Search results for: pavement performance
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5812

Search results for: pavement performance

5812 A Study on Numerical Modelling of Rigid Pavement: Temperature and Thickness Effect

Authors: Amin Chegenizadeh, Mahdi Keramatikerman, Hamid Nikraz

Abstract:

Pavement engineering plays a significant role to develop cost effective and efficient highway and road networks. In general, pavement regarding structure is categorized in two core group namely flexible and rigid pavements. There are various benefits in application of rigid pavement. For instance, they have a longer life and lower maintenance costs in compare with the flexible pavement. In rigid pavement designs, temperature and thickness are two effective parameters that could widely affect the total cost of the project. In this study, a numerical modeling using Kenpave-Kenslab was performed to investigate the effect of these two important parameters in the rigid pavement.   

Keywords: Rigid pavement, Kenpave, Kenslab, thickness, temperature.

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5811 Effect of Unbound Granular Materials Nonlinear Resilient Behavior on Pavement Response and Performance of Low Volume Roads

Authors: K. Sandjak, B. Tiliouine

Abstract:

Structural analysis of flexible pavements has been and still is currently performed using multi-layer elastic theory. However, for thinly surfaced pavements subjected to low to medium volumes of traffics, the importance of non-linear stress-strain behavior of unbound granular materials (UGM) requires the use of more sophisticated numerical models for structural design and performance of such pavements. In the present work, nonlinear unbound aggregates constitutive model is implemented within an axisymmetric finite element code developed to simulate the nonlinear behavior of pavement structures including two local aggregates of different mineralogical nature, typically used in Algerian pavements. The performance of the mechanical model is examined about its capability of representing adequately, under various conditions, the granular material non-linearity in pavement analysis. In addition, deflection data collected by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) are incorporated into the analysis in order to assess the sensitivity of critical pavement design criteria and pavement design life to the constitutive model. Finally, conclusions of engineering significance are formulated. 

Keywords: Nonlinear resilient behavior, unbound granular materials, RLT test results, FWD backcalculations, finite element simulations, pavement response and performance.

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5810 Mechanistic Study of Composite Pavement Behavior in Heavy Duty Area

Authors: Makara Rith, Young Kyu Kim, Seung Woo Lee

Abstract:

In heavy duty areas, asphalt pavement constructed as entrance roadway may expose distresses such as cracking and rutting during service life. To mitigate these problems, composite pavement with a roller-compacted concrete base may be a good alternative; however, it should be initially investigated. Structural performances such as fatigue cracking and rut depth may be changed due to variation of some design factors. Therefore, this study focuses on the variation effect of material modulus, layer thickness and loading on composite pavement performances. Stress and strain at the critical location are determined and used as the input of transfer function for corresponding distresses to evaluate the pavement performance. Also, composite pavement satisfying the design criteria may be selected as a design section for heavy duty areas. Consequently, this investigation indicates that composite pavement has the ability to eliminate fatigue cracking in asphalt surfaces and significantly reduce rut depth. In addition, a thick or strong rigid base can significantly reduce rut depth and prolong fatigue life of this layer.

Keywords: Composite pavement, ports, cracking, rutting.

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5809 Comparison of Elastic and Viscoelastic Modeling for Asphalt Concrete Surface Layer

Authors: Fouzieh Rouzmehr, Mehdi Mousavi

Abstract:

Hot mix asphalt concrete is a viscoelastic material, and its stress-strain relationship depends on the loading duration and the strain rate. To investigate the effect of elastic and viscoelastic modeling under traffic load, asphalt concrete pavement is modeled with both elastic and viscoelastic properties and the pavement performance is predicted. The differences of these two models are investigated on fatigue cracking and rutting problem which are the two main design parameters in flexible pavement design. Although the differences in rutting problem between two models were negligible, in fatigue cracking, the viscoelastic model results were more accurate. Results indicate that modeling the flexible pavement with elastic material is efficient enough and gives the acceptable results.

Keywords: Flexible pavement, asphalt, FEM modeling, viscoelastic, elastic, ANSYS.

