Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 338

Search results for: multiwalled carbon nanotubes

338 Characterization and Detection of Cadmium Ion Using Modification Calixarene with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Amira Shakila Razali, Faridah Lisa Supian, Muhammad Mat Salleh, Suraini Abu Bakar

Abstract:

Water contamination by toxic compound is one of the serious environmental problems today. These toxic compounds mostly originated from industrial effluents, agriculture, natural sources and human waste. These studies focus on modification of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) with nanoparticle of calixarene and explore the possibility of using this modification for the remediation of cadmium in water. The nanocomposites were prepared by dissolving calixarene in chloroform solution as solvent, followed by additional multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) then sonication process for 3 hour and fabricated the nanocomposites on substrate by spin coating method. Finally, the nanocomposites were tested on cadmium ion (10 mg/ml). The morphology of nanocomposites was investigated by FESEM showing the formation of calixarene on the outer walls of carbon nanotube and cadmium ion also clearly seen from the micrograph. This formation was supported by using energy dispersive x-ray (EDX). The presence of cadmium ions in the films, leads to some changes in the surface potential and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).The nanocomposites MWCNTs-calixarene have potential for development of sensor for pollutant monitoring and nanoelectronics devices applications.

Keywords: Calixarene, Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes, Cadmium, Surface Potential.

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337 Role of Dispersion of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on Compressive Strength of Cement Paste

Authors: Jyoti Bharj, Sarabjit Singh, Subhash Chander, Rabinder Singh

Abstract:

The outstanding mechanical properties of Carbon  nanotubes (CNTs) have generated great interest for their potential as  reinforcements in high performance cementitious composites. The  main challenge in research is the proper dispersion of carbon  nanotubes in the cement matrix. The present work discusses the role  of dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the  compressive strength characteristics of hydrated Portland IS 1489  cement paste. Cement-MWCNT composites with different mixing  techniques were prepared by adding 0.2% (by weight) of MWCNTs  to Portland IS 1489 cement. Rectangle specimens of size  approximately 40mm × 40mm ×160mm were prepared and curing of  samples was done for 7, 14, 28 and 35days. An appreciable increase  in compressive strength with both techniques; mixture of MWCNTs  with cement in powder form and mixture of MWCNTs with cement  in hydrated form 7 to 28 days of curing time for all the samples was  observed.

 

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Portland Cement, Composite, Compressive Strength.

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336 Spark Breakdown Voltage and Surface Degradation of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Electrode Surfaces

Authors: M. G. Rostedt, M. J. Hall, L. Shi, R. D. Matthews

Abstract:

Silicon substrates coated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were experimentally investigated to determine spark breakdown voltages relative to uncoated surfaces, the degree of surface degradation associated with the spark discharge, and techniques to minimize the surface degradation. The results may be applicable to instruments or processes that use MWCNT as a means of increasing local electric field strength and where spark breakdown is a possibility that might affect the devices’ performance or longevity. MWCNTs were shown to reduce the breakdown voltage of a 1mm gap in air by 30-50%. The relative decrease in breakdown voltage was maintained over gap distances of 0.5 to 2mm and gauge pressures of 0 to 4 bar. Degradation of the MWCNT coated surfaces was observed. Several techniques to improve durability were investigated. These included: chromium and gold-palladium coatings, tube annealing, and embedding clusters of MWCNT in a ceramic matrix.

Keywords: Ionization sensor, spark, nanotubes, electrode, breakdown.

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335 Hydrogen Gas Sensing Properties of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Network Partially Coated with SnO2 Nanoparticles at Room Temperature

Authors: Neena Jaggi, Shivani Dhall

Abstract:

In the present work, hydrogen gas sensor of modest sensitivity utilizing functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes partially decorated with tin oxide nanoparticles (F-MWCNTs/SnO2) has been fabricated. This sensing material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, a remarkable finding was that the F-MWCNTs/SnO2 sensor shows good sensitivity as compared to F-MWCNTs for low concentration (0.05-1% by volume) of H2 gas. The fabricated sensors show complete resistance recovery and good repeatability when exposed to H2 gas at the room temperature conditions.

Keywords: F-MWCNTs, SnO2 nanoparticles, Chemiresistor, I-V Characteristics, H2 Sensing.

