Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2636

Search results for: The problems of Tourism businesses

2636 Financial Problems Met in the Tourism Sector in Turkey: A Survey on the Tourism Businesses

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Huseyin Cetin, Halil Akmese, Mesut Murat Adabali

Abstract:

As the economies of other countries in the Mediterranean Basin, the tourism sector in our country has a high denominator in economics. Tourism businesses, which are building blocks of tourism, sector faces with a variety of problems during their activities. These problems faced make business efficiency and competition conditions of the businesses difficult. Most of the problems faced by the tourism businesses and the information of consumers about consumers’ rights were used in this study, which is conducted to determine the problems of tourism businesses in the Central Anatolia Region. It is aimed to contribute the awareness of staff and executives working at tourism sector and to attract attention of businesses active concurrently with tourism sector and legislators.

Keywords: Financial Problems, The problems of Tourism businesses, Tourism Businesses, Tourism Sector in Turkey.

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2635 An Integrated Planning Framework for Sustainable Tourism: Case Study of Tunisia

Authors: S. Halioui, I. Arikan, M. Schmidt

Abstract:

Tourism sector in Tunisia faces several problems that range from economic challenges to environmental degradation and social instability. These problems have been intensified because of the increased competition in the tourism market, the political instability, financial crises, and recently terrorism problems have aggravated the situation. As a consequence, a new framework that promotes sustainable tourism in the country and increases its competitiveness is urgently needed. Planning for sustainable tourism sector requires the integration of complex interactions between economic, social and environmental aspects. Sustainable tourism principles can be implemented with the help of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) process, which ensures the full integration of economic, social and environmental considerations while planning for the tourism sector in Tunisia. Results of the paper have broad implications for policy makers and tourism professionals.

Keywords: Sustainable tourism, strategic environmental assessment, tourism planning, policy.

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2634 Study on Environmental Statement for Home Appliances at Online Stores in Japan

Authors: Syuichi Kubota, Kayoko Yamamoto

Abstract:

This study aims to identify the current situation and problems of environmental statement for major four home appliances (refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners and television receivers) sold at online stores in Japan, and then to suggest how to improve the situation, through a questionnaire survey conducted among businesses that operate online stores and online malls with multiple online stores. Results of the study boil down to: (1) It is found out that environmental statement for the home appliances at online stores have four problems; (i) less information on “three Rs" and “chemical substances" than the one on “energy conservation", (ii) cost for providing environmental statement, (iii) issues associated with a label and mark placement, and (iv) issues associated with energy conservation statement. (2) Improvements are suggested for each of the four problems listed above, and shown are (i) the effectiveness of, and need to promote, a label and mark placement, (ii) cost burden on buyers, and (iii) need of active efforts made by businesses and of dissemination of legal regulations to businesses.

Keywords: Home Appliances, Environmentally-FriendlyProduct, Environmental Statement, Online Store, Japan.

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2633 Exploitation of Technology by Tshwane Residents for Tourism Development Purposes

Authors: P. P. S. Sifolo, M. J. Maimela M. P. Tladi

Abstract:

This article investigates technology used by Tshwane residents intended for tourism purposes. The aim is to contribute information for planning and management concerning technology within the tourism sector in the city of Tshwane, South Africa. This study identified the types of tourist related technologies used by the Tshwane residents, be it for business purposes or personal use. The study connected the exploitation of technology for tourism purposes through unpacking the tourism sector as it utilizes technology. Quantitative research methodology was used whereby self-completed questionnaires were chosen as research instruments. The research study carried out a search for knowledge on technology for tourism and the Tshwane residents; however the study revealed that technology has certainly imprinted tourism massively because of its effectiveness and efficiency. Technology has assisted tourism businesses stay abreast of competition with integrated communication technology (ICT) and because of that, SA is on the map as one of the economically performing countries in Africa. Moreover, technology and tourism make a meaningful impact on job creation and Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Keywords: Information and Communication Technology, Technology for tourism, Tshwane residents.