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5808 Replacing Fibre Reinforced Concrete with Bitumen Asphalt in Airports

Authors: Y. Mohammadi, H. M. Ghasemzadeh, T. B. Talari, M. A. Ghorbani

Abstract:

Concrete pavement has superior durability and longer structural life than asphalt pavement. Concrete pavement requires less maintenance compared to asphalt pavement which requires maintenance and major rehabilitation. Use of the concrete pavement has been grown over the past decade in developing countries. Fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) has been successfully used in design of concrete pavement in past decade. In this research, the effect of fibre volume fraction in modulus of rupture, load-deflection, equivalent flexural strength (fe,3) and the equivalent flexural strength ratio (Re,3) has been used in different fibre volume fraction. Crimped-type flat steel fibre of size 50 x 2.0 x 0.6 mm was used with 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% volume fraction. Beam specimens of size 500 x 100 x 100 mm were used for flexural as well as with JCI method for analysis flexural toughness, equivalent flexural strength. It was obtained as the 2% fibre volume fractions; reduce 45% of the concrete pavement thickness.

Keywords: Concrete pavement, Equivalent flexural strength, Fibre, Load-deflection curves.

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5807 A Mathematical Model for Predicting Isothermal Soil Moisture Profiles Using Finite Difference Method

Authors: Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Anshu Manik

Abstract:

Subgrade moisture content varies with environmental and soil conditions and has significant influence on pavement performance. Therefore, it is important to establish realistic estimates of expected subgrade moisture contents to account for the effects of this variable on predicted pavement performance during the design stage properly. The initial boundary soil suction profile for a given pavement is a critical factor in determining expected moisture variations in the subgrade for given pavement and climatic and soil conditions. Several numerical models have been developed for predicting water and solute transport in saturated and unsaturated subgrade soils. Soil hydraulic properties are required for quantitatively describing water and chemical transport processes in soils by the numerical models. The required hydraulic properties are hydraulic conductivity, water diffusivity, and specific water capacity. The objective of this paper was to determine isothermal moisture profiles in a soil fill and predict the soil moisture movement above the ground water table using a simple one-dimensional finite difference model.

Keywords: Fill, Hydraulic Conductivity, Pavement, Subgrade.

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5806 Modeling the Road Pavement Dynamic Response Due to Heavy Vehicles Loadings and Kinematic Excitations General Asymmetries

Authors: Josua K. Junias, Fillemon N. Nangolo, Petrina T. Johaness

Abstract:

The deterioration of pavement can lead to the formation of potholes, which cause the wheels of a vehicle to experience unusual and uneven movement. In addition, improper loading practices of heavy vehicles can result in dynamic loading of the pavement due to the vehicle's response to the irregular movement caused by the potholes. The combined effects of asymmetrical vehicle loading and uneven road surfaces has an effect on pavement dynamic loading. This study aimed to model the pavement's dynamic response to heavy vehicles under different loading configurations and wheel movements. A sample of 225 cases with symmetrical and asymmetrical loading and kinematic movements was used, and 27 validated 3D pavement-vehicle interactive models were developed using SIMWISE 4D. The study found that the type of kinematic movement experienced by the heavy vehicle affects the pavement's dynamic loading, with eccentrically loaded, asymmetrically kinematic heavy vehicles having a statistically significant impact. The study also suggests that the mass of the vehicle's suspension system plays a role in the pavement's dynamic loading.

Keywords: Eccentricities, pavement dynamic loading, vertical displacement dynamic response, heavy vehicles.

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5805 Moisture Variations in Unbound Layers in an Instrumented Pavement Section

Authors: Md R. Islam, Rafiqul A. Tarefder

Abstract:

This study presents the moisture variations of unbound layers from April 2012 to January 2014 in the Interstate 40 (I-40) pavement section in New Mexico. Three moisture probes were installed at different layers inside the pavement which measure the continuous moisture variations of the unbound layers. Data show that the moisture contents of unbound layers are typically constant throughout the day and month unless there is rainfall. Moisture contents of all unbound layers change with rainfall. Change in ground water table may affect the moisture content of unbound layers which has not been investigated in this study. In addition, the Level 3 predictions of moisture contents using the Pavement Mechanistic- Empirical (ME) Design software were compared and found quite reasonable. However, results presented in the current study may not be applicable for pavement in other regions.

Keywords: Asphalt pavement, moisture probes, resilient modulus, climate model.

