Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2352

Search results for: single spectrum intensity.

2352 Single Spectrum End Point Predict of BOF with SVM

Authors: Ling-fei Xu, Qi Zhao, Yan-ru Chen, Mu-chun Zhou, Meng Zhang, Shi-xue Xu

Abstract:

SVM ( Support Vector Machine ) is a new method in the artificial neural network ( ANN ). In the steel making, how to use computer to predict the end point of BOF accuracy is a great problem. A lot of method and theory have been claimed, but most of the results is not satisfied. Now the hot topic in the BOF end point predicting is to use optical way the predict the end point in the BOF. And we found that there exist some regular in the characteristic curve of the flame from the mouse of pudding. And we can use SVM to predict end point of the BOF, just single spectrum intensity should be required as the input parameter. Moreover, its compatibility for the input space is better than the BP network.

Keywords: SVM, predict, BOF, single spectrum intensity.

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2351 Effects of Geometry on Intensity of Singular Stress Fields at the Corner of Single-Lap Joints

Authors: Yu Zhang, Nao-Aki Noda, Kentaro Takaishi

Abstract:

This paper discusses effects of adhesive thickness, overlap length and material combinations on the single-lap joints strength from the point of singular stress fields. A useful method calculating the ratio of intensity of singular stress is proposed using FEM for different adhesive thickness and overlap length. It is found that the intensity of singular stress increases with increasing adhesive thickness, and decreases with increasing overlap length. The increment and decrement are different depending on material combinations between adhesive and adherent.

Keywords: Adhesive thickness, Overlap length, Intensity ofsingular stress, Single-lap joint

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2350 Analysis of Gamma-Ray Spectra Using Levenberg-Marquardt Method

Authors: A. H. Fatah, A. H. Ahmed

Abstract:

Levenberg-Marquardt method (LM) was proposed to be applied as a non-linear least-square fitting in the analysis of a natural gamma-ray spectrum that was taken by the Hp (Ge) detector. The Gaussian function that composed of three components, main Gaussian, a step background function and tailing function in the lowenergy side, has been suggested to describe each of the y-ray lines mathematically in the spectrum. The whole spectrum has been analyzed by determining the energy and relative intensity for the strong y-ray lines.

Keywords: Gamma-Ray, Spectrum analysis, Non-linear leastsquare fitting.

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2349 Comparison of Parameterization Methods in Recognizing Spoken Arabic Digits

Authors: Ali Ganoun

Abstract:

This paper proposes evaluation of sound parameterization methods in recognizing some spoken Arabic words, namely digits from zero to nine. Each isolated spoken word is represented by a single template based on a specific recognition feature, and the recognition is based on the Euclidean distance from those templates. The performance analysis of recognition is based on four parameterization features: the Burg Spectrum Analysis, the Walsh Spectrum Analysis, the Thomson Multitaper Spectrum Analysis and the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) features. The main aim of this paper was to compare, analyze, and discuss the outcomes of spoken Arabic digits recognition systems based on the selected recognition features. The results acqired confirm that the use of MFCC features is a very promising method in recognizing Spoken Arabic digits.

Keywords: Speech Recognition, Spectrum Analysis, Burg Spectrum, Walsh Spectrum Analysis, Thomson Multitaper Spectrum, MFCC.

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2348 The Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Trip Steel Wire Drawing Processes Drawn with Different Partial Reductions

Authors: Sylwia Wiewiorowska, Zbigniew Muskalski

Abstract:

The strain intensity and redundant strains, dependent in multistage TRIP wire drawing processes from values used single partial reductions, should influence on the intensity of transformation the retained austenite into martensite and thereby on mechanical properties of drawn wires. The numerical analysis of drawing processes with use of Drawing 2D programme, for steel wires made from TRIP steel with 0,29% has been shown in the work. The change of strain intensity εc and the values of redundant strain εxy, has been determined for particular draws in dependence of used single partial reductions.

