Search results for: moderate activity
1451 Heart Rate-Determined Physical Activity In New Zealand School Children: A Cross- Sectional Study
Authors: Michael J. Hamlin, Mick Grimley, Vicki Cowley, Chris D. Price, Jill M. Hargreaves, Jenny J. Ross
The aim of this study was to examine current levels of physical activity determined via heart rate monitoring. A total of 176 children (85 boys, 91 girls) aged 5-13 years wore sealed Polar heart rate monitors for at least 10 hours per day on at least 3 days. Mean daily minutes of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity was 65 ± 43 (mean ± SD) for boys and 54 ± 37 for girls. Daily minutes of vigorous-intensity activity was 31 ± 24 and 24 ± 21 for boys and girls respectively. Significant differences in physical activity levels were observed between school day and weekends, boys and girls, and among age and geographical groups. Only 36% of boys and 22% of girls met the New Zealand physical activity guideline. This research indicates that a large proportion of New Zealand children are not meeting physical activity recommendations.
Keywords: activity guidelines, moderate activity, sedentary, vigorous activityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1220
1450 Histochemistry of Intestinal Enzymes of Juvenile Dourado Salminus brasiliensis Fed Bovine Colostrum
Authors: Debora B. Moretti, Wiolene M. Nordi, Thaline Maira P. Cruz, José Eurico P. Cyrino, Raul Machado-Neto
Enzyme activity was evaluated in the intestine of juvenile dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) fed with diets containing 0, 10 or 20% of lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC) inclusion for either 30 or 60 days. The intestinal enzymes acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP and ALP, respectively), non-specific esterase (NSE), lipase (LIP), dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DAP IV) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) were studied using histochemistry in four intestinal segments (S1, S2, S3 and posterior intestine). Weak proteolitic activity was observed in all intestinal segments for DAP IV and LAP. The activity of NSE and LIP was also weak in all intestines, except for the moderate activity of NSE in the S2 of 20% LBC group after 30 days and in the S1 of 0% LBC group after 60 days. The ACP was detected only in the S2 and S3 of the 10% LBC group after 30 days. Moderate and strong staining was observed in the first three intestinal segments for ALP and weak activity in the posterior intestine. The activity of DAP IV, LAP and ALP were also present in the cytoplasm of the enterocytes. In the present results, bovine colostrum feeding did not cause alterations in activity of intestinal enzymes.
Keywords: Carnivorous fish, enterocyte, intestinal epithelium, teleost.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1823
1449 Can Physical Activity and Dietary Fat Intake Influence Body Mass Index in a Cross-sectional Correlational Design?
Authors: D.O. Omondi, L.O.A. Othuon, G.M. Mbagaya
Abstract:The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of physical activity and dietary fat intake on Body Mass Index (BMI) of lecturers within a higher learning institutionalized setting. The study adopted a Cross-sectional Correlational Design and included 120 lecturers selected proportionately by simple random sampling techniques from a population of 600 lecturers. Data was collected using questionnaires, which had sections including physical activity checklist adopted from the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), 24-hour food recall, anthropometric measurements mainly weight and height. Analysis involved the use of bivariate correlations and linear regression. A significant inverse association was registered between BMI and duration (in minutes) spent doing moderate intense physical activity per day (r=-0.322, p<0.01). Physical activity also predicted BMI (r2=0.096, F=13.616, β=-3.22, t=-3.69, n=120, P<0.01). However, the association between Body Mass Index and dietary fat was not significant (r=0.038, p>0.05). Physical activity emerged as a more powerful determinant of BMI compared to dietary fat intake.