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5804 Evaluation of the FWD Moduli of a Flexible Pavement Using Finite Element Model

Authors: Md Rashadul Islam, Mesbah U. Ahmed, Rafiqul A. Tarefder

Abstract:

This study evaluates the back calculation of stiffness of a pavement section on Interstate 40 (I-40)in New Mexico through numerical analysis. Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test has been conducted on a section on I-40. Layer stiffness of the pavement has been backcalculated by a backcalculation software, ELMOD, using the FWD test data. Commercial finite element software, ABAQUS, has been used to develop the Finite Element Model (FEM) of this pavement section. Geometry and layer thickness are collected from field coring. Input parameters i.e. stiffnesses of different layers of the pavement are used as the backcalculated ones. Resulting surface deflections at different radial distances from the FEM analysis are compared with field FWD deflection values. It shows close agreement between the FEM and FWD outputs. Therefore, the FWD test method can be considered to be a reliable test procedure for evaluating the in situ stiffness of pavement material.

Keywords: Falling weight deflectometer test, Finite element model, Flexible pavement, moduli, surface deflection.

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5803 Design of Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement

Authors: O. Zarrin, M. Ramezan Shirazi

Abstract:

The quality of concrete is usually defined by compressive strength, but flexural strength is the most important characteristic of concrete in a pavement which control the mix design of concrete instead of compressive strength. Therefore, the aggregates which are selected for the pavements are affected by higher flexural strength. Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement (RCCP) is not a new construction method. The other characteristic of this method is no bleeding and less shrinkage due to the lower amount of water. For this purpose, a roller is needed for placing and compacting. The surface of RCCP is not smooth; therefore, the most common use of this pavement is in an industrial zone with slower traffic speed which requires durable and tough pavement. For preparing a smoother surface, it can be achieved by asphalt paver. RCCP decrease the finishing cost because there are no bars, formwork, and the lesser labor need for placing the concrete. In this paper, different aspect of RCCP such as mix design, flexural, compressive strength and focus on the different part of RCCP on detail have been investigated.

Keywords: Flexural Strength, Compressive Strength, Pavement, Asphalt.

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5802 Comparative Study of Eva and Waste Polymer Modified Bitumen

Authors: Mohammed Sadeque, K. A. Patil

Abstract:

Polymer-modified bitumen is used to combat different pavement distresses and to increase the life span of pavement. Unmodified bitumen cannot perform better with the range extreme minimum and maximum pavement temperatures. The polymers commonly used to modify the bitumen are ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) styrene butadiene styrene (SBS). The aim this study to compare the performance of EVA modified bitumen with the bitumen modified by waste low density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP) obtained from waste carry bags and waste tyre rubber (CR) to encourage the use of waste polymer whose disposal is big problem today, in place of costly virgin polymer. From the experimental study, it was found that waste polymers are also effective in improving the properties bitumen as that of virgin polymer.

Keywords: Waste plastic, LDPE, PP, Modified bitumen, EVA.

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5801 Comparison of Conventional and “ECO“Transportation Pavements in Cyprus using Life Cycle Approach

Authors: Constantia Achilleos, Diofantos G. Hadjimitsis

Abstract:

Road industry has challenged the prospect of ecoconstruction. Pavements may fit within the framework of sustainable development. Hence, research implements assessments of conventional pavements impacts on environment in use of life cycle approach. To meet global, and often national, targets on pollution control, newly introduced pavement designs are under study. This is the case of Cyprus demonstration, which occurred within EcoLanes project work. This alternative pavement differs on concrete layer reinforced with tire recycling product. Processing of post-consumer tires produces steel fibers improving strength capacity against cracking. Thus maintenance works are relevantly limited in comparison to flexible pavement. This enables to be more ecofriendly, referenced to current study outputs. More specific, proposed concrete pavement life cycle processes emits 15 % less air pollutants and consumes 28 % less embodied energy than those of the asphalt pavement. In addition there is also a reduction on costs by 0.06 %.

Keywords: Environmental impact assessment, life cycle, tirerecycling, transportation pavement.