Keywords: Steel wire, TRIP steel, drawing processes, fem modelling.

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2347 The Role of MAOA Gene in the Etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Males

Authors: Jana Kisková, Dana Gabriková

Abstract:

Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) is suggested to be a candidate gene implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This meta-analytic review evaluates the relationship between ASD and MAOA markers such as 30 bp variable number tandem repeats in the promoter region (uVNTR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by using findings from recently published studies. It seems that in Caucasian males, the risk of developing ASD increase with the presence of 4- repeat allele in the promoter region of MAOA gene whereas no differences were found between autistic patients and controls in Egyptian, West Bengal and Korean population. Some studies point to the importance of specific haplotype groups of SNPs and interaction of MAOA with others genes (e. g. FOXP2 or SRY). The results of existing studies are insufficient and further research is needed.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, MAOA, uVNTR, single nucleotide polymorphism.

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2346 Bug Localization on Single-Line Bugs of Apache Commons Math Library

Authors: Cherry Oo, Hnin Min Oo

Abstract:

Software bug localization is one of the most costly tasks in program repair technique. Therefore, there is a high claim for automated bug localization techniques that can monitor programmers to the locations of bugs, with slight human arbitration. Spectrum-based bug localization aims to help software developers to discover bugs rapidly by investigating abstractions of the program traces to make a ranking list of most possible buggy modules. Using the Apache Commons Math library project, we study the diagnostic accuracy using our spectrum-based bug localization metric. Our outcomes show that the greater performance of a specific similarity coefficient, used to inspect the program spectra, is mostly effective on localizing of single line bugs.

Keywords: Software testing, fault localization, program spectra.

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2345 Analysis of Advanced Modulation Format Using Gain and Loss Spectrum for Long Range Radio over Fiber System

Authors: Shaina Nagpal, Amit Gupta

Abstract:

In this work, all optical Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) generated single sideband with suppressed carrier is presented to provide better efficiency. The generation of single sideband and enhanced carrier power signal using the SBS technique is further used to strengthen the low shifted sideband and to suppress the upshifted sideband. These generated single sideband signals are able to work at high frequency ranges. Also, generated single sideband is validated over 90 km transmission using single mode fiber with acceptable bit error rate. The results for an equivalent are then compared so that the acceptable technique is chosen and also the required quality for the optimum performance of the system is reported.

Keywords: Stimulated Brillouin scattering, radio over fiber, upper side band, quality factor.

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2344 Optimum Radio Capacity Estimation of a Single-Cell Spread Spectrum MIMO System under Rayleigh Fading Conditions

Authors: P. Varzakas

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of estimating the optimal radio capacity of a single-cell spread spectrum (SS) multiple-inputmultiple- output (MIMO) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment is examined. The optimisation between the radio capacity and the theoretically achievable average channel capacity (in the sense of information theory) per user of a MIMO single-cell SS system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment is presented. Then, the spectral efficiency is estimated in terms of the achievable average channel capacity per user, during the operation over a broadcast time-varying link, and leads to a simple novel-closed form expression for the optimal radio capacity value based on the maximization of the achieved spectral efficiency. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the proposed analysis.

Keywords: Channel capacity, MIMO systems, Radio capacity, Rayleigh fading, Spectral efficiency.

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2343 Performance Evaluation of Qos Parameters in Cognitive Radio Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Maninder Jeet Kaur, Moin Uddin, Harsh K. Verma

Abstract:

The efficient use of available licensed spectrum is becoming more and more critical with increasing demand and usage of the radio spectrum. This paper shows how the use of spectrum as well as dynamic spectrum management can be effectively managed and spectrum allocation schemes in the wireless communication systems be implemented and used, in future. This paper would be an attempt towards better utilization of the spectrum. This research will focus on the decision-making process mainly, with an assumption that the radio environment has already been sensed and the QoS requirements for the application have been specified either by the sensed radio environment or by the secondary user itself. We identify and study the characteristic parameters of Cognitive Radio and use Genetic Algorithm for spectrum allocation. Performance evaluation is done using MATLAB toolboxes.

