in facing the stiff competition and struggling market conditions, most of them felt the university should put more efforts in mobilising the corporate identity to its constituencies.

Keywords: Communication, corporate identity, market conditions, universities.

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2432 A Critical Study of Media Profiling on Society-s Social Problems from a British Perspective

Authors: Cj Gletus Matthews Cn Jacobs, Kogilah Narayanasamy

Abstract:

This article explores the sociological perspectives on social problems and the role of the media which has a delicate role to tread in balancing its duty to the public and the victim Whilst social problems have objective conditions, it is the subjective definition of such problems that ensure which social problem comes to the fore and which doesn-t. Further it explores the roles and functions of policymakers when addressing social problems and the impact of the inception of media profiling as well as the advantages and disadvantages of media profiling towards social problems. It focuses on the inception of media profiling due to its length and a follow up article will explore how current media profiling towards social problems have evolved since its inception.

Keywords: Media Profiling, Policy Response, Social Problems

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2431 A Fast Block-based Evolutional Algorithm for Combinatorial Problems

Authors: Huang, Wei-Hsiu Chang, Pei-Chann, Wang, Lien-Chun

Abstract:

The problems with high complexity had been the challenge in combinatorial problems. Due to the none-determined and polynomial characteristics, these problems usually face to unreasonable searching budget. Hence combinatorial optimizations attracted numerous researchers to develop better algorithms. In recent academic researches, most focus on developing to enhance the conventional evolutional algorithms and facilitate the local heuristics, such as VNS, 2-opt and 3-opt. Despite the performances of the introduction of the local strategies are significant, however, these improvement cannot improve the performance for solving the different problems. Therefore, this research proposes a meta-heuristic evolutional algorithm which can be applied to solve several types of problems. The performance validates BBEA has the ability to solve the problems even without the design of local strategies.

Keywords: Combinatorial problems, Artificial Chromosomes, Blocks Mining, Block Recombination

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2430 Parallel Direct Integration Variable Step Block Method for Solving Large System of Higher Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Zanariah Abdul Majid, Mohamed Suleiman

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to investigate the performance of the developed two point block method designed for two processors for solving directly non stiff large systems of higher order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The method calculates the numerical solution at two points simultaneously and produces two new equally spaced solution values within a block and it is possible to assign the computational tasks at each time step to a single processor. The algorithm of the method was developed in C language and the parallel computation was done on a parallel shared memory environment. Numerical results are given to compare the efficiency of the developed method to the sequential timing. For large problems, the parallel implementation produced 1.95 speed-up and 98% efficiency for the two processors.

Keywords: Numerical methods, parallel method, block method, higher order ODEs.

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2429 Classification and Resolving Urban Problems by Means of Fuzzy Approach

Authors: F. Habib, A. Shokoohi

Abstract:

Urban problems are problems of organized complexity. Thus, many models and scientific methods to resolve urban problems are failed. This study is concerned with proposing of a fuzzy system driven approach for classification and solving urban problems. The proposed study investigated mainly the selection of the inputs and outputs of urban systems for classification of urban problems. In this research, five categories of urban problems, respect to fuzzy system approach had been recognized: control, polytely, optimizing, open and decision making problems. Grounded Theory techniques were then applied to analyze the data and develop new solving method for each category. The findings indicate that the fuzzy system methods are powerful processes and analytic tools for helping planners to resolve urban complex problems. These tools can be successful where as others have failed because both incorporate or address uncertainty and risk; complexity and systems interacting with other systems.

Keywords: Classification, complexity, Fuzzy theory, urban problems.

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2428 Tariff as a Determining Factor in Choosing Mobile Operators: A Case Study from Higher Learning Institution in Dodoma Municipality in Tanzania

Authors: Justinian Anatory, Ekael Stephen Manase

Abstract:

In recent years, the adoption of mobile phones has been exceptionally rapid in many parts of the world, and Tanzania is not exceptional. We are witnessing a number of new mobile network operators being licensed from time to time by Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority (TCRA). This makes competition in the telecommunications market very stiff. All mobile phone companies are struggling to earn more new customers into their networks. This trend courses a stiff competition. The various measures are being taken by different companies including, lowering tariff, and introducing free short messages within and out of their networks, and free calls during off-peak periods. This paper is aimed at investigating the influence of tariffs on students’ mobile customers in selecting their mobile network operators. About seventy seven students from high learning institutions in Dodoma Municipality, Tanzania, participated in responding to the prepared questionnaires. The sought information was aimed at determining if tariffs influenced students into selection of their current mobile operators. The results indicate that tariffs were the major driving factor in selection of mobile operators. However, female mobile customers were found to be more easily attracted into subscribing to a mobile operator due to low tariffs, a bigger number of free short messages or discounted call charges than their fellow male customers.

Keywords: Consumer Buying, mobile operators, tariff.