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5800 Beneficial Use of Coal Combustion By-products in the Rehabilitation of Failed Asphalt Pavements

Authors: Tarunjit S. Butalia, William E. Wolfe

Abstract:

This study demonstrates the use of Class F fly ash in combination with lime or lime kiln dust in the full depth reclamation (FDR) of asphalt pavements. FDR, in the context of this paper, is a process of pulverizing a predetermined amount of flexible pavement that is structurally deficient, blending it with chemical additives and water, and compacting it in place to construct a new stabilized base course. Test sections of two structurally deficient asphalt pavements were reclaimed using Class F fly ash in combination with lime and lime kiln dust. In addition, control sections were constructed using cement, cement and emulsion, lime kiln dust and emulsion, and mill and fill. The service performance and structural behavior of the FDR pavement test sections were monitored to determine how the fly ash sections compared to other more traditional pavement rehabilitation techniques. Service performance and structural behavior were determined with the use of sensors embedded in the road and Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) tests. Monitoring results of the FWD tests conducted up to 2 years after reclamation show that the cement, fly ash+LKD, and fly ash+lime sections exhibited two year resilient modulus values comparable to open graded cement stabilized aggregates (more than 750 ksi). The cement treatment resulted in a significant increase in resilient modulus within 3 weeks of construction and beyond this curing time, the stiffness increase was slow. On the other hand, the fly ash+LKD and fly ash+lime test sections indicated slower shorter-term increase in stiffness. The fly ash+LKD and fly ash+lime section average resilient modulus values at two years after construction were in excess of 800 ksi. Additional longer-term testing data will be available from ongoing pavement performance and environmental condition data collection at the two pavement sites.

Keywords: Coal fly ash, full depth reclamation, FWD, pavement rehabilitation

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5799 Structural Evaluation of Airfield Pavement Using Finite Element Analysis Based Methodology

Authors: Richard Ji

Abstract:

Nondestructive deflection testing has been accepted widely as a cost-effective tool for evaluating the structural condition of airfield pavements. Backcalculation of pavement layer moduli can be used to characterize the pavement existing condition in order to compute the load bearing capacity of pavement. This paper presents an improved best-fit backcalculation methodology based on deflection predictions obtained using finite element method (FEM). The best-fit approach is based on minimizing the squared error between falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measured deflections and FEM predicted deflections. Then, concrete elastic modulus and modulus of subgrade reaction were back-calculated using Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) deflections collected at the National Airport Pavement Testing Facility (NAPTF) test site. It is an alternative and more versatile method in considering concrete slab geometry and HWD testing locations compared to methods currently available.

Keywords: Nondestructive testing, Pavement moduli backcalculation, Finite Element Method, FEM, concrete pavements.

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5798 Simple Procedure for Probability Calculation of Tensile Crack Occurring in Rigid Pavement – Case Study

Authors: Aleš Florian, Lenka Ševelová, Jaroslav Žák

Abstract:

Formation of tensile cracks in concrete slabs of rigid pavement can be (among others) the initiation point of the other, more serious failures which can ultimately lead to complete degradation of the concrete slab and thus the whole pavement. Two measures can be used for reliability assessment of this phenomenon - the probability of failure and/or the reliability index. Different methods can be used for their calculation. The simple ones are called moment methods and simulation techniques. Two methods - FOSM Method and Simple Random Sampling Method - are verified and their comparison is performed. The influence of information about the probability distribution and the statistical parameters of input variables as well as of the limit state function on the calculated reliability index and failure probability are studied in three points on the lower surface of concrete slabs of the older type of rigid pavement formerly used in the Czech Republic.

Keywords: Failure, pavement, probability, reliability index, simulation, tensile crack.

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5797 Temperature Profile Modelling in Flexible Pavement Design

Authors: Csaba Tóth, Éva Lakatos, László Pethő, Seoyoung Cho

Abstract:

The temperature effect on asphalt pavement structure is a crucial factor at the design stage. In this paper, by applying the German guidelines for temperature along the asphalt depth is estimated. The aim is to consider temperature profiles in different seasons in numerical modelling. The model is built with an elastic and isotropic solid element with 19 subdivisions of asphalt layers to reflect the temperature variation. Comparison with the simple three-layer pavement system (asphalt layers, base, and subgrade layers) will be followed to see the difference in result without temperature variation along with the depth. Finally, the fatigue life calculation was checked to prove the validity of the methodology of considering the temperature in the numerical modelling.

Keywords: Temperature profile, flexible pavement modelling, finite element method, temperature modelling.

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5796 A Hidden Markov Model for Modeling Pavement Deterioration under Incomplete Monitoring Data

Authors: Nam Lethanh, Bryan T. Adey

Abstract:

In this paper, the potential use of an exponential hidden Markov model to model a hidden pavement deterioration process, i.e. one that is not directly measurable, is investigated. It is assumed that the evolution of the physical condition, which is the hidden process, and the evolution of the values of pavement distress indicators, can be adequately described using discrete condition states and modeled as a Markov processes. It is also assumed that condition data can be collected by visual inspections over time and represented continuously using an exponential distribution. The advantage of using such a model in decision making process is illustrated through an empirical study using real world data.