Keywords: Cognitive Radio, Fitness Functions, Fuzzy Logic, Quality of Service (QoS)

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2342 Wavelet-Based Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radios using Hilbert Transform

Authors: Shiann-Shiun Jeng, Jia-Ming Chen, Hong-Zong Lin, Chen-Wan Tsung

Abstract:

For cognitive radio networks, there is a major spectrum sensing problem, i.e. dynamic spectrum management. It is an important issue to sense and identify the spectrum holes in cognitive radio networks. The first-order derivative scheme is usually used to detect the edge of the spectrum. In this paper, a novel spectrum sensing technique for cognitive radio is presented. The proposed algorithm offers efficient edge detection. Then, simulation results show the performance of the first-order derivative scheme and the proposed scheme and depict that the proposed scheme obtains better performance than does the first-order derivative scheme.

Keywords: cognitive radio, Spectrum Sensing, wavelet, edgedetection

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2341 Linear Maps That Preserve Left Spectrum of Diagonal Quaternionic Matrices

Authors: Geng Yuan, Yiwan Guo, Fahui Zhai, Shuhua Zhang

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss some properties of left spectrum and give the representation of linear preserver map the left spectrum of diagonal quaternionic matrices.

Keywords: Quaternionic matrix, left spectrum, linear preserver map.

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2340 In Cognitive Radio the Analysis of Bit-Error- Rate (BER) by using PSO Algorithm

Authors: Shrikrishan Yadav, Akhilesh Saini, Krishna Chandra Roy

Abstract:

The electromagnetic spectrum is a natural resource and hence well-organized usage of the limited natural resources is the necessities for better communication. The present static frequency allocation schemes cannot accommodate demands of the rapidly increasing number of higher data rate services. Therefore, dynamic usage of the spectrum must be distinguished from the static usage to increase the availability of frequency spectrum. Cognitive radio is not a single piece of apparatus but it is a technology that can incorporate components spread across a network. It offers great promise for improving system efficiency, spectrum utilization, more effective applications, reduction in interference and reduced complexity of usage for users. Cognitive radio is aware of its environmental, internal state, and location, and autonomously adjusts its operations to achieve designed objectives. It first senses its spectral environment over a wide frequency band, and then adapts the parameters to maximize spectrum efficiency with high performance. This paper only focuses on the analysis of Bit-Error-Rate in cognitive radio by using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm. It is theoretically as well as practically analyzed and interpreted in the sense of advantages and drawbacks and how BER affects the efficiency and performance of the communication system.

Keywords: BER, Cognitive Radio, Environmental Parameters, PSO, Radio spectrum, Transmission Parameters

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2339 Investigation and Comparison of Energy Intensity in Iranian Transportation Industry (Case Study Road Transportation Sector)

Authors: A. Mojtaba Aghajani, B. Leila Shavakhi

Abstract:

Energy intensity(energy consumption intensity) is a global index which computes the required energy for producing a specific value of goods and services in each country. It is computed in terms of initial energy supply or final energy consumption. In this study (research) Divisia method is used to decompose energy consumption and energy intensity. This method decomposes consumption and energy intensity to production effects, structural and net intensity and could be done as time series or two-periodical. This study analytically investigates consumption changes and energy intensity on economical sectors of Iran and more specific on road transportation(rail road and road).Our results show that the contribution of structural effect (change in economical activities combination) is very low and the effect of net energy consumption has the higher contribution in consumption changes and energy intensity. In other words, the high consumption of energy is due to Intensity of energy consumption and is not to structural effect of transportation sector.

Keywords: Divisia Method, Energy Intensity, Net IntensityEffect, Road Transportation , Structural Effect.

