Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 708

Search results for: Failure

708 Statistical Analysis of Failure Cases in Aerospace

Authors: J. H. Lv, W. Z. Wang, S.W. Liu

Abstract:

The major concern in the aviation industry is the flight safety. Although great effort has been put onto the development of material and system reliability, the failure cases of fatal accidents still occur nowadays. Due to the complexity of the aviation system, and the interaction among the failure components, the failure analysis of the related equipment is a little difficult. This study focuses on surveying the failure cases in aviation, which are extracted from failure analysis journals, including Engineering Failure Analysis and Case studies in Engineering Failure Analysis, in order to obtain the failure sensitive factors or failure sensitive parts. The analytical results show that, among the failure cases, fatigue failure is the largest in number of occurrence. The most failed components are the disk, blade, landing gear, bearing, and fastener. The frequently failed materials consist of steel, aluminum alloy, superalloy, and titanium alloy. Therefore, in order to assure the safety in aviation, more attention should be paid to the fatigue failures.

Keywords: Aviation industry, failure analysis, failure component, fatigue.

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707 An Expert System for Car Failure Diagnosis

Authors: Ahmad T. Al-Taani

Abstract:

Car failure detection is a complicated process and requires high level of expertise. Any attempt of developing an expert system dealing with car failure detection has to overcome various difficulties. This paper describes a proposed knowledge-based system for car failure detection. The paper explains the need for an expert system and the some issues on developing knowledge-based systems, the car failure detection process and the difficulties involved in developing the system. The system structure and its components and their functions are described. The system has about 150 rules for different types of failures and causes. It can detect over 100 types of failures. The system has been tested and gave promising results.

Keywords: Expert system, car failure diagnosis, knowledgebasedsystem, CLIPS.

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706 Failure Cases Analysis in Petrochemical Industry

Authors: S. W. Liu, J. H. Lv, W. Z. Wang

Abstract:

In recent years, the failure accidents in petrochemical industry have been frequent, and have posed great security problems in personnel and property. The improvement of petrochemical safety is highly requested in order to prevent re-occurrence of severe accident. This study focuses on surveying the failure cases occurred in petrochemical field, which were extracted from journals of engineering failure, including engineering failure analysis and case studies in engineering failure analysis. The relation of failure mode, failure mechanism, type of components, and type of materials was analyzed in this study. And the analytical results showed that failures occurred more frequently in vessels and piping among the petrochemical equipment. Moreover, equipment made of carbon steel and stainless steel accounts for the majority of failures compared to other materials. This may be related to the application of the equipment and the performance of the material. In addition, corrosion failures were the largest in number of occurrence in the failure of petrochemical equipment, in which stress corrosion cracking accounts for a large proportion. This may have a lot to do with the service environment of the petrochemical equipment. Therefore, it can be concluded that the corrosion prevention of petrochemical equipment is particularly important.

Keywords: Cases analysis, corrosion, failure, petrochemical industry.

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705 A Universal Approach to Categorize Failures in Production

Authors: K. Knüppel, G. Meyer, P. Nyhuis

Abstract:

The increasing interconnectedness and complexity of  production processes raise the susceptibility of production systems to  failure. Therefore, the ability to respond quickly to failures is  increasingly becoming a competitive factor. The research project  "Sustainable failure management in manufacturing SMEs" is  developing a methodology to identify failures in the production and  select preventive and reactive measures in order to correct failures  and to establish sustainable failure management systems.

 

Keywords: Failure categorization, failure management, logistic performance, production optimization.