Keywords: Deterioration modeling, Exponential distribution, Hidden Markov model, Pavement management

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5795 Backcalculation of HMA Stiffness Based On Finite Element Model

Authors: Md Rashadul Islam, Umme Amina Mannan, Rafiqul A. Tarefder

Abstract:

Stiffness of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) in flexible pavement is largely dependent of temperature, mode of testing and age of pavement. Accurate measurement of HMA stiffness is thus quite challenging. This study determines HMA stiffness based on Finite Element Model (FEM) and validates the results using field data. As a first step, stiffnesses of different layers of a pavement section on Interstate 40 (I-40) in New Mexico were determined by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test. Pavement temperature was not measured at that time due to lack of temperature probe. Secondly, a FE model is developed in ABAQUS. Stiffness of the base, subbase and subgrade were taken from the FWD test output obtained from the first step. As HMA stiffness largely varies with temperature it was assigned trial and error approach. Thirdly, horizontal strain and vertical stress at the bottom of the HMA and temperature at different depths of the pavement were measured with installed sensors on the whole day on December 25th, 2012. Fourthly, outputs of FEM were correlated with measured stress-strain responses. After a number of trials a relationship was developed between the trial stiffness of HMA and measured mid-depth HMA temperature. At last, the obtained relationship between stiffness and temperature is verified by further FWD test when pavement temperature was recorded. A promising agreement between them is observed. Therefore, conclusion can be drawn that linear elastic FEM can accurately predict the stiffness and the structural response of flexible pavement.

Keywords: Asphalt pavement, falling weight deflectometer test, field instrumentation, finite element model, horizontal strain, temperature probes.

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5794 Empirical Roughness Progression Models of Heavy Duty Rural Pavements

Authors: Nahla H. Alaswadko, Rayya A. Hassan, Bayar N. Mohammed

Abstract:

Empirical deterministic models have been developed to predict roughness progression of heavy duty spray sealed pavements for a dataset representing rural arterial roads. The dataset provides a good representation of the relevant network and covers a wide range of operating and environmental conditions. A sample with a large size of historical time series data for many pavement sections has been collected and prepared for use in multilevel regression analysis. The modelling parameters include road roughness as performance parameter and traffic loading, time, initial pavement strength, reactivity level of subgrade soil, climate condition, and condition of drainage system as predictor parameters. The purpose of this paper is to report the approaches adopted for models development and validation. The study presents multilevel models that can account for the correlation among time series data of the same section and to capture the effect of unobserved variables. Study results show that the models fit the data very well. The contribution and significance of relevant influencing factors in predicting roughness progression are presented and explained. The paper concludes that the analysis approach used for developing the models confirmed their accuracy and reliability by well-fitting to the validation data.

Keywords: Roughness progression, empirical model, pavement performance, heavy duty pavement.

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5793 Laboratory Investigation of the Pavement Condition in Lebanon: Implementation of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in the Base Course and Asphalt Layer

Authors: Marinelle El-Khoury, Lina Bouhaya, Nivine Abbas, Hassan Sleiman

Abstract:

The road network in the north of Lebanon is a prime example of the lack of pavement design and execution in Lebanon.  These roads show major distresses and hence, should be tested and evaluated. The aim of this research is to investigate and determine the deficiencies in road surface design in Lebanon, and to propose an environmentally friendly asphalt mix design. This paper consists of several parts: (i) evaluating pavement performance and structural behavior, (ii) identifying the distresses using visual examination followed by laboratory tests, (iii) deciding the optimal solution where rehabilitation or reconstruction is required and finally, (iv) identifying a sustainable method, which uses recycled material in the proposed mix. The asphalt formula contains Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in the base course layer and in the asphalt layer. Visual inspection of the roads in Tripoli shows that these roads face a high level of distress severity. Consequently, the pavement should be reconstructed rather than simply rehabilitated. Coring was done to determine the pavement layer thickness. The results were compared to the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) design methodology and showed that the existing asphalt thickness is lower than the required asphalt thickness. Prior to the pavement reconstruction, the road materials were tested according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specification to identify whether the materials are suitable. Accordingly, the ASTM tests that were performed on the base course are Sieve analysis, Atterberg limits, modified proctor, Los Angeles, and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests. Results show a CBR value higher than 70%. Hence, these aggregates could be used as a base course layer. The asphalt layer was also tested and the results of the Marshall flow and stability tests meet the ASTM specifications. In the last section, an environmentally friendly mix was proposed. An optimal RAP percentage of 30%, which produced a well graded base course and asphalt mix, was determined through a series of trials.