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2338 Fast Wavelength Calibration Algorithm for Optical Spectrum Analyzers

Authors: Thomas Fuhrmann

Abstract:

In this paper an algorithm for fast wavelength calibration of Optical Spectrum Analyzers (OSAs) using low power reference gas spectra is proposed. In existing OSAs a reference spectrum with low noise for precise detection of the reference extreme values is needed. To generate this spectrum costly hardware with high optical power is necessary. With this new wavelength calibration algorithm it is possible to use a noisy reference spectrum and therefore hardware costs can be cut. With this algorithm the reference spectrum is filtered and the key information is extracted by segmenting and finding the local minima and maxima. Afterwards slope and offset of a linear correction function for best matching the measured and theoretical spectra are found by correlating the measured with the stored minima. With this algorithm a reliable wavelength referencing of an OSA can be implemented on a microcontroller with a calculation time of less than one second.

Keywords: correlation, gas reference, optical spectrum analyzer, wavelength calibration

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2337 The Effects of Signal Level of the Microwave Generator on the Brillouin Gain Spectrum in BOTDA and BOTDR

Authors: M. Yucel, M. Yucel, N. F. Ozturk, H. H. Goktas, C. Gemci, F. V. Celebi

Abstract:

In this study, Brillouin Gain Spectrum (BGS) is experimentally analyzed in the Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) and Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer (BOTDA). For this purpose, the signal level of the microwave generator is varied and the effects of BGS are investigated. In the setups, 20 km conventional single mode fiber is used to both setups and laser wavelengths are selected around 1550 nm. To achieve best results, it can be used between 5 dBm to 15 dBm signal level of microwave generator for BOTDA and BOTDR setups.

Keywords: Microwave signal level, Brillouin gain spectrum, BOTDA, BOTDR.

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2336 Performance of Nakagami Fading Channel over Energy Detection Based Spectrum Sensing

Authors: M. Ranjeeth, S. Anuradha

Abstract:

Spectrum sensing is the main feature of cognitive radio technology. Spectrum sensing gives an idea of detecting the presence of the primary users in a licensed spectrum. In this paper we compare the theoretical results of detection probability of different fading environments like Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m fading channels with the simulation results using energy detection based spectrum sensing. The numerical results are plotted as Pf Vs Pd for different SNR values, fading parameters. It is observed that Nakagami fading channel performance is better than other fading channels by using energy detection in spectrum sensing. A MATLAB simulation test bench has been implemented to know the performance of energy detection in different fading channel environment.

Keywords: Spectrum sensing, Energy detection, fading channels, Probability of detection, probability of false alarm.

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2335 Pathway to Reduce Industrial Energy Intensity for Energy Conservation at Chinese Provincial Level

Authors: Shengman Zhao, Yang Yu, Shenghui Cui

Abstract:

Using logarithmic mean Divisia decomposition technique, this paper analyzes the change in industrial energy intensity of Fujian Province in China, based on data sets of added value and energy consumption for 35 selected industrial sub-sectors from 1999 to 2009. The change in industrial energy intensity is decomposed into intensity effect and structure effect. Results show that the industrial energy intensity of Fujian Province has achieved a reduction of 51% over the past ten years. The structural change, a shift in the mix of industrial sub-sectors, made overwhelming contribution to the reduction. The impact of energy efficiency’s improvement was relatively small. However, the aggregate industrial energy intensity was very sensitive to both the changes in energy intensity and in production share of energy-intensive sub-sectors, such as production and supply of electric power, steam and hot water. Pathway to reduce industrial energy intensity for energy conservation in Fujian Province is proposed in the end.

Keywords: Decomposition analysis, energy intensity, Fujian Province, industry.

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2334 Spherical Spectrum Properties of Quaternionic Operators

Authors: Yiwan Guo, Fahui Zhai

Abstract:

In this paper, the similarity invariant and the upper semi-continuity of spherical spectrum, and the spherical spectrum properties for infinite direct sums of quaternionic operators are characterized, respectively. As an application of some results established, a concrete example about the computation of the spherical spectrum of a compact quaternionic operator with form of infinite direct sums of quaternionic matrices is also given.