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704 The Service Failure and Recovery in the Information Technology Services

Authors: Jun Luo, Weiguo Zhang., Dabin Qin

Abstract:

It is important to retain customer satisfaction in information technology services. When a service failure occurs, companies need to take service recovery action to recover their customer satisfaction. Although companies cannot avoid all problems and complaints, they should try to make up. Therefore, service failure and service recovery have become an important and challenging issue for companies. In this paper, the literature and the problems in the information technology services were reviewed. An integrated model of profit driven for the service failure and service recovery was established in view of the benefit of customer and enterprise. Moreover, the interaction between service failure and service recovery strategy was studied, the result of which verified the matching principles of the service recovery strategy and the type of service failure. In addition, the relationship between the cost of service recovery and customer-s cumulative value of service after recovery was analyzed with the model. The result attributes to managers in deciding on appropriate resource allocations for recovery strategies.

Keywords: service failure, service recovery, informationtechnology services

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703 A Bathtub Curve from Nonparametric Model

Authors: Eduardo C. Guardia, Jose W. M. Lima, Afonso H. M. Santos

Abstract:

This paper presents a nonparametric method to obtain the hazard rate “Bathtub curve” for power system components. The model is a mixture of the three known phases of a component life, the decreasing failure rate (DFR), the constant failure rate (CFR) and the increasing failure rate (IFR) represented by three parametric Weibull models. The parameters are obtained from a simultaneous fitting process of the model to the Kernel nonparametric hazard rate curve. From the Weibull parameters and failure rate curves the useful lifetime and the characteristic lifetime were defined. To demonstrate the model the historic time-to-failure of distribution transformers were used as an example. The resulted “Bathtub curve” shows the failure rate for the equipment lifetime which can be applied in economic and replacement decision models.

Keywords: Bathtub curve, failure analysis, lifetime estimation, parameter estimation, Weibull distribution.

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702 Evaluation Process for the Hardware Safety Integrity Level

Authors: Sung Kyu Kim, Yong Soo Kim

Abstract:

Safety instrumented systems (SISs) are becoming increasingly complex and the proportion of programmable electronic parts is growing. The IEC 61508 global standard was established to ensure the functional safety of SISs, but it was expressed in highly macroscopic terms. This study introduces an evaluation process for hardware safety integrity levels through failure modes, effects, and diagnostic analysis (FMEDA).FMEDA is widely used to evaluate safety levels, and it provides the information on failure rates and failure mode distributions necessary to calculate a diagnostic coverage factor for a given component. In our evaluation process, the components of the SIS subsystem are first defined in terms of failure modes and effects. Then, the failure rate and failure mechanism distribution are assigned to each component. The safety mode and detectability of each failure mode are determined for each component. Finally, the hardware safety integrity level is evaluated based on the calculated results.

Keywords: Safety instrumented system; Safety integrity level; Failure modes, effects, and diagnostic analysis; IEC 61508.

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701 Seismic Behaviour of Romanian Ortodox Churches, Modeling of Failure Modes by Rigid Blocks

Authors: Marius Mosoarca, Victor Gioncu, Ovidiu Cosma

Abstract:

Historic religious buildings located in seismic areas have developed different failure mechanisms. Simulation of failure modes is done with computer programs through a nonlinear dynamic analysis or simplified using the method of failure blocks. Currently there are simulation methodologies of failure modes based on the failure rigid blocks method only for Roman Catholic churches type. Due to differences of shape in plan, elevation and construction systems between Orthodox churches and Catholic churches, for the first time there were initiated researches in the development of this simulation methodology for Orthodox churches. In this article are presented the first results from the researches. The theoretical results were compared with real failure modes recorded at an Orthodox church from Banat region, severely damaged by earthquakes in 1991. Simulated seismic response, using a computer program based on finite element method was confirmed by cracks after earthquakes. The consolidation of the church was made according to these theoretical results, realizing a rigid floor connecting all the failure blocks.

Keywords: Dinamic analysis, failure mechanism, rigid blocks seismic simulation.

