Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 946

Search results for: physico-chemical analyses

946 Effects of Irradiation to Morphological, Physicochemical and Biocompatibility Properties of Carrageenan

Authors: Jhalique Jane R. Fojas, Rizalinda L. De Leon, Lucille V. Abad

Abstract:

The characterization of κ-carrageenan could provide a better understanding of its functions in biological, medical and industrial applications. Chemical and physical analyses of carrageenan from seaweeds, Euchema cottonii L., were done to offer information on its properties and the effects of Co-60 γ-irradiation on its thermochemical characteristics. The structural and morphological characteristics of κ-carrageenan were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while the composition, molecular weight and thermal properties were determined using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Further chemical analysis was done using hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and functional characteristics in terms of biocompatibility were evaluated using cytotoxicity test.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, carrageenan, DSC, FTIR, GPC, irradiation, NMR, physicochemical, SEM, TGA.

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945 Prediction of Protein Subchloroplast Locations using Random Forests

Authors: Chun-Wei Tung, Chyn Liaw, Shinn-Jang Ho, Shinn-Ying Ho

Abstract:

Protein subchloroplast locations are correlated with its functions. In contrast to the large amount of available protein sequences, the information of their locations and functions is less known. The experiment works for identification of protein locations and functions are costly and time consuming. The accurate prediction of protein subchloroplast locations can accelerate the study of functions of proteins in chloroplast. This study proposes a Random Forest based method, ChloroRF, to predict protein subchloroplast locations using interpretable physicochemical properties. In addition to high prediction accuracy, the ChloroRF is able to select important physicochemical properties. The important physicochemical properties are also analyzed to provide insights into the underlying mechanism.

Keywords: Chloroplast, Physicochemical properties, Proteinlocations, Random Forests.

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944 Analysis of Physicochemical Properties on Prediction of R5, X4 and R5X4 HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage

Authors: Kai-Ti Hsu, Hui-Ling Huang, Chun-Wei Tung, Yi-Hsiung Chen, Shinn-Ying Ho

Abstract:

Bioinformatics methods for predicting the T cell coreceptor usage from the array of membrane protein of HIV-1 are investigated. In this study, we aim to propose an effective prediction method for dealing with the three-class classification problem of CXCR4 (X4), CCR5 (R5) and CCR5/CXCR4 (R5X4). We made efforts in investigating the coreceptor prediction problem as follows: 1) proposing a feature set of informative physicochemical properties which is cooperated with SVM to achieve high prediction test accuracy of 81.48%, compared with the existing method with accuracy of 70.00%; 2) establishing a large up-to-date data set by increasing the size from 159 to 1225 sequences to verify the proposed prediction method where the mean test accuracy is 88.59%, and 3) analyzing the set of 14 informative physicochemical properties to further understand the characteristics of HIV-1coreceptors.

Keywords: Coreceptor, genetic algorithm, HIV-1, SVM, physicochemical properties, prediction.

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943 Progressive Changes in Physicochemical Constituent of Rainwater: A Case Study at Oyoko, a Rural Community in Ghana

Authors: J. O. Yeboah, K Aboraa, K. Kodom

Abstract:

The chemical and physical characteristics of rainwater harvested from a typical rooftop were progressively studied. The samples of rainwater collected were analyzed for pH, major ion concentrations, TDS, turbidity, conductivity. All the Physicochemical constituents fell within the WHO guideline limits at some points as rainfall progresses except the pH. All the components of rainwater quality measured during the study showed higher concentrations during the early stages of rainfall and reduce as time progresses. There was a downward trend in terms of pH as rain progressed, with 18% of the samples recording pH below the WHO limit of 6.5-8.0. It was observed that iron concentration was above the WHO threshold value of 0.3 mg/l on occasions of heavy rains. The results revealed that most of physicochemical characteristics of rainwater samples were generally below the WHO threshold, as such, the rainwater characteristics showed satisfactory conditions in terms of physicochemical constituents.

Keywords: Conductivity, pH, physicochemistry, rainwater quality, TDS.

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942 Sequence-based Prediction of Gamma-turn Types using a Physicochemical Property-based Decision Tree Method

Authors: Chyn Liaw, Chun-Wei Tung, Shinn-Jang Ho, Shinn-Ying Ho

Abstract:

The γ-turns play important roles in protein folding and molecular recognition. The prediction and analysis of γ-turn types are important for both protein structure predictions and better understanding the characteristics of different γ-turn types. This study proposed a physicochemical property-based decision tree (PPDT) method to interpretably predict γ-turn types. In addition to the good prediction performance of PPDT, three simple and human interpretable IF-THEN rules are extracted from the decision tree constructed by PPDT. The identified informative physicochemical properties and concise rules provide a simple way for discriminating and understanding γ-turn types.