Keywords: Spherical spectrum, Quaternionic operator, Upper semi-continuity, Direct sum of operators.

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2333 Modern Spectrum Sensing Techniques for Cognitive Radio Networks: Practical Implementation and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Antoni Ivanov, Nikolay Dandanov, Nicole Christoff, Vladimir Poulkov

Abstract:

Spectrum underutilization has made cognitive radio a promising technology both for current and future telecommunications. This is due to the ability to exploit the unused spectrum in the bands dedicated to other wireless communication systems, and thus, increase their occupancy. The essential function, which allows the cognitive radio device to perceive the occupancy of the spectrum, is spectrum sensing. In this paper, the performance of modern adaptations of the four most widely used spectrum sensing techniques namely, energy detection (ED), cyclostationary feature detection (CSFD), matched filter (MF) and eigenvalues-based detection (EBD) is compared. The implementation has been accomplished through the PlutoSDR hardware platform and the GNU Radio software package in very low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) conditions. The optimal detection performance of the examined methods in a realistic implementation-oriented model is found for the common relevant parameters (number of observed samples, sensing time and required probability of false alarm).

Keywords: Cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum access, GNU Radio, spectrum sensing.

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2332 Single Port Overlay Cognitive Radio Using Reconfigurable Filtennas

Authors: V. Nagaraju, Tapas Bapu. B. R, Beryl J. Victor

Abstract:

In this paper cognitive radio is presented and the spectrum overlay cognitive radio antenna system is detailed. A UWB antenna with frequency reconfigurable characteristics is proposed. The reconfigurability is achieved when the filter is integrated to the feeding line of the single port overlay cognitive radio. When activated, the filter can transform the UWB frequency response into a reconfigurable narrowband one, which is suitable for the communication operation of the CR system. Here single port overlay cognitive radio antenna is designed and simulated using Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS).

Keywords: Band-pass filter, Cognitive radio, filtenna, frequency reconfigurable, ultra-wideband antenna.

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2331 X-Ray Intensity Measurement Using Frequency Output Sensor for Computed Tomography

Authors: R. M. Siddiqui, D. Z. Moghaddam, T. R. Turlapati, S. H. Khan, I. Ul Ahad

Abstract:

Quality of 2D and 3D cross-sectional images produce by Computed Tomography primarily depend upon the degree of precision of primary and secondary X-Ray intensity detection. Traditional method of primary intensity detection is apt to errors. Recently the X-Ray intensity measurement system along with smart X-Ray sensors is developed by our group which is able to detect primary X-Ray intensity unerringly. In this study a new smart X-Ray sensor is developed using Light-to-Frequency converter TSL230 from Texas Instruments which has numerous advantages in terms of noiseless data acquisition and transmission. TSL230 construction is based on a silicon photodiode which converts incoming X-Ray radiation into the proportional current signal. A current to frequency converter is attached to this photodiode on a single monolithic CMOS integrated circuit which provides proportional frequency count to incoming current signal in the form of the pulse train. The frequency count is delivered to the center of PICDEM FS USB board with PIC18F4550 microcontroller mounted on it. With highly compact electronic hardware, this Demo Board efficiently read the smart sensor output data. The frequency output approaches overcome nonlinear behavior of sensors with analog output thus un-attenuated X-Ray intensities could be measured precisely and better normalization could be acquired in order to attain high resolution.

Keywords: Computed tomography, detector technology, X-Ray intensity measurement

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2330 Monitoring of Spectrum Usage and Signal Identification Using Cognitive Radio

Authors: O. S. Omorogiuwa, E. J. Omozusi

Abstract:

The monitoring of spectrum usage and signal identification, using cognitive radio, is done to identify frequencies that are vacant for reuse. It has been established that ‘internet of things’ device uses secondary frequency which is free, thereby facing the challenge of interference from other users, where some primary frequencies are not being utilised. The design was done by analysing a specific frequency spectrum, checking if all the frequency stations that range from 87.5-108 MHz are presently being used in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. From the results, it was noticed that by using Software Defined Radio/Simulink, we were able to identify vacant frequencies in the range of frequency under consideration. Also, we were able to use the significance of energy detection threshold to reuse this vacant frequency spectrum, when the cognitive radio displays a zero output (that is decision H0), meaning that the channel is unoccupied. Hence, the analysis was able to find the spectrum hole and identify how it can be reused.