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334 Carbon Nanotubes with Magnetic Particles

Authors: Svitlana Kopyl, Vladimir Bystrov, Mikhail Maiorov, Manuel Valente, Igor Bdikin, Antonio C.M. Sousa

Abstract:

Magnetic carbon nanotubes composites were obtained by filling carbon nanotubes with paramagnetic iron oxide particles. Detailed investigation of magnetic behaviour of resulting composites was done at different temperatures. Measurements indicate that these functionalized nanotubes are superparamagnetic at room temperature; however, no superparamagnetism was observed at 125 K and 80 K. The blocking temperature TB was estimated at 145 K. These magnetic carbon nanotubes have the potential of being used in a wide range of applications, in particular, the production of nanofluids, which can be controlled and steered by appropriate magnetic fields.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, magnetization, nanofluids

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333 Surface Activation of Carbon Nanotubes Generating a Chemical Interaction in Epoxy Nanocomposite

Authors: Mohamed Eldessouki, Ebraheem Shady, Yasser Gowayed

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known for having high elastic properties with high surface area that promote them as good candidates for reinforcing polymeric matrices. In composite materials, CNTs lack chemical bonding with the surrounding matrix which decreases the possibility of better stress transfer between the components. In this work, a chemical treatment for activating the surface of the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was applied and the effect of this functionalization on the elastic properties of the epoxy nanocomposites was studied. Functional amino-groups were added to the surface of the CNTs and it was evaluated to be about 34% of the total weight of the CNTs. Elastic modulus was found to increase by about 40% of the neat epoxy resin at CNTs’ weight fraction of 0.5%. The elastic modulus was found to decrease after reaching a certain concentration of CNTs which was found to be 1% wt. The scanning electron microscopic pictures showed the effect of the CNTs on the crack propagation through the sample by forming stress concentrated spots at the nanocomposite samples.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes functionalization, crack propagation, elastic modulus, epoxy nanocomposites.

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332 Hydrogen Storage In Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Purified By Microwave Digestion Method

Authors: Neslihan Yuca, Nilgün Karatepe

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to synthesize the single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and determine their hydrogen storage capacities. SWCNTs were firstly synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of acetylene (C2H2) on a magnesium oxide (MgO) powder impregnated with an iron nitrate (Fe(NO3)3·9H2O) solution. The synthesis parameters were selected as: the synthesis temperature of 800°C, the iron content in the precursor of 5% and the synthesis time of 30 min. Purification process of SWCNTs was fulfilled by microwave digestion at three different temperatures (120, 150 and 200 °C), three different acid concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5 M) and for three different time intervals (15, 30 and 60 min). Nitric acid (HNO3) was used in the removal of the metal catalysts. The hydrogen storage capacities of the purified materials were measured using volumetric method at the liquid nitrogen temperature and gas pressure up to 100 bar. The effects of the purification conditions such as temperature, time and acid concentration on hydrogen adsorption were investigated.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, purification, microwavedigestion, hydrogen storage

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331 A Review on Thermal Conductivity of Bio-Based Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Gloria A. Adewumi, Andrew C. Eloka-Eboka, Freddie L. Inambao

Abstract:

Bio-based carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have received considerable research attention due to their comparative advantages of high level stability, simplistic use, low toxicity and overall environmental friendliness. New potentials for improvement in heat transfer applications are presented due to their high aspect ratio, high thermal conductivity and special surface area. Phonons have been identified as being responsible for thermal conductivities in carbon nanotubes. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of heat conduction in CNTs involves investigating the difference between the varieties of phonon modes and knowing the kinds of phonon modes that play the dominant role. In this review, a reference to a different number of studies is made and in addition, the role of phonon relaxation rate mainly controlled by boundary scattering and three-phonon Umklapp scattering process was investigated. Results show that the phonon modes are sensitive to a number of nanotube conditions such as: diameter, length, temperature, defects and axial strain. At a low temperature (<100K) the thermal conductivity increases with increasing temperature. A small nanotube size causes phonon quantization which is evident in the thermal conductivity at low temperatures.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, phonons, thermal conductivity, umklapp process.