Keywords: Asphalt mix, reclaimed asphalt pavement, California bearing ratio, sustainability.

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5792 Rapid Finite-Element Based Airport Pavement Moduli Solutions using Neural Networks

Authors: Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Marshall R. Thompson, Anshu Manik

Abstract:

This paper describes the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) for predicting non-linear layer moduli of flexible airfield pavements subjected to new generation aircraft (NGA) loading, based on the deflection profiles obtained from Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) test data. The HWD test is one of the most widely used tests for routinely assessing the structural integrity of airport pavements in a non-destructive manner. The elastic moduli of the individual pavement layers backcalculated from the HWD deflection profiles are effective indicators of layer condition and are used for estimating the pavement remaining life. HWD tests were periodically conducted at the Federal Aviation Administration-s (FAA-s) National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF) to monitor the effect of Boeing 777 (B777) and Beoing 747 (B747) test gear trafficking on the structural condition of flexible pavement sections. In this study, a multi-layer, feed-forward network which uses an error-backpropagation algorithm was trained to approximate the HWD backcalculation function. The synthetic database generated using an advanced non-linear pavement finite-element program was used to train the ANN to overcome the limitations associated with conventional pavement moduli backcalculation. The changes in ANN-based backcalculated pavement moduli with trafficking were used to compare the relative severity effects of the aircraft landing gears on the NAPTF test pavements.

Keywords: Airfield pavements, ANN, backcalculation, newgeneration aircraft

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5791 Response of Pavement under Temperature and Vehicle Coupled Loading

Authors: Yang Zhong, Mei-jie Xu

Abstract:

To study the dynamic mechanics response of asphalt pavement under the temperature load and vehicle loading, asphalt pavement was regarded as multilayered elastic half-space system, and theory analysis was conducted by regarding dynamic modulus of asphalt mixture as the parameter. Firstly, based on the dynamic modulus test of asphalt mixture, function relationship between the dynamic modulus of representative asphalt mixture and temperature was obtained. In addition, the analytical solution for thermal stress in single layer was derived by using Laplace integral transformation and Hankel integral transformation respectively by using thermal equations of equilibrium. The analytical solution of calculation model of thermal stress in asphalt pavement was derived by transfer matrix of thermal stress in multilayer elastic system. Finally, the variation of thermal stress in pavement structure was analyzed. The result shows that there is obvious difference between the thermal stress based on dynamic modulus and the solution based on static modulus. So the dynamic change of parameter in asphalt mixture should be taken into consideration when theoretical analysis is taken out.

Keywords: Asphalt pavement, dynamic modulus, integral transformation, transfer matrix, thermal stress.

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5790 3D Numerical Investigation of Asphalt Pavements Behaviour Using Infinite Elements

Authors: K. Sandjak, B. Tiliouine

Abstract:

This article presents the main results of three-dimensional (3-D) numerical investigation of asphalt pavement structures behaviour using a coupled Finite Element-Mapped Infinite Element (FE-MIE) model. The validation and numerical performance of this model are assessed by confronting critical pavement responses with Burmister’s solution and FEM simulation results for multi-layered elastic structures. The coupled model is then efficiently utilised to perform 3-D simulations of a typical asphalt pavement structure in order to investigate the impact of two tire configurations (conventional dual and new generation wide-base tires) on critical pavement response parameters. The numerical results obtained show the effectiveness and the accuracy of the coupled (FE-MIE) model. In addition, the simulation results indicate that, compared with conventional dual tire assembly, single wide base tire caused slightly greater fatigue asphalt cracking and subgrade rutting potentials and can thus be utilised in view of its potential to provide numerous mechanical, economic, and environmental benefits.

Keywords: Infinite elements, 3-D numerical investigation, asphalt pavements, dual and wide base tires.