Keywords: Physical activity, dietary fat intake, Body MassIndex, Kenya.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1560
1448 The Relationships between Physical Activity Levels, Enjoyment of Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index among Bruneian Secondary School Adolescents
Authors: David Xiaoqian Sun, Khairunnisa Binti Haji Sibah, Jr., Lejak Anak Ambol
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between objectively measured physical activity levels (PALs), enjoyment of physical activity (EPA), and body mass index (BMI) among adolescents. A total of 188 12-14-year-old Bruneian secondary school adolescents (88 boys and 100 girls) voluntarily took part in this study. Subjects wore the RT3 accelerometer for seven consecutive days in order to measure their PALs. Times of students’ engagement in total (TPA), light (LPA), moderate (MPV), and vigorous PA (VPA) were obtained from the accelerometer. Their BMIs were calculated from their body height and weight. Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was administrated to obtain their EPA levels. Four key enjoyment factors including fun factors, positive perceptions, unexciting in doing activities, and negative perceptions were identified. Subjects’ social economic status (SES) was provided by school administration. Results show that all the adolescents did not meet the recommended PA guidelines even though boys were engaged in more MVPA than girls. No relationships were found between BMI and all PALs in both boys and girls. BMI was significantly related to the PACES scores (r = -.22, p = 0.01), fun factors (r = -.20, p = 0.05) and positive perceptions (r =- .21, p < 0.05). The PACES scores were significantly related to LPA (r = .18, p = 0.01) but not related to MVPA (r = .04, p > 0.05). After controlling for age and SES, BMI was only significantly related to the PACES scores in girls (r = -.27, p < .01) but boys (r = -.06, p > 0.05). Fun factors were significantly related to LPA and MVPA (p < .01) in girls while negative perceptions were significantly related to LPA and MVPA (p < .01) in boys. This study provides evidence that enjoyment may be a trigger of LPA but MVPA and may be influenced by their BMI status particularly in girls. Based on these findings, physical and health educators are suggested to not only make PA more enjoyable, but also consider gender differences in promoting adolescents' participation in MVPA
Keywords: Accelerometer, body mass index, enjoyment of physical activity, moderate to vigorous physical activity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2221
1447 Anti-microbial Activity of Aristolochic Acid from Root of Aristolochia bracteata Retz
Authors: S. Angalaparameswari, T.S. Mohamed Saleem, M. Alagusundaram, S. Ramkanth, V.S. Thiruvengadarajan, K. Gnanaprakash, C. Madhusudhana Chetty, G. Pratheesh
Abstract:The present research was designed to investigate the anti-microbial activity of aristolochic acid from the root of Aristolochia bracteata. From the methanolic & ethyl extract extracts of Aristolochia bracteata aristolochic acid I was isolated and conformed through IR, NMR & MS. The percentage purity of aristolochic acid I was determined by UV & HPLC method. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Aristolochia bracteata and the isolated compound was determined by disc diffusion method. The results reveled that the isolated aristolochic acid from methanolic extract was more pure than the compound from ethyl acetate extract. The various extracts (500μg/disc) of Aristolochia bracteata showed moderate antibacterial activity with the average zone of inhibition of 7-18 mm by disc diffusion method. Among the extracts, ethyl acetate & methanol extracts were shown good anti-microbial activity and the growth of E.coli (18 mm) was strongly inhibited. Microbial assay of isolated compound (Aristolochic acid I) from ethyl acetate & methanol extracts were shown good antimicrobial activity and the zone of inhibition of both at higher concentration 50 μg/ml was similar with the standard aristolochic acid. It may be concluded that the isolated compound of aristolochic acid I has good anti-bacterial activity.
Keywords: Aristolochic acid I, Anti-microbial activity, Aristolochia bracteata, Bacillus subtilis, E.coliProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2017
1446 Evaluation of Thrombolytic Activity of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. and Thai Herbal Prasaplai Formula
Authors: Warachate Khobjai, Suriyan Sukati, Khemjira Jarmkom, Pattaranut Eakwaropas, Surachai Techaoei
The propose of this study was to investigate in vitro thrombolytic activity of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. and Prasaplai, a Thai herbal formulation of Z. cassumunar Roxb. Herbs were extracted with boiling water and concentrated by lyophilization. To observe their thrombolytic potential, an in vitro clot lysis method was applied where streptokinase and sterile distilled water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Crude aqueous extracts from Z. cassumunar Roxb. and Prasaplai formula showed significant thrombolytic activity by clot lysis of 17.90% and 25.21%, respectively, compared to the negative control water (5.16%) while the standard streptokinase revealed 64.78% clot lysis. These findings suggest that Z. cassumunar Roxb. exhibits moderate thrombolytic activity and cloud play an important role in the thrombolytic properties of Prasaplai formula. However, further study should be done to observe in vivo clot dissolving potential and to isolate active component(s) of these extracts.
Keywords: Aqueous extract, prasaplai formula, thrombolytic activity, Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1207
1445 Novel Inhibitor of E. coli DNA Adenine Methyltransferase (Ecodam)
Authors: H. Elsawy, A. Jeltsch
Abstract:EcoDam is an adenine-N6 DNA methyltransferase that methylates the GATC sites in the Escherichia coli genome. DNA-adenine methylation is not present in higher eukaryotes including humans. These observations raise the possibility that dam inhibitors may be used as anti-microbial agents. Polyphosphate (Poly(P)) is an important metabolite and signaling molecule in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, by using gel retardation experiments to investigate the competition of DNA binding by EcoDam in the presence of polyphosphate, we found that Poly (P) strongly interferes with DNA binding by EcoDam, while same concentration of monophosphate does not. In addition, we demonstrated that Poly (P) binding inhibits the activity of EcoDam and our results suggest that Poly (P) led to strong inhibition of the EcoDam catalytic activity, while monophosphate had only moderate effect.