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2632 Measuring Relative Efficiency of Korean Construction Company using DEA/Window

Authors: Jung-Lo Park, Sung-Sik Kim, Sun-Young Choi, Ju-Hyung Kim, Jae-Jun Kim

Abstract:

Sub-prime mortgage crisis which began in the US is regarded as the most economic crisis since the Great Depression in the early 20th century. Especially, hidden problems on efficient operation of a business were disclosed at a time and many financial institutions went bankrupt and filed for court receivership. The collapses of physical market lead to bankruptcy of manufacturing and construction businesses. This study is to analyze dynamic efficiency of construction businesses during the five years at the turn of the global financial crisis. By discovering the trend and stability of efficiency of a construction business, this study-s objective is to improve management efficiency of a construction business in the ever-changing construction market. Variables were selected by analyzing corporate information on top 20 construction businesses in Korea and analyzed for static efficiency in 2008 and dynamic efficiency between 2006 and 2010. Unlike other studies, this study succeeded in deducing efficiency trend and stability of a construction business for five years by using the DEA/Window model. Using the analysis result, efficient and inefficient companies could be figured out. In addition, relative efficiency among DMU was measured by comparing the relationship between input and output variables of construction businesses. This study can be used as a literature to improve management efficiency for companies with low efficiency based on efficiency analysis of construction businesses.

Keywords: Construction Company, DEA, DEA/Window, Efficiency Analysis

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2631 Problems that Impede Sustainable Tourism Development in Egypt

Authors: Essam Abdel-Salam Gouda

Abstract:

This paper analysis the tourism development on the Red Sea in Egypt (west bank) and the needed ongoing action toward a sustainable approach. It addresses, at the first, the development's evolution occurred in the coastal area, the environmental effects it left, and how to minimize those impacts in the future. The second main point is dealing with the most important issues that hinder the achievement of sustainable tourism development on the Red Sea coast and how we can overcome them in the future.

Keywords: Coastal management, Environment, Red Sea, Sustainable tourism.

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2630 Small Businesses as Vehicles for Job Creation in North-West Nigeria

Authors: Mustapha Shitu Suleiman, Francis Neshamba, Nestor Valero-Silva

Abstract:

Small businesses are considered as engine of economic growth, contributing to employment generation, wealth creation, and poverty alleviation and food security in both developed and developing countries. Nigeria is facing many socio-economic problems and it is believed that by supporting small business development, as propellers of new ideas and more effective users of resources, often driven by individual creativity and innovation, Nigeria would be able to address some of its economic and social challenges, such as unemployment and economic diversification. Using secondary literature, this paper examines the role small businesses can play in the creation of jobs in North-West Nigeria to overcome issues of unemployment, which is the most devastating economic challenge facing the region. Most studies in this area have focused on Nigeria as a whole and only a few studies provide a regional focus, hence, this study will contribute to knowledge by filling this gap by concentrating on North-West Nigeria. It is hoped that with the present administration’s determination to improve the economy, small businesses would be used as vehicles for diversification of the economy away from crude oil to create jobs that would lead to a reduction in the country’s high unemployment level.

Keywords: Job creation, North-West Nigeria, small business, unemployment.

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2629 Making Businesses Work Smarter with Mobile Business Intelligence

Authors: Zeljko Panian

Abstract:

Through the course of this paper we outline how mobile Business Intelligence (m-BI) can help businesses to work smarter and to improve their agility. When we analyze the industry from the usage perspective or how interaction with the enterprise BI system happens via mobile devices, we may easily understand that there are two major types of mobile BI: passive and active. Active mobile BI gives provisions for users to interact with the BI systems on-the-fly. Active mobile business intelligence often works as a combination of both “push and pull" techniques. Some mistakes were done in the up-to-day progress of mobile technologies and mobile BI, as well as some problems that still have to be resolved. We discussed in the paper rather broadly.