Keywords: Classification and regression tree (CART), γ-turn, Physicochemical properties, Protein secondary structure.

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941 Study of Ether Species Effects on Physicochemical Properties of Palm Oil Ether Monoesters as Novel Biodiesels

Authors: Hejun Guo, Shenghua Liu

Abstract:

Five palm oil ether monoesters utilized as novel biodiesels were synthesized and structurally identified in the paper. The investigation was made on the effect of ether species on physicochemical properties of the palm oil ether monoesters. The results showed that density, kinematic viscosity, smoke point, and solidifying point increase linearly with their –CH2 group number in certain relationships. Cetane number is enhanced whereas heat value decreases linearly with –CH2 group number. In addition, the influencing regularities of the volumetric content of the palm oil ether monoesters on the fuel properties were also studied when the ether monoesters are used as diesel fuel additives.

Keywords: Biodiesel, palm oil ether monoester, ether species, physicochemical property.

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940 A Study on Physicochemical Analysis of Road and Railway Track Side Soil Samples of Amritsar (Punjab) and Their Genotoxic Effects

Authors: R. Kaur, Y. B. Pakade, J. K. Katnoria

Abstract:

Considering the serious health hazards of air pollutants from automobiles, the present study was aimed to estimate the genotoxic/tumor inducing potential of three soil samples collected from junctions of Bus stand (BS), Crystal (CT) and Railway station (RS) of Amritsar, Punjab (India) using Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay (AlRCAA) and potato disc tumor assay (PDTA). The genotoxic potential in AlRCAA was 41.27% and 41.26% for BS; 37.89% and 43.38% for RS and 33.76% and 37.83% for CT during in situ and root dip treatments, respectively. The maximum number of tumors were induced in RS sample (64) followed by BS (21) and CT (9) during PDTA. The physicochemical parameters of soil sample were also studied and the concentration of lead was found to be 95.21 mg/Kg in RS, 35.30 mg/Kg in BS and 24.59 mg/Kg in CT samples.

Keywords: Automobiles, genotoxicity, Physicochemical parameters, pollutants.

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939 Physicochemical Analysis of Soxhlet Extracted Oils from Selected Northern Nigerian Seeds

Authors: Abdulhamid Abubakar, Sani Ibrahim, Fakai I. Musa

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential use of the selected seed oils. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and the physicochemical characteristics of the oil determined using standard methods. The following results were obtained for the physicochemical parameters analysed: for Egusi seed oil, Oil yield 53.20%, Saponification value 178.03±1.25 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 49.10±0.32 g I2/100g, Acid value 4.30±0.86 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 5.80±0.27 meq/kg were obtained. For Pawpaw seed oil, Oil yield 40.10%, Saponification value 24.13±3.93 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 24.87±0.19 g I2/100g, Acid value 9.46±0.40 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 3.12±1.22 meq/kg were obtained. For Sweet orange seed oil, Oil yield 43.10%, Saponification value 106.30±2.37 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 37.08±0.04 g I2/100g, Acid value 7.59±0.77 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 2.21±0.46 meq/kg were obtained. From the obtained values of the determined parameters, the oils can be extracted from the three selected seeds in commercial quantities and that the egusi and sweet orange seed oils may be utilized in the industrial soap production.

Keywords: Carica papaya, Citrus sinensis, iodine value, peroxide value, physicochemical.

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938 Targeting the Pulmonary Delivery via Optimizing Physicochemical Characteristics of Instilled Liquid and Exploring Distribution of Produced Liquids by Bench-Top Models and Scintigraphy of Rabbits- Lungs

Authors: Mohammad Nasri, Hossein Mirshekarpour

Abstract:

We aimed to investigate how can target and optimize pulmonary delivery distribution by changing physicochemical characteristics of instilled liquid.Therefore, we created a new liquids group: a. eligible for desired distribution within lung because of assorted physicochemical characteristics b. capable of being augmented with a broad range of chemicals inertly c. no interference on respiratory function d. compatible with airway surface liquid We developed forty types of new liquid,were composed of Carboxymethylcellulose sodium,Glycerin and different types of Polysorbates.Viscosity was measured using a Programmable Rheometer and surface tension by KRUSS Tensiometer.We subsequently examined the liquids and delivery protocols by simple and branched glass capillary tube models of airways.Eventually,we explored pulmonary distribution of liquids being augmented with technetium-99m in mechanically ventilated rabbits.We used a single head large field of view gamma camera.Kinematic viscosity between 0.265Stokes and 0.289Stokes,density between 1g/cm3 and 1.5g/cm3 and surface tension between 25dyn/cm and 35dyn/cm were the most acceptable.