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330 Carbon Nanotubes–A Successful Hydrogen Storage Medium

Authors: Vijaya Ilango, Avika Gupta

Abstract:

Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel which uses electrochemical cells or combustion in internal engines, to power vehicles and electric devices. Methods of   hydrogen storage for subsequent use span many approaches, including high pressures, cryogenics and chemical compounds that reversibly release H2 upon heating. Most research into hydrogen storage is focused on storing hydrogen as a lightweight, compact energy carrier for mobile applications. With the accelerating demand for cleaner and more efficient energy sources, hydrogen research has attracted more attention in the scientific community. Until now, full implementation of a hydrogen-based energy system has been hindered in part by the challenge of storing hydrogen gas, especially onboard an automobile. New techniques being researched may soon make hydrogen storage more compact, safe and efficient. In   this overview, few hydrogen storage methods and mechanism of hydrogen uptake in carbon nanotubes are summarized.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, Chemisorption, Hydrogen storage, Physisorption.

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329 Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Using Nitric Acid Oxidation and DBD Plasma

Authors: M. Vesali Naseh, A. A. Khodadadi, Y. Mortazavi, O. Alizadeh Sahraei, F. Pourfayaz, S. Mosadegh Sedghi

Abstract:

In this study, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were modified with nitric acid chemically and by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in an oxygen-based atmosphere. Used carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) floating catalyst method. For removing amorphous carbon and metal catalyst, MWNTs were exposed to dry air and washed with hydrochloric acid. Heating purified CNTs under helium atmosphere caused elimination of acidic functional groups. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) shows formation of oxygen containing groups such as C=O and COOH. Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) analysis revealed that functionalization causes generation of defects on the sidewalls and opening of the ends of CNTs. Results of temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and gas chromatography(GC) indicate that nitric acid treatment create more acidic groups than plasma treatment.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), chemical treatment, functionalization, plasma.

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328 Carbon Nanotubes Based Porous Framework for Filtration Applications Using Industrial Grinding Waste

Authors: V. J. Pillewan, D. N. Raut, K. N. Patil, D. K. Shinde

Abstract:

Forging, milling, turning, grinding and shaping etc. are the various industrial manufacturing processes which generate the metal waste. Grinding is extensively used in the finishing operation. The waste generated contains significant impurities apart from the metal particles. Due to these significant impurities, it becomes difficult to process and gets usually dumped in the landfills which create environmental problems. Therefore, it becomes essential to reuse metal waste to create value added products. Powder injection molding process is used for producing the porous metal matrix framework. This paper discusses the presented design of the porous framework to be used for the liquid filter application. Different parameters are optimized to obtain the better strength framework with variable porosity. Carbon nanotubes are used as reinforcing materials to enhance the strength of the metal matrix framework.

Keywords: Grinding waste, powder injection molding, carbon nanotubes, metal matrix composites.

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327 Optimization of Samarium Extraction via Nanofluid-Based Emulsion Liquid Membrane Using Cyanex 272 as Mobile Carrier

Authors: Maliheh Raji, Hossein Abolghasemi, Jaber Safdari, Ali Kargari

Abstract:

Samarium as a rare-earth element is playing a growing important role in high technology. Traditional methods for extraction of rare earth metals such as ion exchange and solvent extraction have disadvantages of high investment and high energy consumption. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) as an improved solvent extraction technique is an effective transport method for separation of various compounds from aqueous solutions. In this work, the extraction of samarium from aqueous solutions by ELM was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The organic membrane phase of the ELM was a nanofluid consisted of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), Span80 as surfactant, Cyanex 272 as mobile carrier, and kerosene as base fluid. 1 M nitric acid solution was used as internal aqueous phase. The effects of the important process parameters on samarium extraction were investigated, and the values of these parameters were optimized using the Central Composition Design (CCD) of RSM. These parameters were the concentration of MWCNT in nanofluid, the carrier concentration, and the volume ratio of organic membrane phase to internal phase (Roi). The three-dimensional (3D) response surfaces of samarium extraction efficiency were obtained to visualize the individual and interactive effects of the process variables. A regression model for % extraction was developed, and its adequacy was evaluated. The result shows that % extraction improves by using MWCNT nanofluid in organic membrane phase and extraction efficiency of 98.92% can be achieved under the optimum conditions. In addition, demulsification was successfully performed and the recycled membrane phase was proved to be effective in the optimum condition.

Keywords: Cyanex 272, emulsion liquid membrane, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, nanofluid, response surface methodology, Samarium.

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326 Optical Fiber Sensor for Detection of Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: C. I. L. Justino, A. C. Freitas, T. A. P. Rocha-Santos, A. C. Duarte

Abstract:

This work relates the development of an optical fiber (OF) sensor for the detection and quantification of single walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions. The developed OF displays a compact design, it requires less expensive materials and equipment as well as low volume of sample (0.2 mL). This methodology was also validated by the comparison of its analytical performance with that of a standard methodology based on ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The developed OF sensor follows the general SDS calibration proposed for OF sensors as a more suitable calibration fitting compared with classical calibrations.