Keywords: Business intelligence, mobile business intelligence, business agility, mobile technologies, optimization

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2628 Institutional Foundations of Capitalism and Tourism Management Problems of Countries at the Transition Stage (Case of Georgia)

Authors: Maia Margvelashvili, Kakhaber Cheishvili, Ineza Vatsadze

Abstract:

In Capitalism all economic activity rests upon a set of core institutional foundations, main from which are privately owned capital assets and profit. How these core institutional foundations are working in former soviet countries, in particular in Travel and Tourism Industry of Georgia? The role of Travel and Tourism as a key pillar of economic growth is being increasingly recognized by governments in all regions of the world. For the last few years Georgia succeeded in the World Bank and IFC “Doing Business” rankings. Despite of that, during decades totally different statistical data of the tourism sector were provided by the different State bodies; economic parameters were published few, or not published at all. The frequency and extent of property rights violation in Georgia has repeatedly been the subject of concern for the last decade. Total value of abrogated by the former Georgian Government private property is estimated approximately in US$4-5 billion. Thus, if economic profitability is unknown and property rights are not protected – that means that the main institutional foundations of capitalism in Georgia, are not working properly yet, that cause management problems at all levels of the national Travel and Tourism industry of Georgia.

Keywords: Institutional foundations of capitalism, Tourism management, Transition stage.

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2627 Digitization of European SMEs in Tourism and Hospitality: The Case of Greek Hoteliers

Authors: Joanna K. Konstantinou

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to explore the need of small and medium-sized businesses in tourism and hospitality industry to adopt technology and enhance their degree of digitalization, along with the main benefits enjoyed by technology and the main challenges that hinder its adoption. Within a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, semi-structured interviews were conducted with three hotel owners and the focus was to identify the main reasons of adoption of technology, enablers and barriers. The findings were grouped with the goal of identifying typology of business practices in using and adopting technology.

Keywords: Digitalization, hospitality, SME, Interpretative Phenomenology.

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2626 Competitiveness and Value Creation of Tourism Sector: In the Case of 10 ASEAN Economies

Authors: Apirada Chinprateep

Abstract:

The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) is the goal of regional economic integration by 2015. In the region, tourism is an activity that is important, especially as a source of foreign currency, a source of employment creation and a source of income bringing to the region. Given the complexity of the issues entailing the concept of sustainable tourism, this paper tries to assess tourism sustainability with the ASEAN, based on a number of quantitative indicators for all the ten economies, Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Cambodia, and Brunei. The methodological framework will provide a number of benchmarks of tourism activities in these countries. They include identification of the dimensions; for example, economic, socio-ecologic, infrastructure and indicators, method of scaling, chart representation and evaluation on Asian countries. This specification shows that a similar level of tourism activity might introduce different implementation in the tourism activity and might have different consequences for the socioecological environment and sustainability. The heterogeneity of developing countries exposed briefly here would be useful to detect and prepare for coping with the main problems of each country in their tourism activities, as well as competitiveness and value creation of tourism for ASEAN economic community, and will compare with other parts of the world.

Keywords: AEC, ASEAN, sustainable, tourism, competitiveness.

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2625 A Theoretical Framework for Rural Tourism Motivation Factors

Authors: N. P. Tsephe, S. D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

Rural tourism has many economical, environmental, and socio-cultural benefits. However, the development of rural tourism compared to urban tourism is also faced with several challenges added to the disadvantages of rural tourism. The aim of this study is to design a model of the factors affecting the motivations of rural tourists, in an attempt to improve the understanding of rural tourism motivation for the development of that form of tourism. The proposed model is based on a sound theoretical framework. It was designed following a literature review of tourism motivation theoretical frameworks and of rural tourism motivation factors. The tourism motivation theoretical framework that fitted to the best all rural tourism motivation factors was then chosen as the basis for the proposed model. This study hence found that the push and pull tourism motivation framework and the inner and outer directed values theory are the most adequate theoretical frameworks for the modeling of rural tourism motivation.

Keywords: Motivation factors, rural tourism, tourism motivation theories.

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2624 Interest Rate of Managers and Tourism Officials over e-Tourism (Electronic Tourism) Development (Case Study of Lenjan City)

Authors: Akram Shahriyari, Reza Mokhtari Malek Abadi

Abstract:

E-tourism is among the issues that have recently been entered into the field of tourism. In order to achieve this type of tourism, Information and Communications Technology or ICT infrastructures as well as Co-governmental organizations and tourism resources are important. In this study, the opinions of managers and tourism officials about the e-tourism in Lenjan city were measured; it also surveyed the impact of level of digital literacy of managers and tourism officials on attracting tourists in Lenjan city. This study was conducted in Lenjan, one of the environs of the Esfahan province. This study is a documentary – survey and the sources include library resources and also questionnaires. The results obtained indicate that if managers use ICT, it may help E-tourism to be developed in the region, and increasing managers’ beliefs on e-tourism and upgrading their level of digital literacy may affect e-tourism development.