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700 Finite Element Prediction of Hip Fracture during a Sideways Fall

Authors: M. Ikhwan Z. Ridzwan, Bidyut Pal, Ulrich N. Hansen

Abstract:

Finite element method was applied to model damage development in the femoral neck during a sideways fall. The femoral failure was simulated using the maximum principal strain criterion. The evolution of damage was consistent with previous studies. It was initiated by compressive failure at the junction of the superior aspect of the femoral neck and the greater trochanter. It was followed by tensile failure that occurred at the inferior aspect of the femoral neck before a complete transcervical fracture was observed. The estimated failure line was less than 50° from the horizontal plane (Pauwels type II).

Keywords: Femoral Strength, Finite Element Models, Hip Fracture, Progressive Failure, Sideways Fall.

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699 An Investigation of Shipping Comb Failures due to usage in Manufacturing Processes using RCFA and FMEA

Authors: Atjanakul W, Chutima S., Kamnerdthong T.

Abstract:

Shipping comb is mounted on Head Stack Assembly (HSA) to prevent collision of the heads, maintain the gap between suspensions and protect HSA tips from unintentional contact damaged in the manufacturing process. Failure analysis of shipping comb in hard disk drive production processes is proposed .Field observations were performed to determine the fatal areas on shipping comb and their failure fraction. Root cause failure analysis (RCFA) is applied to specify the failure causes subjected to various loading conditions. For reliability improvement, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) procedure to evaluate the risk priority is performed. Consequently, the more suitable information design criterions were obtained.

Keywords: Shipping comb, Hard disk drive, Root cause failureanalysis, Failure mode and effects analysis

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698 A Partially Accelerated Life Test Planning with Competing Risks and Linear Degradation Path under Tampered Failure Rate Model

Authors: Fariba Azizi, Firoozeh Haghighi, Viliam Makis

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a method to model the relationship between failure time and degradation for a simple step stress test where underlying degradation path is linear and different causes of failure are possible. It is assumed that the intensity function depends only on the degradation value. No assumptions are made about the distribution of the failure times. A simple step-stress test is used to shorten failure time of products and a tampered failure rate (TFR) model is proposed to describe the effect of the changing stress on the intensities. We assume that some of the products that fail during the test have a cause of failure that is only known to belong to a certain subset of all possible failures. This case is known as masking. In the presence of masking, the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the model parameters are obtained through an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm by treating the causes of failure as missing values. The effect of incomplete information on the estimation of parameters is studied through a Monte-Carlo simulation. Finally, a real example is analyzed to illustrate the application of the proposed methods.

Keywords: Expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, cause of failure, intensity, linear degradation path, masked data, reliability function.

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697 Non-Circular Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Chainring Failure Analysis

Authors: A. Elmikaty, Z. Thanawarothon, L. Mezeix

Abstract:

This paper presents a finite element model to simulate the teeth failure of non-circular composite chainring. Model consists of the chainring and a part of the chain. To reduce the size of the model, only the first 11 rollers are simulated. In order to validate the model, it is firstly applied to a circular aluminum chainring and evolution of the stress in the teeth is compared with the literature. Then, effect of the non-circular shape is studied through three different loading positions. Strength of non-circular composite chainring and failure scenario is investigated. Moreover, two composite lay-ups are proposed to observe the influence of the stacking. Results show that composite material can be used but the lay-up has a large influence on the strength. Finally, loading position does not have influence on the first composite failure that always occurs in the first tooth.

Keywords: CFRP, composite failure, FEA, non-circular chainring.

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696 A Redesigned Pedagogy in Introductory Programming Reduces Failure and Withdrawal Rates by Half

Authors: Said C. Fares, Mary A. Fares

Abstract:

It is well documented that introductory computer programming courses are difficult and that failure rates are high. The aim of this project was to reduce the high failure and withdrawal rates in learning to program. This paper presents a number of changes in module organization and instructional delivery system in teaching CS1. Daily out of class help sessions and tutoring services were applied, interactive lectures and laboratories, online resources, and timely feedback were introduced. Five years of data of 563 students in 21 sections was collected and analyzed. The primary results show that the failure and withdrawal rates were cut by more than half. Student surveys indicate a positive evaluation of the modified instructional approach, overall satisfaction with the course and consequently, higher success and retention rates.