Keywords: Optical fiber sensor, single-walled carbon nanotubes, SDS calibration model, UV-Vis spectroscopy

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325 Thermal and Electrical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Purified by Acid Digestion

Authors: Neslihan Yuca, Nilgün Karatepe, Fahrettin Yakuphanoğlu

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess unique structural, mechanical, thermal and electronic properties, and have been proposed to be used for applications in many fields. However, to reach the full potential of the CNTs, many problems still need to be solved, including the development of an easy and effective purification procedure, since synthesized CNTs contain impurities, such as amorphous carbon, carbon nanoparticles and metal particles. Different purification methods yield different CNT characteristics and may be suitable for the production of different types of CNTs. In this study, the effect of different purification chemicals on carbon nanotube quality was investigated. CNTs were firstly synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of acetylene (C2H2) on a magnesium oxide (MgO) powder impregnated with an iron nitrate (Fe(NO3)3·9H2O) solution. The synthesis parameters were selected as: the synthesis temperature of 800°C, the iron content in the precursor of 5% and the synthesis time of 30 min. The liquid phase oxidation method was applied for the purification of the synthesized CNT materials. Three different acid chemicals (HNO3, H2SO4, and HCl) were used in the removal of the metal catalysts from the synthesized CNT material to investigate the possible effects of each acid solution to the purification step. Purification experiments were carried out at two different temperatures (75 and 120 °C), two different acid concentrations (3 and 6 M) and for three different time intervals (6, 8 and 15 h). A 30% H2O2 : 3M HCl (1:1 v%) solution was also used in the purification step to remove both the metal catalysts and the amorphous carbon. The purifications using this solution were performed at the temperature of 75°C for 8 hours. Purification efficiencies at different conditions were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal and electrical properties of CNTs were also determined. It was found that the obtained electrical conductivity values for the carbon nanotubes were typical for organic semiconductor materials and thermal stabilities were changed depending on the purification chemicals.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, purification, acid digestion, thermalstability, electrical conductivity

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324 Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized Using Sugar Cane as a Percursor

Authors: Vanessa Romanovicz, Beatriz A. Berns, Stephen D. Carpenter, Deyse Carpenter

Abstract:

This article deals with the carbon nanotubes (CNT) synthesized from a novel precursor, sugar cane and Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO). The objective was to produce CNTs to be used as catalyst supports for Proton Exchange Membranes. The influence of temperature, inert gas flow rate and concentration of the precursor is presented. The CNTs prepared were characterized using TEM, XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and the surface area determined by BET. The results show that it is possible to form CNT from sugar cane by pyrolysis and the CNTs are the type multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The MWCNTs are short and closed at the two ends with very small surface area of SBET= 3.691m,/g.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, sugar cane, fuel cell, catalyst support.

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323 Progressive Loading Effect of Co over SiO2/Al2O3 Catalyst for Cox Free Hydrogen and Carbon Nanotubes Production via Catalytic Decomposition of Methane

Authors: Sushil Kumar Saraswat, K. K. Pant

Abstract:

Co metal supported on SiO2 and Al2O3 catalysts with a metal loading varied from 30 of 70 wt.% were evaluated for decomposition of methane to COx free hydrogen and carbon nanomaterials. The catalytic runs were carried out from 550-800oC under atmospheric pressure using fixed bed vertical flow reactor. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by BET surface area analyzer, XRD, SEM, TEM and TG analysis. The data showed that 50% Co/Al2O3 catalyst exhibited remarkable higher activity at 800oC with respect to H2 production compared to rest of the catalysts. However, the catalytic activity and durability was greatly declined at higher temperature. The main reason for the catalytic inhibition of Co containing SiO2 catalysts is the higher reduction temperature of Co2SiO4. TEM images illustrate that the carbon materials with various morphologies, carbon nanofibers (CNFs), helical-shaped CNFs and branched CNFs depending on the catalyst composition and reaction temperature were obtained.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, Cobalt, Hydrogen Production, Methane decomposition.