Keywords: Pulmonary delivery, Liquid instillation into airway, Physicochemical characteristics, Optimal distribution.

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937 Pd(II) Complex with 4-Bromo-Bis-Hydroxymethyl Phenol and Nicotinamide: Synthesis and Spectral Analysis

Authors: Özlen Altun, Zeliha Yoruç

Abstract:

In the present study, the reactions involving 4-bromo-2,6-bis-hydroxymethyl-phenol (BBHMP) and nicotinamide (NA) in the presence of Pd(II) ions were investigated. Optimum conditions for the reactions were established as pH = 7 and λ = 450 nm. According to absorbance measurements, the molar ratio of BBHMP: NA: Pd2+ was found to be 1: 2: 2. As a result of physicochemical, spectrophotometric and thermal analyses, the reactions of BBHMP and NA with Pd(II) are complexation reactions and one molecule of BBHMP and two molecules of NA react with two molecules of the Pd(II) ion.

Keywords: Nicotinamide, 4-bromo-2, 6-bis-hydroxymethyl-phenol, Pd(II), spectral analysis, synthesis.

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936 Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metals Concentration in Freshwater from Jega River, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: D. Y. Bawa, M. I. Ribah, I. S. Jega, V. O. Oyedepo

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal concentration (Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn)) in freshwater from Jega river. 30 water samples were collected in two 1-liter sterile plastic containers from three designated sampling points, namely; Station A (before the bridge; upstream), Station B (at the bridge where human activities such as washing of cars, motorbike, clothes, bathing and other household materials are concentrated), Station C (after the bridge; downstream) fortnightly, between March and July 2014. Results indicated that the highest pH mean value of 7.08 ± 1.12 was observed in station C, the highest conductivity with the mean 58.75 ± 7.87 µs/cm was observed at station A, the highest mean value of the water total hardness was observed at station A (54 ± 16.11 mg/L), the highest mean value of nitrate deposit was observed in station A (1.66 ± 1.33 mg/L), the highest mean value of alkalinity was observed at station B (51.33 ± 6.66 mg/L) and the highest mean (39.56 ± 3.24 mg/L) of total dissolved solids was observed at station A. The highest concentration mean value of Fe was observed in station C (65.33 ± 4.50 mg/L), the highest concentrations of Cd was observed in station C (0.99 ± 0.36 mg/L), the mean value of 2.13 ± 1.99 mg/L was the highest concentration of Zn observed in station B, the concentration of Pb was not detected (ND) and the highest concentration of Cu with the mean value of 0.43 ± 0.16 mg/L was observed in station B, while the lowest concentration was observed at station C (0.27 ± 0.26 mg/L). Statistical analysis shows no significant difference (P > 0.05) among the sampling stations for both the physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal concentrations. The results were found to be within the internationally acceptable standard limits.

Keywords: Assessment, freshwater, heavy metal concentration, physicochemical.

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935 Novel Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery of Oxyresveratrol: Effect of the Formulation Parameters on the Physicochemical Properties and in vitro Release

Authors: Y. Sangsen, K. Likhitwitayawuid, B. Sritularak, K. Wiwattanawongsa, R. Wiwattanapatapee

Abstract:

Novel solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were developed to improve oral bioavailability of oxyresveratrol (OXY). The SLNs were prepared by a high speed homogenization technique, at an effective speed and time, using Compritol® 888 ATO (5% w/w) as the solid lipid. The appropriate weight proportions (0.3% w/w) of OXY affected the physicochemical properties of blank SLNs. The effects of surfactant types on the properties of the formulations such as particle size and entrapment efficacy were also investigated. Conclusively, Tween 80 combined with soy lecithin was the most appropriate surfactant to stabilize OXY-loaded SLNs. The mean particle size of the optimized formulation was 134.40 ± 0.57 nm. In vitro drug release study, the selected S2 formulation showed a retarded release profile for OXY with no initial burst release compared to OXY suspension in the simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Therefore, these SLNs could provide a suitable system to develop for the oral OXY delivery.