Keywords: ICT, e-tourism, opinion of managers and officials.

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2623 Methodologies for Management of Sustainable Tourism: A Case Study in Jalapão/Tocantins/Brazil

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Veruska C. Dutra, Afonso R. Aquino

Abstract:

The study is in application and analysis of two tourism management tools that can contribute to making public managers decision: the Barometer of Tourism Sustainability (BTS) and the Ecological Footprint (EF). The results have shown that BTS allows you to have an integrated view of the tourism system, awakening to the need for planning of appropriate actions so that it can achieve the positive scale proposed (potentially sustainable). Already the methodology of ecological tourism footprint is an important tool to measure potential impacts generated by tourism to tourist reality.

Keywords: Barometer of tourism sustainability, ecological footprint of tourism, Jalapão/Brazil, sustainable tourism.

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2622 The Ongoing Impact of Secondary Stressors on Businesses in Northern Ireland Affected by Flood Events

Authors: Jill Stephenson, Marie Vaganay, Robert Cameron, Caoimhe McGurk, Neil Hewitt

Abstract:

Purpose: The key aim of the research was to identify the secondary stressors experienced by businesses affected by single or repeated flooding and to determine to what extent businesses were affected by these stressors, along with any resulting impact on health. Additionally the research aimed to establish the likelihood of businesses being re-exposed to the secondary stressors through assessing awareness of flood risk, implementation of property protection measures and level of community resilience. Design/methodology/approach: The chosen research method involved the distribution of a questionnaire survey to businesses affected by either single or repeated flood events. The questionnaire included the Impact of Event Scale (a 15-item self-report measure which assesses subjective distress caused by traumatic events). Findings: 55 completed questionnaires were returned by flood impacted businesses. 89% of the businesses had sustained internal flooding, while 11% had experienced external flooding. The results established that the key secondary stressors experienced by businesses, in order of priority, were: flood damage, fear of reoccurring flooding, prevention of access to the premise/closure, loss of income, repair works, length of closure and insurance issues. There was a lack of preparedness for potential future floods and consequent vulnerability to the emergence of secondary stressors among flood affected businesses, as flood resistance or flood resilience measures had only been implemented by 11% and 13% respectively. In relation to the psychological repercussions, the Impact of Event scores suggested that potential prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was noted among 8 out of 55 respondents (l5%). Originality/value: The results improve understanding of the enduring repercussions of flood events on businesses, indicating that not only residents may be susceptible to the detrimental health impacts of flood events and single flood events may be just as likely as reoccurring flooding to contribute to ongoing stress. Lack of financial resources is a possible explanation for the lack of implementation of property protection measures among businesses, despite 49% experiencing flooding on multiple occasions. Therefore it is recommended that policymakers should consider potential sources of financial support or grants towards flood defences for flood impacted businesses. Any form of assistance should be made available to businesses at the earliest opportunity as there was no significant association between the time of the last flood event and the likelihood of experiencing PTSD symptoms.

Keywords: Flood event, flood resilience, flood resistance, PTSD, secondary stressors.

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2621 Small Businesses' Decision to have a Website Saudi Arabia Case Study

Authors: M. Al-hawari, H. AL–Yamani, B. Izwawa

Abstract:

Recognizing the increasing importance of using the Internet to conduct business, this paper looks at some related matters associated with small businesses making a decision of whether or not to have a Website and go online. Small businesses in Saudi Arabia struggle to have this decision. For organizations, to fully go online, conduct business and provide online information services, they need to connect their database to the Web. Some issues related to doing that might be beyond the capabilities of most small businesses in Saudi Arabia, such as Website management, technical issues and security concerns. Here we focus on a small business firm in Saudi Arabia (Case Study), discussing the issues related to going online decision and the firm's options of what to do and how to do it. The paper suggested some valuable solutions of connecting databases to the Web. It also discusses some of the important issues related to online information services and e-commerce, mainly Web hosting options and security issues.