Keywords: Spectrum, interference, telecommunication, cognitive radio, frequency.

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2329 Spread Spectrum Code Estimation by Genetic Algorithm

Authors: V. R. Asghari, M. Ardebilipour

Abstract:

In the context of spectrum surveillance, a method to recover the code of spread spectrum signal is presented, whereas the receiver has no knowledge of the transmitter-s spreading sequence. The approach is based on a genetic algorithm (GA), which is forced to model the received signal. Genetic algorithms (GAs) are well known for their robustness in solving complex optimization problems. Experimental results show that the method provides a good estimation, even when the signal power is below the noise power.

Keywords: Code estimation, genetic algorithms, spread spectrum.

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2328 Reliability Factors Based Fuzzy Logic Scheme for Spectrum Sensing

Authors: Tallataf Rasheed, Adnan Rashdi, Ahmad Naeem Akhtar

Abstract:

The accurate spectrum sensing is a fundamental requirement of dynamic spectrum access for deployment of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). To acheive this requirement a Reliability factors based Fuzzy Logic (RFL) Scheme for Spectrum Sensing has been proposed in this paper. Cognitive Radio User (CRU) predicts the presence or absence of Primary User (PU) using energy detector and calculates the Reliability factors which are SNR of sensing node, threshold of energy detector and decision difference of each node with other nodes in a cooperative spectrum sensing environment. Then the decision of energy detector is combined with Reliability factors of sensing node using Fuzzy Logic. These Reliability Factors used in RFL Scheme describes the reliability of decision made by a CRU to improve the local spectrum sensing. This Fuzzy combining scheme provides the accuracy of decision made by sensornode. The simulation results have shown that the proposed technique provide better PU detection probability than existing Spectrum Sensing Techniques.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, spectrum sensing, energy detector, reliability factors, fuzzy logic.

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2327 An Adaptive Opportunistic Transmission for Unlicensed Spectrum Sharing in Heterogeneous Networks

Authors: Daehyoung Kim, Pervez Khan, Hoon Kim

Abstract:

Efficient utilization of spectrum resources is a fundamental issue of wireless communications due to its scarcity. To improve the efficiency of spectrum utilization, the spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands is being regarded as one of key technologies in the next generation wireless networks. A number of schemes such as Listen-Before-Talk(LBT) and carrier sensor adaptive transmission (CSAT) have been suggested from this aspect, but more efficient sharing schemes are required for improving spectrum utilization efficiency. This work considers an opportunistic transmission approach and a dynamic Contention Window (CW) adjustment scheme for LTE-U users sharing the unlicensed spectrum with Wi-Fi, in order to enhance the overall system throughput. The decision criteria for the dynamic adjustment of CW are based on the collision evaluation, derived from the collision probability of the system. The overall performance can be improved due to the adaptive adjustment of the CW. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme outperforms the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) mechanism of IEEE 802.11 MAC.

Keywords: Spectrum sharing, adaptive opportunistic transmission, unlicensed bands, heterogeneous networks.