Keywords: Solid lipid nanoparticles, Physicochemical properties, in vitro drug release, Oxyresveratrol.

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934 Physicochemical Characterizations of Marine and River Sediments in the North of France

Authors: Abriak Nor Edine, Zentar Rachid, Achour Raouf, Tran Ngoc Thanh

Abstract:

This work is undertaken to develop a methodology to enhance the management of dredged marine and river sediments in the North of France. The main objective of this study is to determine the main characteristics of these sediments. In this order, physical, mineralogical and chemical properties of both types of sediments are measured. Moreover, their potential impacts on the environment are assessed throughout leaching tests. From the obtained results, the potential of their use in road engineering is discussed.

Keywords: Marine sediments, River sediments, Physicochemical characterizations, Environmental characterizations.

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933 Effects of Process Parameters on the Yield of Oil from Coconut Fruit

Authors: Ndidi F. Amulu, Godian O. Mbah, Maxwel I. Onyiah, Callistus N. Ude

Abstract:

Analysis of the properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and its oil was evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The analyses carried out include proximate composition of the fruit, extraction of oil from the fruit using different process parameters and physicochemical analysis of the extracted oil. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content of the coconut as 7.59, 55.15, 5.65, 7.35 and 19.51 respectively. The oil from the coconut fruit was odourless and yellowish liquid at room temperature (30oC). The treatment combinations used (leaching time, leaching temperature and solute: solvent ratio) showed significant differences (P<0.05) in the yield of oil from coconut flour. The oil yield ranged between 36.25%-49.83%. Lipid indices of the coconut oil indicated the acid value (AV) as 10.05Na0H/g of oil, free fatty acid (FFA) as 5.03%, saponification values (SV) as 183.26mgKOH-1g of oil, iodine value (IV) as 81.00 I2/g of oil, peroxide value (PV) as 5.00 ml/ g of oil and viscosity (V) as 0.002. A standard statistical package minitab version 16.0 program was used in the regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The statistical software mentioned above was also used to generate various plots such as single effect plot, interactions effect plot and contour plot. The response or yield of oil from the coconut flour was used to develop a mathematical model that correlates the yield to the process variables studied. The maximum conditions obtained that gave the highest yield of coconut oil were leaching time of 2hrs, leaching temperature of 50oC and solute/solvent ratio of 0.05g/ml.

Keywords: Coconut, oil-extraction, optimization, physicochemical, proximate.

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932 A Model Predicting the Microbiological Qualityof Aquacultured Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) According to Physicochemical Data: An Application in Western Greece Fish Aquaculture

Authors: Joan Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, Chris Theodoropoulos, Danae Venieri, Maria Lagkadinou

Abstract:

Monitoring of microbial flora in aquacultured sea bream, in relation to the physicochemical parameters of the rearing seawater, ended to a model describing the influence of the last to the quality of the fisheries. Fishes were sampled during eight months from four aqua farms in Western Greece and analyzed for psychrotrophic, H2S producing bacteria, Salmonella sp., heterotrophic plate count (PCA), with simultaneous physical evaluation. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, TDS, salinity, NO3 - and NH4 + ions were recorded. Temperature, dissolved oxygen and conductivity were correlated, respectively, to PCA, Pseudomonas sp. and Shewanella sp. counts. These parameters were the inputs of the model, which was driving, as outputs, to the prediction of PCA, Vibrio sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Shewanella sp. counts, and fish microbiological quality. The present study provides, for the first time, a ready-to-use predictive model of fisheries hygiene, leading to an effective management system for the optimization of aquaculture fisheries quality.

Keywords: Microbiological, model, physicochemical, Seabream.

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931 Physicochemical Characterization of MFI–Ceramic Hollow Fibres Membranes for CO2 Separation with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher

Abstract:

This paper present some preliminary work on the preparation and physicochemical caracterization of nanocomposite MFI-alumina structures based on alumina hollow fibres. The fibers are manufactured by a wet spinning process. α-alumina particles were dispersed in a solution of polysulfone in NMP. The resulting slurry is pressed through the annular gap of a spinneret into a precipitation bath. The resulting green fibres are sintered. The mechanical strength of the alumina hollow fibres is determined by a three-point-bending test while the pore size is characterized by bubble-point testing. The bending strength is in the range of 110 MPa while the average pore size is 450 nm for an internal diameter of 1 mm and external diameter of 1.7 mm. To characterize the MFI membranes various techniques were used for physicochemical characterization of MFI–ceramic hollow fibres membranes: The nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy combined with X emission microanalysis. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Microanalysis by the X-ray were used to observe the morphology of the hollow fibre membranes (thickness, infiltration into the carrier, defects, homogeneity). No surface film, has been obtained, as observed by SEM and EDX analysis and confirmed by high temperature variation of N2 and CO2 gas permeances before cation exchange. Local analysis and characterise (SEM and EDX) and overall (by ICP elemental analysis) were conducted on two samples exchanged to determine the quantity and distribution of the cation of cesium on the cross section fibre of the zeolite between the cavities.