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5789 Investigating Causes of Pavement Deterioration in Khartoum State, Sudan

Authors: Magdi M. E. Zumrawi

Abstract:

It is quite essential to investigate the causes of pavement deterioration in order to select the proper maintenance technique. The objective of this study was to identify factors cause deterioration of recently constructed roads in Khartoum state. A comprehensive literature concerning the factors of road deterioration, common road defects and their causes were reviewed. Three major road projects with different deterioration reasons were selected for this study. The investigation involved field survey and laboratory testing on those projects to examine the existing pavement conditions. The results revealed that the roads investigated experienced severe failures in the forms of cracks, potholes, and rutting in the wheel path. The causes of those failures were found mainly linked to poor drainage, traffic overloading, expansive subgrade soils, and the use of low quality materials in construction. Based on the results, recommendations were provided to help highway engineers in selecting the most effective repair techniques for specific kinds of distresses.

Keywords: Pavement, deterioration, causes, failures.

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5788 Weigh-in-Motion Data Analysis Software for Developing Traffic Data for Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design

Authors: M. A. Hasan, M. R. Islam, R. A. Tarefder

Abstract:

Currently, there are few user friendly Weigh-in- Motion (WIM) data analysis softwares available which can produce traffic input data for the recently developed AASHTOWare pavement Mechanistic-Empirical (ME) design software. However, these softwares have only rudimentary Quality Control (QC) processes. Therefore, they cannot properly deal with erroneous WIM data. As the pavement performance is highly sensible to the quality of WIM data, it is highly recommended to use more refined QC process on raw WIM data to get a good result. This study develops a userfriendly software, which can produce traffic input for the ME design software. This software takes the raw data (Class and Weight data) collected from the WIM station and processes it with a sophisticated QC procedure. Traffic data such as traffic volume, traffic distribution, axle load spectra, etc. can be obtained from this software; which can directly be used in the ME design software.

Keywords: Weigh-in-motion, software, axle load spectra, traffic distribution, AASHTOWare.

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5787 A Study on Fatigue Performance of Asphalt Using AMPT

Authors: Yuan Jie Kelvin Lu, Amin Chegenizadeh

Abstract:

Asphalt pavement itself is a mixture made up of mainly aggregates, binders, and fillers that acts as a composition used for pavement construction. An experimental program was setup to determine the fatigue performance test of Asphalt with three different grades of conventional binders. Asphalt specimen has achieved the maximum optimum bulk density and air voids with a consistent bulk density of 2.3 t/m3, with an air void of 5% ± 0.5, before loading into the Asphalt Mixture Performance Tested (AMPT) for fatigue test. The number of cycles is defined as the point where phase angle drops, which is caused by the formation of cracks due to the increasing micro cracks when asphalt is undergoing repeated cycles of loading. Thus, the data collected are analyzed using the drop of phase angle as failure criteria. Based in the data analyzed, it is evident that the fatigue life of asphalt lies on the grade of binder. The result obtained shows that all specimens do experience a drop in phase angle due to macro cracks in the asphalt specimen.

Keywords: Asphalt binder, AMPT, CX test, simplified–viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD).

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5786 Preparing Data for Calibration of Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide in Central Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abdulraaof H. Alqaili, Hamad A. Alsoliman

Abstract:

Through progress in pavement design developments, a pavement design method was developed, which is titled the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). Nowadays, the evolution in roads network and highways is observed in Saudi Arabia as a result of increasing in traffic volume. Therefore, the MEPDG currently is implemented for flexible pavement design by the Saudi Ministry of Transportation. Implementation of MEPDG for local pavement design requires the calibration of distress models under the local conditions (traffic, climate, and materials). This paper aims to prepare data for calibration of MEPDG in Central Saudi Arabia. Thus, the first goal is data collection for the design of flexible pavement from the local conditions of the Riyadh region. Since, the modifying of collected data to input data is needed; the main goal of this paper is the analysis of collected data. The data analysis in this paper includes processing each: Trucks Classification, Traffic Growth Factor, Annual Average Daily Truck Traffic (AADTT), Monthly Adjustment Factors (MAFi), Vehicle Class Distribution (VCD), Truck Hourly Distribution Factors, Axle Load Distribution Factors (ALDF), Number of axle types (single, tandem, and tridem) per truck class, cloud cover percent, and road sections selected for the local calibration. Detailed descriptions of input parameters are explained in this paper, which leads to providing of an approach for successful implementation of MEPDG. Local calibration of MEPDG to the conditions of Riyadh region can be performed based on the findings in this paper.

Keywords: Mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide, traffic characteristics, materials properties, climate, Riyadh.