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2326 Alignment of Emission Gamma Ray Sources with Nai(Ti) Scintillation Detectors by Two Laser Beams to Pre-Operation using Alternating Minimization Technique

Authors: Abbas Ali Mahmood Karwi

Abstract:

Accurate timing alignment and stability is important to maximize the true counts and minimize the random counts in positron emission tomography So signals output from detectors must be centering with the two isotopes to pre-operation and fed signals into four units of pulse-processing units, each unit can accept up to eight inputs. The dual source computed tomography consist two units on the left for 15 detector signals of Cs-137 isotope and two units on the right are for 15 detectors signals of Co-60 isotope. The gamma spectrum consisting of either single or multiple photo peaks. This allows for the use of energy discrimination electronic hardware associated with the data acquisition system to acquire photon counts data with a specific energy, even if poor energy resolution detectors are used. This also helps to avoid counting of the Compton scatter counts especially if a single discrete gamma photo peak is emitted by the source as in the case of Cs-137. In this study the polyenergetic version of the alternating minimization algorithm is applied to the dual energy gamma computed tomography problem.

Keywords: Alignment, Spectrum, Laser, Detectors, Image

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2325 Obstacle Classification Method Based On 2D LIDAR Database

Authors: Moohyun Lee, Soojung Hur, Yongwan Park

Abstract:

We propose obstacle classification method based on 2D LIDAR Database. The existing obstacle classification method based on 2D LIDAR, has an advantage in terms of accuracy and shorter calculation time. However, it was difficult to classifier the type of obstacle and therefore accurate path planning was not possible. In order to overcome this problem, a method of classifying obstacle type based on width data of obstacle was proposed. However, width data was not sufficient to improve accuracy. In this paper, database was established by width and intensity data; the first classification was processed by the width data; the second classification was processed by the intensity data; classification was processed by comparing to database; result of obstacle classification was determined by finding the one with highest similarity values. An experiment using an actual autonomous vehicle under real environment shows that calculation time declined in comparison to 3D LIDAR and it was possible to classify obstacle using single 2D LIDAR.

Keywords: Obstacle, Classification, LIDAR, Segmentation, Width, Intensity, Database.

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2324 A Cooperative Weighted Discriminator Energy Detector Technique in Fading Environment

Authors: Muhammad R. Alrabeiah, Ibrahim S. Alnomay

Abstract:

The need in cognitive radio system for a simple, fast, and independent technique to sense the spectrum occupancy has led to the energy detection approach. Energy detector is known by its dependency on noise variation in the system which is one of its major drawbacks. In this paper, we are aiming to improve its performance by utilizing a weighted collaborative spectrum sensing, it is similar to the collaborative spectrum sensing methods introduced previously in the literature. These weighting methods give more improvement for collaborative spectrum sensing as compared to no weighting case. There is two method proposed in this paper: the first one depends on the channel status between each sensor and the primary user while the second depends on the value of the energy measured in each sensor.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, Spectrum sensing, Collaborative sensors, Weighted Decisions.

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2323 Simplified Stress Gradient Method for Stress-Intensity Factor Determination

Authors: Jeries J. Abou-Hanna

Abstract:

Several techniques exist for determining stress-intensity factors in linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis. These techniques are based on analytical, numerical, and empirical approaches that have been well documented in literature and engineering handbooks. However, not all techniques share the same merit. In addition to overly-conservative results, the numerical methods that require extensive computational effort, and those requiring copious user parameters hinder practicing engineers from efficiently evaluating stress-intensity factors. This paper investigates the prospects of reducing the complexity and required variables to determine stress-intensity factors through the utilization of the stress gradient and a weighting function. The heart of this work resides in the understanding that fracture emanating from stress concentration locations cannot be explained by a single maximum stress value approach, but requires use of a critical volume in which the crack exists. In order to understand the effectiveness of this technique, this study investigated components of different notch geometry and varying levels of stress gradients. Two forms of weighting functions were employed to determine stress-intensity factors and results were compared to analytical exact methods. The results indicated that the “exponential” weighting function was superior to the “absolute” weighting function. An error band +/- 10% was met for cases ranging from a steep stress gradient in a sharp v-notch to the less severe stress transitions of a large circular notch. The incorporation of the proposed method has shown to be a worthwhile consideration.

Keywords: Fracture mechanics, finite element method, stress intensity factor, stress gradient.

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