Keywords: Physicochemical characterization of MFI, Ceramic hollow fibre, CO2, Ion-exchange.

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930 Physicochemical Profile of Essential Oil of Daucus carota

Authors: N. Behidj-Benyounes, K. Benyounes, T. Dahmene, N. Chebouti, S. Gana

Abstract:

Essential oils have a significant antimicrobial activity. These oils can successfully replace the antibiotics. So, the microorganisms show their inefficiencies resistant for the antibiotics. For this reason, we study the physicochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Daucus carota. The extraction is done by steam distillation of water which brought us a very significant return of 4.65%. The analysis of the essential oil is performed by GC / MS and has allowed us to identify 32 compounds in the oil of D. carota flowering tops of Bouira. Three of which are in the majority are the α-Pinene (22.3%), the carotol (21.7%) and the limonene (15.8%).

Keywords: α-Pinene, carotol, Daucus carota, limonene.

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929 Diversity and Structure of Trichoptera Communities and Water Quality Variables in Streams, Northern Thailand

Authors: T. Prommi, P. Thamsenanupap

Abstract:

The influence of physicochemical water quality parameters on the abundance and diversity of caddisfly larvae was studied in seven sampling stations in Mae Tao and Mae Ku watersheds, Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northern Thailand. The streams: MK2 and MK8 as reference site, and impacted streams (MT1-MT5) were sampled bi-monthly during July 2011 to May 2012. A total of 4,584 individual of caddisfly larvae belonging to 10 family and 17 genera were found. The larvae of family Hydropsychidae were the most abundance, followed by Philopotamidae, Odontoceridae, and Leptoceridae, respectively. The genus Cheumatopsyche, Hydropsyche, and Chimarra were the most abundance genera in this study. Results of CCA ordination showed the total dissolved solids, sulfate, water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were the most important physicochemical factors to affect distribution of caddisflies communities. Changes in the caddisfly fauna may indicate changes in physicochemical factors owing to agricultural pollution, urbanization, or other human activities. Results revealed that the order Trichoptera, identified to species or genus, can be potentially used to assess environmental water quality status in freshwater ecosystems.

Keywords: Caddisfly larvae, environmental variables, diversity, streams.

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928 Effect on Physicochemical and Sensory Attributes of Bread Substituted with Different Levels of Matured Soursop (Anona muricata) Flour

Authors: Mardiana Ahamad Zabidi, Akmalluddin Md. Yunus

Abstract:

Soursop (Anona muricata) is one of the underutilized tropical fruits containing nutrients, particularly dietary fibre and antioxidant properties that are beneficial to human health. This objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of matured soursop pulp flour (SPF) to be substituted with high-protein wheat flour in bread. Bread formulation was substituted with different levels of SPF (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). The effect on physicochemical properties and sensory attributes were evaluated. Higher substitution level of SPF resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) fibre, protein and ash content, while fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (p<0.05). FESEM showed that the bread crumb surface of control and 5% SPF appeared to distribute evenly and coalesced by thin gluten film. However, higher SPF substitution level in bread formulation exhibited a deleterious effect by formation of discontinuous gluten network. For texture profile analysis, 5% SPF bread resulted in the lowest value of hardness. The score of sensory evaluation showed that 5% SPF bread received good acceptability and is comparable with control bread.

Keywords: Bread, Physicochemical properties, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Sensory attributes, Soursop pulp flour.