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2427 Financial Problems Met in the Tourism Sector in Turkey: A Survey on the Tourism Businesses

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Huseyin Cetin, Halil Akmese, Mesut Murat Adabali

Abstract:

As the economies of other countries in the Mediterranean Basin, the tourism sector in our country has a high denominator in economics. Tourism businesses, which are building blocks of tourism, sector faces with a variety of problems during their activities. These problems faced make business efficiency and competition conditions of the businesses difficult. Most of the problems faced by the tourism businesses and the information of consumers about consumers’ rights were used in this study, which is conducted to determine the problems of tourism businesses in the Central Anatolia Region. It is aimed to contribute the awareness of staff and executives working at tourism sector and to attract attention of businesses active concurrently with tourism sector and legislators.

Keywords: Financial Problems, The problems of Tourism businesses, Tourism Businesses, Tourism Sector in Turkey.

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2426 Comparison Results of Two-point Fuzzy Boundary Value Problems

Authors: Hsuan-Ku Liu

Abstract:

This paper investigates the solutions of two-point fuzzy boundary value problems as the form x = f(t, x(t)), x(0) = A and x(l) = B, where A and B are fuzzy numbers. There are four different solutions for the problems when the lateral type of H-derivative is employed to solve the problems. As f(t, x) is a monotone function of x, these four solutions are reduced to two different solutions. As f(t, x(t)) = λx(t) or f(t, x(t)) = -λx(t), solutions and several comparison results are presented to indicate advantages of each solution.

Keywords: Fuzzy derivative, lateral type of H-derivative, fuzzy differential equations, fuzzy boundary value problems, boundary value problems.

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2425 Variational Iteration Method for the Solution of Boundary Value Problems

Authors: Olayiwola M.O., Gbolagade A .W., Akinpelu F. O.

Abstract:

In this work, we present a reliable framework to solve boundary value problems with particular significance in solid mechanics. These problems are used as mathematical models in deformation of beams. The algorithm rests mainly on a relatively new technique, the Variational Iteration Method. Some examples are given to confirm the efficiency and the accuracy of the method.

Keywords: Variational iteration method, boundary value problems, convergence, restricted variation.

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2424 Simplex Method for Fuzzy Variable Linear Programming Problems

Authors: S.H. Nasseri, E. Ardil

Abstract:

Fuzzy linear programming is an application of fuzzy set theory in linear decision making problems and most of these problems are related to linear programming with fuzzy variables. A convenient method for solving these problems is based on using of auxiliary problem. In this paper a new method for solving fuzzy variable linear programming problems directly using linear ranking functions is proposed. This method uses simplex tableau which is used for solving linear programming problems in crisp environment before.

Keywords: Fuzzy variable linear programming, fuzzy number, ranking function, simplex method.

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2423 Effect of Personalization on Students' Achievement and Gender Factor in Mathematics Education

Authors: Nurettin Simsek, Özlem Cakır

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to point out whether personalization of mathematical word problems could affect student achievement or not. The research was applied on two-grades students at spring semester 2008-2009. Before the treatment, students personal data were taken and given to the computer. During the treatment, paper-based personalized problems and paper-based non personalized problems were prepared by computer as the same problems and then these problems were given to students. At the end of the treatment, students- opinion was taken. As a result of this research, it was found out that there were no significant differences between learners through personalized or non-personalized materials, and also there were no significant differences between gender through personalized and non-personalized problems. However, opinion of students was highly positive through the personalized problems.

Keywords: Personalization, word problem, computer aided personalization.

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2422 Modern Problems of Russian Sport Legislation

Authors: Yurlov Sergey

Abstract:

The author examines modern problems of Russian sport legislation and whether it need to be changed in order to allow all sportsmen to participate, train and have another sportsmen’s rights as Russian law mandates. The article provides an overview of Russian sport legislation problems, provides examples of foreign countries. In addition, the author suggests solutions for existing legal problems.

Keywords: Amendment, legal problem, right, sport.

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2421 Solving Definition and Relation Problems in English Navigation Terminology

Authors: Ayşe Yurdakul, Eckehard Schnieder

Abstract:

Because of the increasing multidisciplinarity and multilinguality, communication problems in different technical fields grow more and more. Therefore, each technical field has its own specific language, terminology which is characterized by the different definition of terms. In addition to definition problems, there are also relation problems between terms. Among these problems of relation, there are the synonymy, antonymy, hypernymy/hyponymy, ambiguity, risk of confusion and translation problems etc.

Thus, the terminology management system iglos of the Institute for Traffic Safety and Automation Engineering of the Technische Universität Braunschweig has the target to solve these problems by a methodological standardisation of term definitions with the aid of the iglos sign model and iglos relation types. The focus of this paper should be on solving definition and relation problems between terms in English navigation terminology.

Keywords: Iglos, iglos sign model, methodological resolutions, navigation terminology, common language, technical language, positioning, definition problems, relation problems.