Keywords: Failure Rate, Interactive Learning, Student engagement, CS1.

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695 Performance Comparison of Prim’s and Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm to Select Shortest Path in Case of Link Failure

Authors: Rimmy Yadav, Avtar Singh

Abstract:

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a promising modern approach to the unused combinatorial optimization. Here ACO is applied to finding the shortest during communication link failure. In this paper, the performances of the prim’s and ACO algorithm are made. By comparing the time complexity and program execution time as set of parameters, we demonstrate the pleasant performance of ACO in finding excellent solution to finding shortest path during communication link failure.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, link failure, prim’s algorithm.

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694 A New Approach for Prioritization of Failure Modes in Design FMEA using ANOVA

Authors: Sellappan Narayanagounder, Karuppusami Gurusami

Abstract:

The traditional Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) uses Risk Priority Number (RPN) to evaluate the risk level of a component or process. The RPN index is determined by calculating the product of severity, occurrence and detection indexes. The most critically debated disadvantage of this approach is that various sets of these three indexes may produce an identical value of RPN. This research paper seeks to address the drawbacks in traditional FMEA and to propose a new approach to overcome these shortcomings. The Risk Priority Code (RPC) is used to prioritize failure modes, when two or more failure modes have the same RPN. A new method is proposed to prioritize failure modes, when there is a disagreement in ranking scale for severity, occurrence and detection. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used to compare means of RPN values. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) statistical analysis package is used to analyze the data. The results presented are based on two case studies. It is found that the proposed new methodology/approach resolves the limitations of traditional FMEA approach.

Keywords: Failure mode and effects analysis, Risk priority code, Critical failure mode, Analysis of variance.

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693 WDM-Based Storage Area Network (SAN) for Disaster Recovery Operations

Authors: Sandeep P. Abhang, Girish V. Chowdhay

Abstract:

This paper proposes a Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology based Storage Area Network (SAN) for all type of Disaster recovery operation. It considers recovery when all paths failure in the network as well as the main SAN site failure also the all backup sites failure by the effect of natural disasters such as earthquakes, fires and floods, power outage, and terrorist attacks, as initially SAN were designed to work within distance limited environments[2]. Paper also presents a NEW PATH algorithm when path failure occurs. The simulation result and analysis is presented for the proposed architecture with performance consideration.

Keywords: SAN, WDM, FC, Ring, IP, network load, iSCSI, miles, disaster.

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692 Solution of S3 Problem of Deformation Mechanics for a Definite Condition and Resulting Modifications of Important Failure Theories

Authors: Ranajay Bhowmick

Abstract:

Analysis of stresses for an infinitesimal tetrahedron leads to a situation where we obtain a cubic equation consisting of three stress invariants. This cubic equation, when solved for a definite condition, gives the principal stresses directly without requiring any cumbersome and time-consuming trial and error methods or iterative numerical procedures. Since the failure criterion of different materials are generally expressed as functions of principal stresses, an attempt has been made in this study to incorporate the solutions of the cubic equation in the form of principal stresses, obtained for a definite condition, into some of the established failure theories to determine their modified descriptions. It has been observed that the failure theories can be represented using the quadratic stress invariant and the orientation of the principal plane.

Keywords: Cubic equation, stress invariant, trigonometric, explicit solution, principal stress, failure criterion.

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691 Analyzing Defects with Failure Assessment Diagrams of Gas Pipelines

Authors: Alfred Hasanaj, Ardit Gjeta, Miranda Kullolli

Abstract:

The approach in analyzing defects on different pipe lines is conducted through Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD). These methods of analyses have further extended in recent years. This approach is used to identify and stress out a solution for the defects which randomly occur with gas pipes such are corrosion defects, gauge defects, and combination of defects where gauge and dents are included. Few of the defects are to be analyzed in this paper where our main focus will be the fracture of cast Iron pipes, elastic-plastic failure and plastic collapse of X52 steel pipes for gas transport. We need to conduct a calculation of probability of the defects in order to predict and avoid such costly defects.