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927 Jamun Juice Extraction Using Commercial Enzymes and Optimization of the Treatment with the Help of Physicochemical, Nutritional and Sensory Properties

Authors: Payel Ghosh, Rama Chandra Pradhan, Sabyasachi Mishra

Abstract:

Jamun (Syzygium cuminii L.) is one of the important indigenous minor fruit with high medicinal value. The jamun cultivation is unorganized and there is huge loss of this fruit every year. The perishable nature of the fruit makes its postharvest management further difficult. Due to the strong cell wall structure of pectin-protein bonds and hard seeds, extraction of juice becomes difficult. Enzymatic treatment has been commercially used for improvement of juice quality with high yield. The objective of the study was to optimize the best treatment method for juice extraction. Enzymes (Pectinase and Tannase) from different stains had been used and for each enzyme, best result obtained by using response surface methodology. Optimization had been done on the basis of physicochemical property, nutritional property, sensory quality and cost estimation. According to quality aspect, cost analysis and sensory evaluation, the optimizing enzymatic treatment was obtained by Pectinase from Aspergillus aculeatus strain. The optimum condition for the treatment was 44 oC with 80 minute with a concentration of 0.05% (w/w). At these conditions, 75% of yield with turbidity of 32.21NTU, clarity of 74.39%T, polyphenol content of 115.31 mg GAE/g, protein content of 102.43 mg/g have been obtained with a significant difference in overall acceptability.

Keywords: Jamun, enzymatic treatment, physicochemical property, sensory analysis, optimization.

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926 Physicochemical Stability of Pulse Spreads during Storage after Sous Vide Treatment and High Pressure Processing

Authors: Asnate Kirse, Daina Karklina, Sandra Muizniece-Brasava, Ruta Galoburda

Abstract:

Pulses are high in plant protein and dietary fiber, and contain slowly digestible starches. Innovative products from pulses could increase their consumption and benefit consumer health. This study was conducted to evaluate physicochemical stability of processed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Fradel) and maple pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense L. cv. Bruno) spreads at 5 °C temperature during 62-day storage. Physicochemical stability of pulse spreads was compared after sous vide treatment (80 °C/15 min) and high pressure processing (700 MPa/10 min/20 °C). Pulse spreads were made by homogenizing cooked pulses in a food processor together with salt, citric acid, oil, and bruschetta seasoning. A total of four different pulse spreads were studied: Cowpea spread without and with seasoning, maple pea spread without and with seasoning. Transparent PA/PE and light proof PET/ALU/PA/PP film pouches were used for packaging of pulse spreads under vacuum. The parameters investigated were pH, water activity and mass losses. Pulse spreads were tested on days 0, 15, 29, 42, 50, 57 and 62. The results showed that sous-vide treatment and high pressure processing had an insignificant influence on pH, water activity and mass losses after processing, irrespective of packaging material did not change (p>0.1). pH and water activity of sous-vide treated and high pressure processed pulse spreads in different packaging materials proved to be stable throughout the storage. Mass losses during storage accounted to 0.1% losses. Chosen sous-vide treatment and high pressure processing regimes and packaging materials are suitable to maintain consistent physicochemical quality of the new products during 62-day storage.

Keywords: Cowpea, flexible packaging, maple pea, pH, water activity.

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925 Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Iranian Native Fresh Barberry Fruit

Authors: Samira Berenji Ardestani, Hamid Reza Akhavan

Abstract:

Gamma irradiation greatly reduces the potential microbiological risk of fresh fruits, resulting in improved microbial safety as well as extending their shelf life. The effects of 0.5-2 kGy gamma doses on some physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of fresh barberry fruits (Berberis vulgaris) during refrigerated storage for 40 days were evaluated. The total anthocyanin and total phenolic contents of barberry fruits decreased in a dose-dependent manner immediately after irradiation and after subsequent storage. In general, it is recommended that, according to the effect of gamma radiation on physicochemical, microbial and sensorial characteristics, doses of 1.25-2 kGy could be used.

Keywords: Antioxidant property, barberry fruit, chemical properties, gamma irradiation.

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924 Approach of Measuring System Analyses for Automotive Part Manufacturing

Authors: S. Homrossukon, S. Sansureerungsigun

Abstract:

This work aims to introduce an efficient and to standardize the measuring system analyses for automotive industrial. The study started by literature reviewing about the management and analyses measurement system. The approach of measuring system management, then, was constructed. Such approach was validated by collecting the current measuring system data using the equipments of interest including vernier caliper and micrometer. Their accuracy and precision of measurements were analyzed. Finally, the measuring system was improved and evaluated. The study showed that vernier did not meet its measuring characteristics based on the linearity whereas all equipments were lacking of the measuring precision characteristics. Consequently, the causes of measuring variation via the equipments of interest were declared. After the improvement, it was found that their measuring performance could be accepted as the standard required. Finally, the standardized approach for analyzing the measuring system of automotive was concluded.

Keywords: Automotive part manufacturing measurement, measuring accuracy, measuring precision, measurement system analyses.