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322 Induction Melting as a Fabrication Route for Aluminum-Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite

Authors: Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Mansoor

Abstract:

Increasing demands of contemporary applications for high strength and lightweight materials prompted the development of metal-matrix composites (MMCs). After the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991 (revealing an excellent set of mechanical properties) became one of the most promising strengthening materials for MMC applications. Additionally, the relatively low density of the nanotubes imparted high specific strengths, making them perfect strengthening material to reinforce MMCs. In the present study, aluminum-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Al-MWCNTs) composite was prepared in an air induction furnace. The dispersion of the nanotubes in molten aluminum was assisted by inherent string action of induction heating at 790°C. During the fabrication process, multifunctional fluxes were used to avoid oxidation of the nanotubes and molten aluminum. Subsequently, the melt was cast in to a copper mold and cold rolled to 0.5 mm thickness. During metallographic examination using a scanning electron microscope, it was observed that the nanotubes were effectively dispersed in the matrix. The mechanical properties of the composite were significantly increased as compared to pure aluminum specimen i.e. the yield strength from 65 to 115 MPa, the tensile strength from 82 to 125 MPa and hardness from 27 to 30 HV for pure aluminum and Al-CNTs composite, respectively. To recognize the associated strengthening mechanisms in the nanocomposites, three foremost strengthening models i.e. shear lag model, Orowan looping and Hall-Petch have been critically analyzed; experimental data were found to be closely satisfying the shear lag model.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, induction melting, nanocomposite, strengthening mechanism.

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321 Implication of the Exchange-Correlation on Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: A. Abdikian

Abstract:

Using the linearized quantum hydrodynamic model (QHD) and by considering the role of quantum parameter (Bohm’s potential) and electron exchange-correlation potential in conjunction with Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic wave propagation in a single-walled carbon nanotubes was studied. The electronic excitations are described. By solving the mentioned equations with appropriate boundary conditions and by assuming the low-frequency electromagnetic waves, two general expressions of dispersion relations are derived for the transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes, respectively. The dispersion relations are analyzed numerically and it was found that the dependency of dispersion curves with the exchange-correlation effects (which have been ignored in previous works) in the low frequency would be limited. Moreover, it has been realized that asymptotic behaviors of the TE and TM modes are similar in single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The results show that by adding the function of electron exchange-correlation potential lead to the phenomena and make to extend the validity range of QHD model. The results can be important in the study of collective phenomena in nanostructures.

Keywords: Transverse magnetic, transverse electric, quantum hydrodynamic model, electron exchange-correlation potential, single-wall carbon nanotubes.

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320 Biogas Enhancement Using Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: John Justo Ambuchi, Zhaohan Zhang, Yujie Feng

Abstract:

Quick development and usage of nanotechnology have resulted to massive use of various nanoparticles, such as iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Thus, this study investigated the role of IONPs and MWCNTs in enhancing bioenergy recovery. Results show that IONPs at a concentration of 750 mg/L and MWCNTs at a concentration of 1500 mg/L induced faster substrate utilization and biogas production rates than the control. IONPs exhibited higher carbon oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency than MWCNTs while on the contrary, MWCNT performance on biogas generation was remarkable than IONPs. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation revealed extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) excretion from AGS had an interaction with nanoparticles. This interaction created a protective barrier to microbial consortia hence reducing their cytotoxicity. Microbial community analyses revealed genus predominance of bacteria of Anaerolineaceae and Longilinea. Their role in biodegradation of the substrate could have highly been boosted by nanoparticles. The archaea predominance of the genus level of Methanosaeta and Methanobacterium enhanced methanation process. The presence of bacteria of genus Geobacter was also reported. Their presence might have significantly contributed to direct interspecies electron transfer in the system. Exposure of AGS to nanoparticles promoted direct interspecies electron transfer among the anaerobic fermenting bacteria and their counterpart methanogens during the anaerobic digestion process. This results provide useful insightful information in understanding the response of microorganisms to IONPs and MWCNTs in the complex natural environment.