Keywords: Defects, Failure Assessment Diagrams, Safety Factor Steel Pipes.

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690 Failure Analysis of a Medium Duty Vehicle Leaf Spring

Authors: Gül Çevik

Abstract:

This paper summarizes the work conducted to assess the root cause of the failure of a medium commercial vehicle leaf spring failed in service. Macro- and micro-fractographic analyses by scanning electron microscope as well as material verification tests were conducted in order to understand the failure mechanisms and root cause of the failure. Findings from the fractographic analyses indicated that failure mechanism is fatigue. Crack initiation was identified to have occurred from a point on the top surface near to the front face and to the left side. Two other crack initiation points were also observed, however, these cracks did not propagate. The propagation mode of the fatigue crack revealed that the cyclic loads resulting in crack initiation and propagation were unidirectional bending. Fractographic analyses have also showed that the root cause of the fatigue crack initiation and propagation was loading the part above design stress. Material properties of the part were also verified by chemical composition analysis, microstructural analysis by optical microscopy and hardness tests.

Keywords: Leaf spring, failure analysis, fatigue, fractography.

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689 Failure Analysis of Methanol Evaporator

Authors: D. Sufi Ahmadi, B. Bagheri

Abstract:

Thermal water hammer is a special type of water hammer which rarely occurs in heat exchangers. In biphasic fluids, if steam bubbles are surrounded by condensate, regarding lower condensate temperature than steam, they will suddenly collapse. As a result, the vacuum caused by an extreme change in volume lead to movement of the condensates in all directions and their collision the force produced by this collision leads to a severe stress in the pipe wall. This phenomenon is a special type of water hammer. According to fluid mechanics, this phenomenon is a particular type of transient flows during which abrupt change of fluid leads to sudden pressure change inside the tube. In this paper, the mechanism of abrupt failure of 80 tubes of 481 tubes of a methanol heat exchanger is discussed. Initially, due to excessive temperature differences between heat transfer fluids and simultaneous failure of 80 tubes, thermal shock was presupposed as the reason of failure. Deeper investigation on cross-section of failed tubes showed that failure was, ductile type of failure, so the first hypothesis was rejected. Further analysis and more accurate experiments revealed that failure of tubes caused by thermal water hammer. Finally, the causes of thermal water hammer and various solutions to avoid such mechanism are discussed.

Keywords: Thermal water hammer, Brittle Failure, Condensate thermal shock

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688 Residual Life Prediction for a System Subject to Condition Monitoring and Two Failure Modes

Authors: Akram Khaleghei Ghosheh Balagh, Viliam Makis

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the residual life prediction problem for a partially observable system subject to two failure modes, namely a catastrophic failure and a failure due to the system degradation. The system is subject to condition monitoring and the degradation process is described by a hidden Markov model with unknown parameters. The parameter estimation procedure based on an EM algorithm is developed and the formulas for the conditional reliability function and the mean residual life are derived, illustrated by a numerical example.

Keywords: Partially observable system, hidden Markov model, competing risks, residual life prediction.

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687 The Effect of Failure Rate on Repair and Maintenance Costs of Four Agricultural Tractor Models

Authors: Fatemeh Afsharnia, Mohammad Amin Asoodar, Abbas Abdeshahi

Abstract:

In economical evaluation literature, although the combination of some variables such as repair and maintenance costs and accumulated use hours has been widely considered in determining of optimum life for tractor, no investigation has indicated the influence of failure rate on repair and maintenance costs. In this study, the owners of three hundred tractors, which include Massey Ferguson, John Deere and Universal, were interviewed, from five regions of Khouzestan Province. A regression model was used to predict the tractors annual repair and maintenance costs based on failure rate. Results showed that the maximum percentage of annual repair and maintenance costs occurred in engine parts for MF285, JD3140 and U650 tractors while these costs for tire, ring, ball bearing and operator seat were higher compared to other MF399 tractor systems. According to the results of the regression, the failure rate increase would lead to annual repair and maintenance costs increase for all tractors. But, of all the tractors, repair and maintenance costs of JD3140 tractors extremely affected by the failure rate increase.