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5785 Temperature Susceptibility of Multigrade Bitumen Asphalt and an Approach to Account for Temperature Variation through Deep Pavements

Authors: Brody R. Clark, Chaminda Gallage, John Yeaman

Abstract:

Multigrade bitumen asphalt is a quality asphalt product that is not utilised in many places globally. Multigrade bitumen is believed to be less sensitive to temperature, which gives it an advantage over conventional binders. Previous testing has shown that asphalt temperature changes greatly with depth, but currently the industry standard is to nominate a single temperature for design. For detailed design of asphalt roads, perhaps asphalt layers should be divided into nominal layer depths and different modulus and fatigue equations/values should be used to reflect the temperatures of each respective layer. A collaboration of previous laboratory testing conducted on multigrade bitumen asphalt beams under a range of temperatures and loading conditions was analysed. The samples tested included 0% or 15% recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) to determine what impact the recycled material has on the fatigue life and stiffness of the pavement. This paper investigated the temperature susceptibility of multigrade bitumen asphalt pavements compared to conventional binders by combining previous testing that included conducting a sweep of fatigue tests, developing complex modulus master curves for each mix and a study on how pavement temperature changes through pavement depth. This investigation found that the final design of the pavement is greatly affected by the nominated pavement temperature and respective material properties. This paper has outlined a potential revision to the current design approach for asphalt pavements and proposes that further investigation is needed into pavement temperature and its incorporation into design.

Keywords: Asphalt, complex modulus, fatigue life, flexural stiffness, four-point bending, master curves, multigrade bitumen, thermal gradient.

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5784 Estimation of Asphalt Pavement Surfaces Using Image Analysis Technique

Authors: Mohammad A. Khasawneh

Abstract:

Asphalt concrete pavements gradually lose their skid resistance causing safety problems especially under wet conditions and high driving speeds. In order to enact the actual field polishing and wearing process of asphalt pavement surfaces in a laboratory setting, several laboratory-scale accelerated polishing devices were developed by different agencies. To mimic the actual process, friction and texture measuring devices are needed to quantify surface deterioration at different polishing intervals that reflect different stages of the pavement life. The test could still be considered lengthy and to some extent labor-intensive. Therefore, there is a need to come up with another method that can assist in investigating the bituminous pavement surface characteristics in a practical and time-efficient test procedure.

The purpose of this paper is to utilize a well-developed image analysis technique to characterize asphalt pavement surfaces without the need to use conventional friction and texture measuring devices in an attempt to shorten and simplify the polishing procedure in the lab.

Promising findings showed the possibility of using image analysis in lieu of the labor-sensitive-variable-in-nature friction and texture measurements. It was found that the exposed aggregate surface area of asphalt specimens made from limestone and gravel aggregates produced solid evidence of the validity of this method in describing asphalt pavement surfaces. Image analysis results correlated well with the British Pendulum Numbers (BPN), Polish Values (PV) and Mean Texture Depth (MTD) values.

Keywords: Friction, Image Analysis, Polishing, Statistical Analysis, Texture.

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5783 Plastic Waste Utilization as Asphalt Binder Modifier in Asphalt Concrete Pavement

Authors: H. Naghawi, R. Al-Ajarmeh, R. Allouzi, A. AlKlub, K. Masarwah, A. AL-Quraini, M. Abu-Sarhan

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the use of plastic waste as a low cost asphalt binder modifier. For this purpose Marshall mix design procedure was used. Marshall mix design procedure seeks to select the Optimum Binder Content (OBC) to be added to a specific aggregate blend resulting in a mixture that satisfies the desired properties of strength and durability. In order to evaluate the plastic waste modified (PWM) asphalt mixtures, the OBC for the conventional asphalt mix was first identified, and then different percentages of crushed plastic waste by weight of the identified OBC were tested. Marshall test results for the modified asphalt mixtures were analyzed to find the optimum PWM content. Finally, the static indirect tensile strength (IDT) was determined for all mixtures using the splitting tensile test. It was found that PWM content of 7.43% by weight of OBC is recommended as the optimum PWM content needed for enhancing the performance of asphalt mixtures. It enhanced stability by 42.56%, flow by 89.91% and strength by 13.54%. This would lead to a more durable pavement by improving the pavement resistance to fatigue cracking and rutting.

Keywords: Binder content modifier, Marshall test, plastic waste, polyethylene terephthalate.

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