Keywords: E-Commerce, Saudi Arabia, Small business, Webdatabase connection, Web hosting, World Wide Web (Web).

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2620 Community Based Tourism and Development in Third World Countries: The Case of the Bamileke Region of Cameroon

Authors: Ngono Mindzeng Terencia

Abstract:

Community based tourism, as a sustainable tourism approach, has been adopted as a tool for development among local communities in third world countries with income generation as the main driver. However, an analysis of community based tourism and development brings to light another driving force which is paramount to development strategies in the difficult conditions of third world countries: this driving force is “place revitalization”. This paper seeks to assess the relevance of “place revitalization” to the enhancement of development within the challenging context of developing countries. The research provides a community based tourism model to development in third world countries through a three step process based on awareness, mentoring and empowerment at the local level. It also tries to examine how effectively this model can address the development problems faced by the local communities of third world countries. The case study for this research is the Bamiléké region of Cameroon, the breeding ground of community based tourism initiatives and a region facing the difficulties of third world countries that are great impediments to community based tourism.

Keywords: Awareness, empowerment, local communities, mentoring, place revitalization, third world countries.

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2619 A Comparative Study of International Tourists- Safety Needs and Thai Tourist Polices- Perception towards International Tourists- Safety Needs

Authors: Pimmada Wichasin, Nuntiya Doungphummes

Abstract:

While service quality is acceptably most valued in the tourism industry, the issue of safety and security plays a key role in sustaining the industry success. Such an issue has been part of Thailand-s tourism development and promotion for several years. Evidently, the Tourist Police Department was set up for this purpose. Its main responsibility is to deal with international tourists- safety and confidence in travelling within Thai territory. However, to strengthen the tourism safety of the country, it is important to better understand international tourists- safety concerns about Thailand. This article seeks to compare international tourists- safety needs and Thai tourist polices- perception towards the tourists- safety concern to determine what measure should be taken to assure the tourist of Thailand-s secure environment. Through the employment of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches, the tourism safety need of international tourists from Europe, North America and Asia was excavated, how Thai tourist polices and local polices perceived the international tourist-s safety concern was investigated, and opinion and experiences about how the police deal with international tourists- problems in eight touristic areas were also explored. A comparative result reveals a certain degrees of differences in international tourists- safety needs and Thai polices- perception towards their needs. The tourism safety prevention and protection measure and practice are also suggested.

Keywords: Tourism risk, Tourism safety, Travel safety need, Travelling in Thailand

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2618 Tourism Planning in Developing Countries: Review of Concepts and Sustainability Issues

Authors: Patrick B. Cobbinah, Rosemary Black, Rik Thwaites

Abstract:

Globally, issues of sustainable development have become the fulcrum around which current international discourse revolves. Many governments in both the developed and the developing countries are focusing on strategies to achieve sustainable growth. Tourism has been identified as a major sector in safeguarding a sustainable future. However, research has shown that tourism if not properly managed can be detrimental. This paper posits tourism in the sustainable development discourse, exploring how the historical evolution of tourism and issues of sustainability have informed the state of tourism activities in the developing countries. Using secondary data analysis, the paper reveals that current conceptual explanations of tourism are linked to sustainable development. However, tourism activities in developing countries are usually driven by profit without adequate consideration for environmental and social factors. The paper raises two questions and further recommends that tourism activities should be informed by sustainable development principles.

Keywords: Developing countries, mass tourism, sustainable development, sustainable tourism.

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2617 Exploring the Medical Tourism Development Barriers and Participation Willingness in Taiwan: An Example of Mainland Tourist

Authors: Pei-Ti Chen, Ren-Hua Kung, Ming –Yi Huang , Fuu-Diing Chen, Lei Pei

Abstract:

Medical Tourism is a new development in Taiwan recently. The willingness and barriers of potential tourists from China to participate medical tourism are studied. A questionnaire survey is conducted and the SPSS software is used to analyze data. The results show that under one fifth of respondents express full medical tourism participation willingness. Among travel barriers toward medical tourism, “insufficient information of medical tourism trip", “not enough time", “no companion", “worrying about unsatisfied itinerary." are perceived the most important barriers.