Keywords: Failure rate, tractor, annual repair and maintenance costs, regression model, Khouzestan.

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686 Numerical Study on the Cavity-Induced Piping Failure of Embankment

Authors: H. J. Kim, G. C. Park, K. C. Kim, J. H. Shin

Abstract:

Cavities are frequently found beneath conduits on pile foundations in old embankments. Cavity reduces seepage length significantly and consequently causes piping failure of embankments. Case studies of embankment failures indicate that the relative settlement between ground and pile supported-concrete conduit was the main reason of the cavity. In this paper, an attempt to simulate the cavity-induced piping failure mechanism was made using finite element numerical method. Piping potential is examined by carrying out parametric study for influencing factors such as cavity length, water level, and flow conditions. The concentration of hydraulic gradient adjacent to cavity was found. It is found that the hydraulic gradient close to the cavity exceeds considerably the critical hydraulic gradient causing piping. Piping failure potential due to the existence of cavity is evaluated and contour map for the potential risk of an embankment for piping failure is proposed.

Keywords: Cavity, Embankment, Hydraulic gradient, Piping.

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685 Reliability Analysis in Electrical Distribution System Considering Preventive Maintenance Applications on Circuit Breakers

Authors: Mahmud Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Saeed Afshar

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a preventive maintenance application-based study and modeling of failure rates in breakers of electrical distribution systems. This is a critical issue in the reliability assessment of a system. In the analysis conducted in this paper, the impacts of failure rate variations caused by a preventive maintenance are examined. This is considered as a part of a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) application program. A number of load point reliability indices is derived using the mathematical model of the failure rate, which is established using the observed data in a distribution system.

Keywords: Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM), failure rate, preventive maintenance (PM), Distribution System Reliability.

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684 A Study of Replacement Policies for Warranty Products with Different Failure Rate

Authors: Wen Liang Chang

Abstract:

This paper provides a replacement policy for warranty products with different failure rate from the consumer-s viewpoint. Assume that the product is replaced once within a finite planning horizon, and the failure rate of the second product is lower than the failure rate of the first product. Within warranty period (WP), the failed product is corrected by minimal repair without any cost to the consumers. After WP, the failed product is repaired with a fixed repair cost to the consumers. However, each failure incurs a fixed downtime cost to the consumers over a finite planning horizon. In this paper, we derive the model of the expected total disbursement cost within a finite planning horizon and some properties of the optimal replacement policy under some reasonable conditions are obtained. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the features of the optimal replacement policy under various maintenance costs.

Keywords: Planning horizon, Free-repair warranty, Minimal repair, Replacement.

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683 Recurrent Radial Basis Function Network for Failure Time Series Prediction

Authors: Ryad Zemouri, Paul Ciprian Patic

Abstract:

An adaptive software reliability prediction model using evolutionary connectionist approach based on Recurrent Radial Basis Function architecture is proposed. Based on the currently available software failure time data, Fuzzy Min-Max algorithm is used to globally optimize the number of the k Gaussian nodes. The corresponding optimized neural network architecture is iteratively and dynamically reconfigured in real-time as new actual failure time data arrives. The performance of our proposed approach has been tested using sixteen real-time software failure data. Numerical results show that our proposed approach is robust across different software projects, and has a better performance with respect to next-steppredictability compared to existing neural network model for failure time prediction.

Keywords: Neural network, Prediction error, Recurrent RadialBasis Function Network, Reliability prediction.