Keywords: Anaerobic granular sludge, extracellular polymeric substances, iron oxide nanoparticles, multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

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319 Characterization of Biodegradable Nanocomposites with Poly (Lactic Acid) and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Md F. Mina, Mohammad D.H. Beg, Muhammad R. Islam, Abu K. M. M. Alam A. Nizam, Rosli M. Younus

Abstract:

In this study, structural, mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) nanocomposites with low-loaded (0-1.5 wt%) untreated, heat and nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were studied. Among the composites, untreated 0.5 wt % MWCNTs and acid-treated 1.0 wt% MWCNTs reinforced PLA show the tensile strength and modulus values higher than the others. These two samples along with pure PLA exhibit the stable orthorhombic α-form, whilst other samples reveal the less stable orthorhombic β-form, as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction study. Differential scanning calorimetry reveals the evolution of the mentioned different phases by controlled cooling and discloses an enhancement of PLA crystallization by nanotubes incorporation. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the MWCNTs loaded sample degraded faster than PLA. Surface resistivity of the nanocomposites is found to be dropped drastically by a factor of 1013 with a low loading of MWCNTs (1.5 wt%).

Keywords: Crystallization, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, nanocomposites, Poly (lactic acid).

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318 Mercury Removing Capacity of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes as Detected by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: Kinetic & Equilibrium Studies

Authors: Yasser M. Moustafa, Rania E. Morsi, Mohammed Fathy

Abstract:

Multiwall carbon nanotubes, prepared by chemical vapor deposition, have an average diameter of 60-100 nm as shown by High Resolution Transmittance Electron Microscope, HR-TEM. The Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were further characterized using X-ray Diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy. Mercury uptake capacity of MWCNTs was studied using batch adsorption method at different concentration ranges up to 150 ppm. Mercury concentration (before and after the treatment) was measured using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. The effect of time, concentration, pH and adsorbent dose were studied. MWCNT were found to perform complete absorption in the sub-ppm concentrations (parts per billion levels) while for high concentrations, the adsorption efficiency was 92% at the optimum conditions; 0.1 g of the adsorbent at 150 ppm mercury (II) solution. The adsorption of mercury on MWCNTs was found to follow the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and the pseudo-second order kinetic model.

Keywords: Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Hydride System, Mercury Removing, Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes.

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317 Performance Study of Neodymium Extraction by Carbon Nanotubes Assisted Emulsion Liquid Membrane Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Payman Davoodi-Nasab, Ahmad Rahbar-Kelishami, Jaber Safdari, Hossein Abolghasemi

Abstract:

The high purity rare earth elements (REEs) have been vastly used in the field of chemical engineering, metallurgy, nuclear energy, optical, magnetic, luminescence and laser materials, superconductors, ceramics, alloys, catalysts, and etc. Neodymium is one of the most abundant rare earths. By development of a neodymium–iron–boron (Nd–Fe–B) permanent magnet, the importance of neodymium has dramatically increased. Solvent extraction processes have many operational limitations such as large inventory of extractants, loss of solvent due to the organic solubility in aqueous solutions, volatilization of diluents, etc. One of the promising methods of liquid membrane processes is emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) which offers an alternative method to the solvent extraction processes. In this work, a study on Nd extraction through multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) assisted ELM using response surface methodology (RSM) has been performed. The ELM composed of diisooctylphosphinic acid (CYANEX 272) as carrier, MWCNTs as nanoparticles, Span-85 (sorbitan triooleate) as surfactant, kerosene as organic diluent and nitric acid as internal phase. The effects of important operating variables namely, surfactant concentration, MWCNTs concentration, and treatment ratio were investigated. Results were optimized using a central composite design (CCD) and a regression model for extraction percentage was developed. The 3D response surfaces of Nd(III) extraction efficiency were achieved and significance of three important variables and their interactions on the Nd extraction efficiency were found out. Results indicated that introducing the MWCNTs to the ELM process led to increasing the Nd extraction due to higher stability of membrane and mass transfer enhancement. MWCNTs concentration of 407 ppm, Span-85 concentration of 2.1 (%v/v) and treatment ratio of 10 were achieved as the optimum conditions. At the optimum condition, the extraction of Nd(III) reached the maximum of 99.03%.

Keywords: Emulsion liquid membrane, extraction of neodymium, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, response surface method.