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2420 Solutions to Probabilistic Constrained Optimal Control Problems Using Concentration Inequalities

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Recently, optimal control problems subject to probabilistic constraints have attracted much attention in many research field. Although probabilistic constraints are generally intractable in optimization problems, several methods haven been proposed to deal with probabilistic constraints. In most methods, probabilistic constraints are transformed to deterministic constraints that are tractable in optimization problems. This paper examines a method for transforming probabilistic constraints into deterministic constraints for a class of probabilistic constrained optimal control problems.

Keywords: Optimal control, stochastic systems, discrete-time systems, probabilistic constraints.

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2419 An Efficient Method for Solving Multipoint Equation Boundary Value Problems

Authors: Ampon Dhamacharoen, Kanittha Chompuvised

Abstract:

In this work, we solve multipoint boundary value problems where the boundary value conditions are equations using the Newton-Broyden Shooting method (NBSM).The proposed method is tested upon several problems from the literature and the results are compared with the available exact solution. The experiments are given to illustrate the efficiency and implementation of the method.

Keywords: Boundary value problem; Multipoint equation boundary value problems, Shooting Method, Newton-Broyden method.

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2418 Combined Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm to Solve Optimization Problems

Authors: Younis R. Elhaddad

Abstract:

Combinatorial optimization problems arise in many scientific and practical applications. Therefore many researchers try to find or improve different methods to solve these problems with high quality results and in less time. Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Simulated Annealing (SA) have been used to solve optimization problems. Both GA and SA search a solution space throughout a sequence of iterative states. However, there are also significant differences between them. The GA mechanism is parallel on a set of solutions and exchanges information using the crossover operation. SA works on a single solution at a time. In this work SA and GA are combined using new technique in order to overcome the disadvantages' of both algorithms.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Optimization problems, Simulated Annealing, Traveling Salesman Problem

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2417 Sinc-Galerkin Method for the Solution of Problems in Calculus of Variations

Authors: M. Zarebnia, N. Aliniya

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical solution based on sinc functions is used for finding the solution of boundary value problems which arise from the problems of calculus of variations. This approximation reduce the problems to an explicit system of algebraic equations. Some numerical examples are also given to illustrate the accuracy and applicability of the presented method.

Keywords: Calculus of variation; Sinc functions; Galerkin; Numerical method

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2416 Non-Polynomial Spline Method for the Solution of Problems in Calculus of Variations

Authors: M. Zarebnia, M. Hoshyar, M. Sedaghati

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical solution based on nonpolynomial cubic spline functions is used for finding the solution of boundary value problems which arise from the problems of calculus of variations. This approximation reduce the problems to an explicit system of algebraic equations. Some numerical examples are also given to illustrate the accuracy and applicability of the presented method.

Keywords: Calculus of variation; Non-polynomial spline functions; Numerical method

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2415 A Survey of Discrete Facility Location Problems

Authors: Z. Ulukan, E. Demircioğlu

Abstract:

Facility location is a complex real-world problem which needs a strategic management decision. This paper provides a general review on studies, efforts and developments in Facility Location Problems which are classical optimization problems having a wide-spread applications in various areas such as transportation, distribution, production, supply chain decisions and telecommunication. Our goal is not to review all variants of different studies in FLPs or to describe very detailed computational techniques and solution approaches, but rather to provide a broad overview of major location problems that have been studied, indicating how they are formulated and what are proposed by researchers to tackle the problem. A brief, elucidative table based on a grouping according to “General Problem Type” and “Methods Proposed” used in the studies is also presented at the end of the work.

Keywords: Discrete location problems, exact methods, heuristic algorithms, single source capacitated facility location problems.

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2414 Simplex Method for Solving Linear Programming Problems with Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: S. H. Nasseri, E. Ardil, A. Yazdani, R. Zaefarian

Abstract:

The fuzzy set theory has been applied in many fields, such as operations research, control theory, and management sciences, etc. In particular, an application of this theory in decision making problems is linear programming problems with fuzzy numbers. In this study, we present a new method for solving fuzzy number linear programming problems, by use of linear ranking function. In fact, our method is similar to simplex method that was used for solving linear programming problems in crisp environment before.

Keywords: Fuzzy number linear programming, rankingfunction, simplex method.

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2413 Problems and Obstacles to Value Creation of Thai Monk-s Bowls: The Case Study of Ban-Baat Village, Bangkok

Authors: Pirada Techaratpong

Abstract:

This research aims to study value-creation process of producing monk-s bowls, Thai traditional handicrafts, which is facing problems in adapting to the changing society. It also aims to identify problems and obstacles to value creation. This research is based on a case study of monk-s bowl manufactures from Ban-Baat Village, Bangkok. The conceptual framework is based on the model of value chain to analyze the process. The research methodology is qualitative. This research found that the value-creation process of monk-s bowls consists of eight activities contributing to adding value to the products and increasing profits to the producers in return. Five major problems and obstacles are found. The research suggests that these problems and obstacles limit the manufacturers- potential for creating more valued product and lead to business stagnation. These problems should be addressed and solved with collaboration among the government, the private sector and the manufacturers.

Keywords: Craft manufacturing, problems and obstacles, value chain, value creation.

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