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923 Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles by Fluorescence-Labeling

Authors: Laidson P. Gomes, Cristina T. Andrade, Eduardo M. Del Aguila, Cameron Alexander, Vânia M. F. Paschoalin

Abstract:

Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide prepared by the N-deacetylation of chitin. In this study, the physicochemical and antibacterial properties of chitosan nanoparticles, produced by ultrasound irradiation, were evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis. Chitosan nanoparticles inhibited the growth of E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were lower than 0.5 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were similar or higher than MIC values. Confocal laser scanning micrographs (CLSM) were used to observe the interaction between E. coli suspensions mixed with FITC-labeled chitosan polymers and nanoparticles.

Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticles, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, confocal microscopy, antibacterial activity.

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922 Quality Parameters of Offset Printing Wastewater

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Aksentijević M. Snežana

Abstract:

Samples of tap and wastewater were collected in three offset printing facilities in Novi Sad, Serbia. Ten physicochemical parameters were analyzed within all collected samples: pH, conductivity, m - alkalinity, p - alkalinity, acidity, carbonate concentration, hydrogen carbonate concentration, active oxygen content, chloride concentration and total alkali content. All measurements were conducted using the standard analytical and instrumental methods. Comparing the obtained results for tap water and wastewater, a clear quality difference was noticeable, since all physicochemical parameters were significantly higher within wastewater samples. The study also involves the application of simple linear regression analysis on the obtained dataset. By using software package ORIGIN 5 the pH value was mutually correlated with other physicochemical parameters. Based on the obtained values of Pearson coefficient of determination a strong positive correlation between chloride concentration and pH (r = -0.943), as well as between acidity and pH (r = -0.855) was determined. In addition, statistically significant difference was obtained only between acidity and chloride concentration with pH values, since the values of parameter F (247.634 and 182.536) were higher than Fcritical (5.59). In this way, results of statistical analysis highlighted the most influential parameter of water contamination in offset printing, in the form of acidity and chloride concentration. The results showed that variable dependence could be represented by the general regression model: y = a0 + a1x+ k, which further resulted with matching graphic regressions.

Keywords: Pollution, printing industry, simple linear regression analysis, wastewater.

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921 Increased Solubility, Dissolution and Physicochemical Studies of Curcumin- Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 Solid Dispersions

Authors: Nattha Kaewnopparat, Sanae Kaewnopparat, Amaravadee Jangwang, Daungkhae Maneenaun, Thitima Chuchome, Pharkphoom Panichayupakaranant

Abstract:

Solid dispersions (SD) of curcuminpolyvinylpyrrolidone in the ratio of 1:2, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, and 1:8 were prepared in an attempt to increase the solubility and dissolution. Solubility, dissolution, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of solid dispersions, physical mixtures (PM) and curcumin were evaluated. Both solubility and dissolution of curcumin solid dispersions were significantly greater than those observed for physical mixtures and intact curcumin. The powder X-ray diffractograms indicated that the amorphous curcumin was obtained from all solid dispersions. It was found that the optimum weight ratio for curcumin:PVP K-30 is 1:6. The 1:6 solid dispersion still in the amorphous from after storage at ambient temperature for 2 years and the dissolution profile did not significantly different from freshly prepared.

Keywords: Curcumin, polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30, solid dispersion, dissolution, physicochemical.

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920 Tailoring the Sharpness of Tungsten Nanotips via Laser Irradiation Enhanced Etching in KOH

Authors: D. D. Wang, J.C. Lam, Z. H. Mai

Abstract:

Controlled modification of appropriate sharpness for nanotips is of paramount importance to develop novel materials and functional devices at a nanometer resolution. Herein, we present a reliable and unique strategy of laser irradiation enhanced physicochemical etching to manufacture super sharp tungsten tips with reproducible shape and dimension as well as high yields (~80%). The corresponding morphology structure evolution of tungsten tips and laser-tip interaction mechanisms were systematically investigated and discussed using field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and physical optics statistics method with different fluences under 532 nm laser irradiation. This work paves the way for exploring more accessible metallic tips applications with tunable apex diameter and aspect ratio, and, furthermore, facilitates the potential sharpening enhancement technique for other materials used in a variety of nanoscale devices.

Keywords: Tungsten tip sharpening, Laser irradiation, Physicochemical etching, Light-matter interaction.