Keywords: medical tourism, travel barriers, participation willingness

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2616 Sustainable Tourism Development: Assessment of Egyptian Sustainable Resorts

Authors: Riham A. Ragheb

Abstract:

Tourism can do a great deal of good in destinations, whether it be by bringing economic benefits to local communities, helping with conservation efforts or in placing a value on aspects of cultural heritage. As responsive travelers, we must all try to do more of the good and less of the negative. This is simply description of the sustainable tourism. This paper aims to set some criteria of successful sustainable tourism development and then through these criteria analyzing the development of some resorts in Egypt known as sustainable resorts. Hence, a comprehensive improvement of the touristic areas is certainly needed to ensure a successful sustainable tourism development radiated the sense of uniformity and coherence. Egypt can benefit from these criteria to develop its resorts in order to preserve and revitalize its unique natural character and achieve mixed uses and tourism development.

Keywords: Egypt, resorts, sustainable tourism, tourism development.

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2615 Sustainable Tourism and Heritage in Sigacık/Seferihisar

Authors: Sibel Ecemiş Kiliç, Muhammed Aydoğan

Abstract:

The rapid development of culture tourism has drawn attention to conserving cultural values especially by developing countries that would like to benefit from the economic contribution this type of tourism attracts. Tourism can have both positive and negative outcomes for historical settlements and their residents. The accommodation-purposed rehabilitation and revitalization project in “Sigacik Old City Zone” are to be discussed with spatial, economic, social and organizational dimensions. It is aimed to evaluate the relationship between the development of tourism and sustainable heritage conservation.

Keywords: Sigacik, urban conservation, sustainable tourism.

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2614 The Role of Parents in Teaching Entrepreneurship Culture to Their Children in Family Businesses

Authors: Ahmet Diken, Meral Erdirençelebi

Abstract:

Similar to economies in many countries; family-owned enterprises have a significant role in the development of Turkish economy. Although they have a large share in economic terms, their lifetime is limited to working life of their founders. Failure in achieving their sustainability deeply affects not only these businesses but also the economy. Therefore, two basic elements of family owned enterprises, family and organizational culture and especially entrepreneurship culture, should be examined closely. The degree of effectiveness of parents in instilling their children with entrepreneurship culture and their effects on children's profession choices are examined through face-to-face surveys with the managers owning family businesses randomly chosen among family-owned enterprises registered in Konya Chamber of Industry, which are active in specific sectors and which had different generations in their management.

Keywords: Family-owned enterprises, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship culture.

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2613 Experience Modularization for New Value of Evanescent Cultural Communities: Developing Creative Tourism Services in Bangkok

Authors: Wuttigrai Ngamsirijit

Abstract:

Creative tourism is an ongoing development in many countries as an attempt to moving away from serial reproduction of culture and reviving the culture. Despite, in the destinations with diverse and potential cultural resources, creating new tourism services can be vague. This paper presents how tourism experiences are modularized and consolidated in order to form new creative tourism service offerings in evanescent cultural communities of Bangkok, Thailand. The benefits from data mining in accommodating value co-creation are discussed, and implication of experience modularization to national creative tourism policy is addressed.

Keywords: Co-creation, Creative tourism, New Service Design

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2612 A Critical Study of Media Profiling on Society-s Social Problems from a British Perspective

Authors: Cj Gletus Matthews Cn Jacobs, Kogilah Narayanasamy

Abstract:

This article explores the sociological perspectives on social problems and the role of the media which has a delicate role to tread in balancing its duty to the public and the victim Whilst social problems have objective conditions, it is the subjective definition of such problems that ensure which social problem comes to the fore and which doesn-t. Further it explores the roles and functions of policymakers when addressing social problems and the impact of the inception of media profiling as well as the advantages and disadvantages of media profiling towards social problems. It focuses on the inception of media profiling due to its length and a follow up article will explore how current media profiling towards social problems have evolved since its inception.