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316 Investigation of Gas Phase Composition During Carbon Nanotube Production

Authors: S. Yaglikci, B. Salgara, F. Soysal, B. Cicek

Abstract:

Chemical vapor deposition method was used to produce carbon nanotubes on an iron based catalyst from acetylene. Gas-phase samples collected from the different positions of the tubular reactor were analyzed by GC/MS. A variety of species ranging from hydrogen to naphthalene were observed and changes in their concentrations were plotted against the reactor position. Briefly benzene, toluene, styrene, indene and naphthalene were the main higher molecular weight species and vinylacetylene and diacetylene were the important intermediates. Nanotube characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, chemical vapor deposition, GC/MS, species profile

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315 Strengthening RC Columns Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites Modified with Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Mohammed H. Al-Saleh, Mahmoud Al-Shoubaki

Abstract:

This paper investigates the viability of using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites modified with carbon nanotubes to strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Six RC columns was designed and constructed according to ASCE standards. The columns were wrapped using carbon fiber sheets impregnated with either neat epoxy or CNTs modified epoxy. These columns were then tested under concentric axial loading. Test results show that; compared to the unwrapped specimens; wrapping concrete columns with carbon fiber sheet embedded in CNTs modified epoxy resulted in an increase in its axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 24%, 109% and 232%, respectively. These results reveal that adding CNTs into epoxy resin enhanced the confinement effect, specifically, increased the axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 11%, 6%, and 19%, respectively compared with columns strengthening with carbon fiber sheet embedded in neat epoxy.

Keywords: CNT, epoxy, Carbon fiber, RC columns.

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314 Nanocomputing Memory Devices Formed from Carbon Nanotubes and Metallofulleres

Authors: Richard K. F. Lee, James M. Hill

Abstract:

In this paper, we summarize recent work of the authors on nanocomputing memory devices. We investigate two memory devices, each comprising a charged metallofullerene and carbon nanotubes. The first device involves two open nanotubes of the same radius that are joined by a centrally located nanotube of a smaller radius. A metallofullerene is then enclosed inside the structure. The second device also involves a etallofullerene that is located inside a closed carbon nanotube. Assuming the Lennard-Jones interaction energy and the continuum approximation, for both devices, the metallofullerene has two symmetrically placed equal minimum energy positions. On one side the metallofullerene represents the zero information state and by applying an external electrical field, it can overcome the energy barrier, and pass from one end of the tube to the other, where the metallofullerene then represents the one information state.

Keywords: Carbon nanotube, continuous approach, energy barrier, Lennard-Jones potential, metallofullerene, nanomemory device.

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313 Size Dependence of 1D Superconductivity in NbN Nanowires on Suspended Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: T. Hashimoto, N. Miki, H. Maki

Abstract:

We report the size dependence of 1D superconductivity in ultrathin (10-130 nm) nanowires produced by coating suspended carbon nanotubes with a superconducting NbN thin film. The resistance-temperature characteristic curves for samples with ≧25 nm wire width show the superconducting transition. On the other hand, for the samples with 10-nm width, the superconducting transition is not exhibited owing to the quantum size effect. The differential resistance vs. current density characteristic curves show some peak, indicating that Josephson junctions are formed in nanowires. The presence of the Josephson junctions is well explained by the measurement of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current. These understanding allow for the further expansion of the potential application of NbN, which is utilized for single photon detectors and so on.

Keywords: NbN nanowire, carbon nanotube, quantum size effect, Josephson junction

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312 New Highly-Scalable Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Glasses and Ceramics

Authors: Konstantinos G. Dassios, Guillaume Bonnefont, Gilbert Fantozzi, Theodore E. Matikas, Costas Galiotis

Abstract:

We report herein the development and preliminary mechanical characterization of fully-dense multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-reinforced ceramics and glasses based on a completely new methodology termed High Shear Compaction (HSC). The tubes are introduced and bound to the matrix grains by aid of polymeric binders to form flexible green bodies which are sintered and densified by spark plasma sintering to unprecedentedly high densities of 100% of the pure-matrix value. The strategy was validated across a PyrexTM glass / MWCNT composite while no identifiable factors limit application to other types of matrices. Nondestructive evaluation, based on ultrasonics, of the dynamic mechanical properties of the materials including elastic, shear and bulk modulus as well as Poisson’s ratio showed optimum property improvement at 0.5 %wt tube loading while evidence of nanoscalespecific energy dissipative characteristics acting complementary to nanotube bridging and pull-out indicate a high potential in a wide range of reinforcing and multifunctional applications. 

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, ceramic matrix composites, toughening, ultrasonics.