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682 Numerical Prediction of Bearing Strength on Composite Bolted Joint Using Three Dimensional Puck Failure Criteria

Authors: M. S. Meon, M. N. Rao, K-U. Schröder

Abstract:

Mechanical fasteners especially bolting is commonly used in joining carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite structures due to their good joinability and easy for maintenance characteristics. Since this approach involves with notching, a proper progressive damage model (PDM) need to be implemented and verified to capture existence of damages in the structure. A three dimensional (3D) failure criteria of Puck is established to predict the ultimate bearing failure of such joint. The failure criteria incorporated with degradation scheme are coded based on user subroutine executed in Abaqus. Single lap joint (SLJ) of composite bolted joint is used as target configuration. The results revealed that the PDM adopted here could sufficiently predict the behaviour of composite bolted joint up to ultimate bearing failure. In addition, mesh refinement near holes increased the accuracy of predicted strength as well as computational effort.

Keywords: Bearing strength, bolted joint, degradation scheme, progressive damage model.

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681 Fatigue Failure Analysis in AISI 304 Stainless Wind Turbine Shafts

Authors: M. F. V. Montezuma, E. P. Deus, M. C. Carvalho

Abstract:

Wind turbines are equipment of great importance for generating clean energy in countries and regions with abundant winds. However, complex loadings fluctuations to which they are subject can cause premature failure of these equipment due to the material fatigue process. This work evaluates fatigue failures in small AISI 304 stainless steel turbine shafts. Fractographic analysis techniques, chemical analyzes using energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and hardness tests were used to verify the origin of the failures, characterize the properties of the components and the material. The nucleation of cracks on the shafts' surface was observed due to a combined effect of variable stresses, geometric stress concentrating details, and surface wear, leading to the crack's propagation until the catastrophic failure. Beach marks were identified in the macrographic examination, characterizing the probable failure due to fatigue. The sensitization phenomenon was also observed.

Keywords: Fatigue, sensitization phenomenon, stainless steel shafts, wind turbine failure.

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680 Reliability Analysis of Computer Centre at Yobe State University Using LRU Algorithm

Authors: V. V. Singh, Yusuf Ibrahim Gwanda, Rajesh Prasad

Abstract:

In this paper, we focus on the reliability and performance analysis of Computer Centre (CC) at Yobe State University, Damaturu, Nigeria. The CC consists of three servers: one database mail server, one redundant and one for sharing with the client computers in the CC (called as a local server). Observing the different possibilities of the functioning of the CC, the analysis has been done to evaluate the various popular measures of reliability such as availability, reliability, mean time to failure (MTTF), profit analysis due to the operation of the system. The system can ultimately fail due to the failure of router, redundant server before repairing the mail server and switch failure. The system can also partially fail when a local server fails. The failed devices have restored according to Least Recently Used (LRU) techniques. The system can also fail entirely due to a cooling failure of the server, electricity failure or some natural calamity like earthquake, fire tsunami, etc. All the failure rates are assumed to be constant and follow exponential time distribution, while the repair follows two types of distributions: i.e. general and Gumbel-Hougaard family copula distribution.

Keywords: Reliability, availability Gumbel-Hougaard family copula, MTTF, internet data center.

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679 An Optimal Bayesian Maintenance Policy for a Partially Observable System Subject to Two Failure Modes

Authors: Akram Khaleghei Ghosheh Balagh, Viliam Makis, Leila Jafari

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a new maintenance model for a partially observable system subject to two failure modes, namely a catastrophic failure and a failure due to the system degradation. The system is subject to condition monitoring and the degradation process is described by a hidden Markov model. A cost-optimal Bayesian control policy is developed for maintaining the system. The control problem is formulated in the semi-Markov decision process framework. An effective computational algorithm is developed, illustrated by a numerical example.

Keywords: Partially observable system, hidden Markov model, competing risks, multivariate Bayesian control.

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