Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31105
A Novel Digital Watermarking Technique Basedon ISB (Intermediate Significant Bit)

Authors: Akram M. Zeki, Azizah A. Manaf


Least Significant Bit (LSB) technique is the earliest developed technique in watermarking and it is also the most simple, direct and common technique. It essentially involves embedding the watermark by replacing the least significant bit of the image data with a bit of the watermark data. The disadvantage of LSB is that it is not robust against attacks. In this study intermediate significant bit (ISB) has been used in order to improve the robustness of the watermarking system. The aim of this model is to replace the watermarked image pixels by new pixels that can protect the watermark data against attacks and at the same time keeping the new pixels very close to the original pixels in order to protect the quality of watermarked image. The technique is based on testing the value of the watermark pixel according to the range of each bit-plane.

Keywords: Robustness, Watermarking, lsb, ISB

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1429


[1] Voyatzis, G and Pitas, I. "Protecting Digital-Image Copyrights: A Framework", IEEE Trans. On Computer Graphics and Application, Volume. 19, No. 1, pp. 18-24, 1999.
[2] Chen, Wen-Yuan. "A Comparative Study of Information Hiding Scheme Using Amplitude, Frequency and Phase Embedding", PhD thesis. National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, 2003.
[3] Chin, C. C. Guei, M. C.hen, Min-Hui Lin. Information hiding based on search-order coding for VQ indices. Pattern Recognition Letters 2004.
[4] Ahmet B. Watermarking Capacity Improvement by Low Density Parity Check Codes. Master thesis. Bogazici University. Turkey. 2002
[5] Venkatraman, S., Abraham, A., and Paprzycki, M. (2004). Significance of Steganography on Data Security. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC-04). IEEE Computer Society.
[6] Maity, S. P. Kundu, M. K. "Robust and Blind Spatial Watermarking In Digital Image", Proc. 3rd Indian Conf. on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing (ICVGIP '2002), pp. 388 -393, Ahmedabad, India, 16-18th December, 2002.
[7] Parameswaran, L. Anbumani, K. "A Robust Image Watermarking Scheme using Image Moment Normalization", Transactions on Engineering, Computing and Technology. ISSN 1305-5313, Vol. 13 May, 2006.
[8] Chen, T. H. Horng, G and Wang, S. H. "A Robust Wavelet- Based Watermarking Scheme Using Quantization and Human Visual System Model". Pakistan Journal of Information and Technology, 2 (3): 213-230, 2003. ISSN 1682-6027.
[9] MathWorks, Inc., last accessed on February 2007.
[10] Yuan, Y. B. Vorburger, T.V. Song, J. F. Renegar, T. B. A Simplified Realization for the Gaussian Filter in Surface Metrology. International Colloquium on Surfaces, Chemnitz (Germany), Jan. 31 - Feb. 02, 2000.
[11] McAndrew, Alasdair. Introduction to Digital Image Processing with Matlab, Thomson Course Technology, 2004, ISBN. 0534400116.
[12] Bennour J., Dugelay J-L. and Matta F. "Watermarking Attack: BOWS contest". Proceeding of SPIE Feb 2007.
[13] Jain, A. K. and Uludag, U. "Hiding Fingerprint Minutiae in Images", Proc. AutoID 2002, 3. Workshop on Automatic Identification Advanced Technologies, pp. 97-102, Tarrytown, New York, USA, March 14-15, 2002.
[14] Wu, D. C. and Tsai, W. H. A steganographic method for images by pixel-value differencing. Pattern Recognition Letters, 24, 1613-1626. 2003.