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311 Polyethylenimine Coated Carbon Nanotube for Detecting Rancidity in Frying Oil

Authors: Vincent Lau Chun Fai, Yang Doo Lee, Kyongsoo Lee, Keun-Soo Lee, Shin-Kyung, Byeong-Kwon Ju

Abstract:

Chemical detection is still a continuous challenge when it comes to designing single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) sensors with high selectivity, especially in complex chemical environments. A perfect example of such an environment would be in thermally oxidized soybean oil. At elevated temperatures, oil oxidizes through a series of chemical reactions which results in the formation of monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, oxidized triacylglycerols, dimers, trimers, polymers, free fatty acids, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and other minor products. In order to detect the rancidity of oxidized soybean oil, carbon nanotube chemiresistor sensors have been coated with polyethylenimine (PEI) to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity. PEI functionalized SWCNTs are known to have a high selectivity towards strong electron withdrawing molecules. The sensors were very responsive to different oil oxidation levels and furthermore, displayed a rapid recovery in ambient air without the need of heating or UV exposure.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, polyethylenimine, sensor, oxidized oil

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310 Investigation of New Method to Achieve Well Dispersed Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Al Matrix Composites

Authors: A.H.Javadi, Sh.Mirdamadi, M.A.Faghisani, S.Shakhesi

Abstract:

Nanostructured materials have attracted many researchers due to their outstanding mechanical and physical properties. For example, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or carbon nanofibres (CNFs) are considered to be attractive reinforcement materials for light weight and high strength metal matrix composites. These composites are being projected for use in structural applications for their high specific strength as well as functional materials for their exciting thermal and electrical characteristics. The critical issues of CNT-reinforced MMCs include processing techniques, nanotube dispersion, interface, strengthening mechanisms and mechanical properties. One of the major obstacles to the effective use of carbon nanotubes as reinforcements in metal matrix composites is their agglomeration and poor distribution/dispersion within the metallic matrix. In order to tap into the advantages of the properties of CNTs (or CNFs) in composites, the high dispersion of CNTs (or CNFs) and strong interfacial bonding are the key issues which are still challenging. Processing techniques used for synthesis of the composites have been studied with an objective to achieve homogeneous distribution of carbon nanotubes in the matrix. Modified mechanical alloying (ball milling) techniques have emerged as promising routes for the fabrication of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced metal matrix composites. In order to obtain a homogeneous product, good control of the milling process, in particular control of the ball movement, is essential. The control of the ball motion during the milling leads to a reduction in grinding energy and a more homogeneous product. Also, the critical inner diameter of the milling container at a particular rotational speed can be calculated. In the present work, we use conventional and modified mechanical alloying to generate a homogenous distribution of 2 wt. % CNT within Al powders. 99% purity Aluminium powder (Acros, 200mesh) was used along with two different types of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) having different aspect ratios to produce Al-CNT composites. The composite powders were processed into bulk material by compaction, and sintering using a cylindrical compaction and tube furnace. Field Emission Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Vickers macro hardness tester were used to evaluate CNT dispersion, powder morphology, CNT damage, phase analysis, mechanical properties and crystal size determination. Despite the success of ball milling in dispersing CNTs in Al powder, it is often accompanied with considerable strain hardening of the Al powder, which may have implications on the final properties of the composite. The results show that particle size and morphology vary with milling time. Also, by using the mixing process and sonication before mechanical alloying and modified ball mill, dispersion of the CNTs in Al matrix improves.

Keywords: multiwall carbon nanotube, Aluminum matrixcomposite, dispersion, mechanical alloying, sintering

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309 Production of Carbon Nanotubes by Iron Catalyst

Authors: Ezgi Dündar-Tekkaya, Nilgün Karatepe

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with their high mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical properties are regarded as promising materials for many different potential applications. Having unique properties they can be used in a wide range of fields such as electronic devices, electrodes, drug delivery systems, hydrogen storage, textile etc. Catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a common method for CNT production especially for mass production. Catalysts impregnated on a suitable substrate are important for production with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Iron catalyst and MgO substrate is one of most common catalyst-substrate combination used for CNT. In this study, CNTs were produced by CCVD of acetylene (C2H2) on magnesium oxide (MgO) powder substrate impregnated by iron nitrate (Fe(NO3)3•9H2O) solution. The CNT synthesis conditions were as follows: at synthesis temperatures of 500 and 800°C multiwall and single wall CNTs were produced respectively. Iron (Fe) catalysts were prepared by with Fe:MgO ratio of 1:100, 5:100 and 10:100. The duration of syntheses were 30 and 60 minutes for all temperatures and catalyst percentages. The synthesized materials were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy.

Keywords: Carbon nanotube, catalyst, catalytic chemical vapordeposition, iron

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