Keywords: Media Profiling, Policy Response, Social Problems

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2611 Gender Discrimination and Pay Gap on Tourism Labor Market

Authors: Alka Obadić

Abstract:

The research concentrates on the role of tourism in generating female employment and on impact of gender discrimination in tourism sector. Unfortunately, in many countries there are still some barriers to the inclusion of women at all hierarchical levels of tourism labor market. Research analysis focuses on EU countries where tourism is a main employer of women. The analysis shows that women represent over third persons employed in the non-financial business economy and almost two thirds in core tourism activities. Women's gross hourly earnings in accommodation and food services were below those of men in the European Union and only countries who recorded increase of gender pay gap from the beginning of crisis are Bulgaria and Croatia. Women in tourism industry are still overrepresented in lower status jobs with fewer opportunities for career progression and are often treated unequally.

Keywords: Employment, gender discrimination, tourism, women’s participation.

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2610 Characteristics of the Long-Term Regional Tourism Development in Georgia

Authors: Valeri Arghutashvili, Mari Gogochuri

Abstract:

Tourism industry development is one of the key priorities in Georgia, as it has positive influence on economic activities. Its contribution is very important for the different regions, as well as for the national economy. Benefits of the tourism industry include new jobs, service development, and increasing tax revenues, etc. The main aim of this research is to review and analyze the potential of the Georgian tourism industry with its long-term strategy and current challenges. To plan activities in a long-term development, it is required to evaluate several factors on the regional and on the national level. Factors include activities, transportation, services, lodging facilities, infrastructure and institutions. The major research contributions are practical estimates about regional tourism development which plays an important role in the integration process with global markets.

Keywords: Regional tourism, tourism industry, tourism in Georgia, tourism benefits.

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2609 Policy of Tourism and Opportunities of Development of Wellness Industry in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili, R. Gvelesiani, E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili

Abstract:

The topic reviews the situation existing currently in Georgia in the field of tourism in conditions of globalization: Touristic resources, the paces of development of the tourism infrastructure, tourism policy, possibilities of development of the Wellness industry in Georgia, that is the newest direction of the medical tourism. The factors impeding the development of the industry of tourism, namely – existence of the conflict zones, high rates of the bank credits, deficiencies associated with the tax laws, a level of infrastructural development, quality of services, deficit in the competitive staff, increase of prices in the peak seasons, insufficient promotion of the touristic opportunities of Georgia on the international markets are studied and analyzed. Besides, the level of development of tourism in Georgia according to the World Economic Forum, aspects of cooperation with the European Union, etc., is reviewed. As a result of these studies, a strategy of development of tourism and one of its direction – Wellness industry in Georgia, is introduced with the relevant conclusions, on which basis the recommendations are provided.

Keywords: Tourism, Tourism Policy, Wellness Industry.

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2608 A High Standard Isolated Insolated Photovoltaic Egyptian Safari Rest Red Sea Area

Authors: Faten H. Fahmy

Abstract:

Where renewable energy sources, solar, hydro, wind are available the remote communities and businesses can be provided with the most reliable and affordable source of electrical energy. This paper presents a model of safari rest contains all the necessary services for the interested tourists who visit the safari Sinai desert. The PV energy system provides the rural energy needs of remote communities. A photovoltaic renewable energy system is designed to feed the global Ac and Dc electrical required load of this safari rest . The benefits of photovoltaic renewable energy at rural applications are its versatility and convenience. This model of safari rest must be taken in consideration by Egyptian Government as it will provide the tourism plane by new interested tourism field which put a big spot on Red sea area: El Ghordaka.

Keywords: Dual electrical supply, stand-alone PV system, location safari area, insolated isolated.

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2607 Developing Islamic Tourism in Kazakhstan: A Result of a Religious Revival or a New Trend of Tourism

Authors: A. A. Mustafayeva, G. E. Nadirova, Sh. S. Kaliyeva, B. Zh. Aktaulova

Abstract:

all of religions free towards society in Kazakhstan. Considering that Islam is more widespread religion in the region, Islamic industry is developing sector of Economy. There are some new sectors of Halal (Islamic) industry, which have importance for state developing on the whole. One of the youngest sectors of Halal industry is Islamic tourism, which became an object of disputes and led to dilemma, such as Islamic tourism is a result of a Religious revival and Islamic tourism is a new trend of Tourism. The paper was written under the research project “Islam in modern Kazakhstan: the nature and outcome of the religious revival".

Keywords: Halal industry, Islamic tourism, pillars, pilgrims.

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