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919 Physicochemical and Microbiological Assessment of Source and Stored Domestic Water from Three Local Governments in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Authors: Mary A. Bisi-Johnson, Kehinde A. Adediran, Saheed A. Akinola, Hamzat A. Oyelade

Abstract:

Some of the main problems man contends with are the quantity (source and amount) and quality of water in Nigeria. Scarcity leads to water being obtained from various sources and microbiological contamination of the water may thus occur between the collection point and the point of usage. This study thus aims to assess the general and microbiological quality of domestic water sources and household stored water used within selected areas in Ile-Ife, South-Western part of Nigeria for microbial contaminants.             Physicochemical and microbiological examination were carried out on 45 source and stored water samples collected from well and spring in three different local government areas i.e. Ife east, Ife-south and Ife-north. Physicochemical analysis included pH value, temperature, total dissolved solid, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. Microbiology involved most probable number analysis, total coliform, heterotrophic plate, faecal coliform and streptococcus count.

The result of the physicochemical analysis of samples showed anomalies compared to acceptable standards with the pH value of 7.20-8.60 for stored and 6.50-7.80 for source samples. The total dissolved solids (TDS of stored 20-70mg/L, source 352-691mg/L), dissolved oxygen (DO of stored 1.60-9.60mg/L, source 1.60-4.80mg/L), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD stored 0.80-3.60mg/L, source 0.60-5.40mg/L). General microbiological quality indicated that both stored and source samples with the exception of a sample were not within acceptable range as indicated by analysis of the MPN/100ml which ranges between (stored 290-1100mg/L, source 9-1100mg/L). Apart from high counts, most samples did not meet the World Health Organization standard for drinking water with the presence of some pathogenic bacteria and fungi such as Salmonella and Aspergillus spp. To annul these constraints, standard treatment methods should be adopted to make water free from contaminants. This will help identify common and likely water related infection origin within the communities and thus help guide in terms of interventions required to prevent the general populace from such infections.

Keywords: Domestic, microbiology, physicochemical, quality, water.

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918 Physicochemical Characterization of Medium Alkyd Resins Prepared with a Mixture of Linum usitatissimum L. and Plukenetia volubilis L. Oils

Authors: Antonella Hadzich, Santiago Flores

Abstract:

Alkyds have become essential raw materials in the coating and paint industry, due to their low cost, good application properties and lower environmental impact in comparison with petroleum-based polymers. The properties of these oil-modified materials depend on the type of polyunsaturated vegetable oil used for its manufacturing, since a higher degree of unsaturation provides a better crosslinking of the cured paint. Linum usitatissimum L. (flax) oil is widely used to develop alkyd resins due to its high degree of unsaturation. Although it is intended to find non-traditional sources and increase their commercial value, to authors’ best knowledge a natural source that can replace flaxseed oil has not yet been found. However, Plukenetia volubilis L. oil, of Peruvian origin, contains a similar fatty acid polyunsaturated content to the one reported for Linum usitatissimum L. oil. In this perspective, medium alkyd resins were prepared with a mixture of 50% of Linum usitatissimum L. oil and 50% of Plukenetia volubilis L. oil. Pure Linum usitatissimum L. oil was also used for comparison purposes. Three different resins were obtained by varying the amount of glycerol and pentaerythritol. The synthesized alkyd resins were characterized by FT-IR, and physicochemical properties like acid value, colour, viscosity, density and drying time were evaluated by standard methods. The pencil hardness and chemical resistance behaviour of the cured resins were also studied. Overall, it can be concluded that medium alkyd resins containing Plukenetia volubilis L. oil have an equivalent behaviour compared to those prepared purely with Linum usitatissimum L. oil. Both Plukenetia volubilis L. oil and pentaerythritol have a remarkable influence on certain physicochemical properties of medium alkyd resins.

Keywords: Alkyd resins, flaxseed oil, pentaerythritol, Plukenetia volubilis L. oil, protective coating.

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917 Prospects, Problems of Marketing Research and Data Mining in Turkey

Authors: Sema Kurtuluş, Kemal Kurtuluş

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to review and assess the methodological issues and problems in marketing research, data and knowledge mining in Turkey. As a summary, academic marketing research publications in Turkey have significant problems. The most vital problem seems to be related with modeling. Most of the publications had major weaknesses in modeling. There were also, serious problems regarding measurement and scaling, sampling and analyses. Analyses myopia seems to be the most important problem for young academia in Turkey. Another very important finding is the lack of publications on data and knowledge mining in the academic world.

Keywords: Marketing research, data mining, knowledge mining, research modeling, analyses.

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