Keywords: Antibacterial drugs, EcoDam inhibitors, Polyphosphate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2443
1444 Analysis of the Elastic Energy Released and Characterization of the Eruptive Episodes Intensity’s during 2014-2015 at El Reventador Volcano, Ecuador
Authors: Paúl I. Cornejo
Abstract:The elastic energy released through Strombolian explosions has been quite studied, detailing various processes, sources, and precursory events at several volcanoes. We realized an analysis based on the relative partitioning of the elastic energy radiated into the atmosphere and ground by Strombolian-type explosions recorded at El Reventador volcano, using infrasound and seismic signals at high and moderate seismicity episodes during intense eruptive stages of explosive and effusive activity. Our results show that considerable values of Volcano Acoustic-Seismic Ratio (VASR or η) are obtained at high seismicity stages. VASR is a physical diagnostic of explosive degassing that we used to compare eruption mechanisms at El Reventador volcano for two datasets of explosions recorded at a Broad-Band BB seismic and infrasonic station located at ~5 kilometers from the vent. We conclude that the acoustic energy EA released during explosive activity (VASR η = 0.47, standard deviation σ = 0.8) is higher than the EA released during effusive activity; therefore, producing the highest values of η. Furthermore, we realized the analysis and characterization of the eruptive intensity for two episodes at high seismicity, calculating a η three-time higher for an episode of effusive activity with an occasional explosive component (η = 0.32, and σ = 0.42), than a η for an episode of only effusive activity (η = 0.11, and σ = 0.18), but more energetic.
Keywords: Effusive, explosion quakes, explosive, strombolian, VASR.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 656
1443 Extent of Highway Capacity Loss Due to Rainfall
Authors: Hashim Mohammed Alhassan, Johnnie Ben-Edigbe
Traffic flow in adverse weather conditions have been investigated in this study for general traffic, week day and week end traffic. The empirical evidence is strong in support of the view that rainfall affects macroscopic traffic flow parameters. Data generated from a basic highway section along J5 in Johor Bahru, Malaysia was synchronized with 161 rain events over a period of three months. This revealed a 4.90%, 6.60% and 11.32% reduction in speed for light rain, moderate rain and heavy rain conditions respectively. The corresponding capacity reductions in the three rainfall regimes are 1.08% for light rain, 6.27% for moderate rain and 29.25% for heavy rain. In the week day traffic, speed drops of 8.1% and 16.05% were observed for light and heavy conditions. The moderate rain condition speed increased by 12.6%. The capacity drops for week day traffic are 4.40% for light rain, 9.77% for moderate rain and 45.90% for heavy rain. The weekend traffic indicated speed difference between the dry condition and the three rainy conditions as 6.70% for light rain, 8.90% for moderate rain and 13.10% for heavy rain. The capacity changes computed for the weekend traffic were 0.20% in light rain, 13.90% in moderate rain and 16.70% in heavy rain. No traffic instabilities were observed throughout the observation period and the capacities reported for each rain condition were below the norain condition capacity. Rainfall has tremendous impact on traffic flow and this may have implications for shock wave propagation.
Keywords: Highway Capacity, Dry condition, Rainfall Intensity, Rainy condition, Traffic Flow Rate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1941
1442 Arginase Enzyme Activity in Human Serum as a Marker of Cognitive Function: The Role of Inositol in Combination with Arginine Silicate
Authors: Katie Emerson, Sara Perez-Ojalvo, Jim Komorowski, Danielle Greenberg
The purpose of this study was to evaluate arginase activity levels in response to combinations of an inositol-stabilized arginine silicate (ASI; Nitrosigine®), L-arginine, and Inositol. Arginine acts as a vasodilator that promotes increased blood flow resulting in enhanced delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the brain and other tissues. Arginase, found in human serum, catalyzes the conversion of arginine to ornithine and urea, completing the last step in the urea cycle. Decreasing arginase levels maintains arginine and results in increased nitric oxide production. This study aimed to determine the most effective combination of ASI, L-arginine and inositol for minimizing arginase levels and therefore maximize ASI’s effect on cognition. Serum was taken from untreated healthy donors by separation from clotted factors. Arginase activity of serum in the presence or absence of test products was determined (QuantiChrom™, DARG-100, Bioassay Systems, Hayward CA). The remaining ultra-filtrated serum units were harvested and used as the source for the arginase enzyme. ASI alone or combined with varied levels of Inositol were tested as follows: ASI + inositol at 0.25 g, 0.5 g, 0.75 g, or 1.00 g. L-arginine was also tested as a positive control. All tests elicited changes in arginase activity demonstrating the efficacy of the method used. Adding L-arginine to serum from untreated subjects, with or without inositol only had a mild effect. Adding inositol at all levels reduced arginase activity. Adding 0.5 g to the standardized amount of ASI led to the lowest amount of arginase activity as compared to the 0.25 g, 0.75 g or 1.00g doses of inositol or to L-arginine alone. The outcome of this study demonstrates an interaction of the pairing of inositol with ASI on the activity of the enzyme arginase. We found that neither the maximum nor minimum amount of inositol tested in this study led to maximal arginase inhibition. Since the inhibition of arginase activity is desirable for product formulations looking to maintain arginine levels, the most effective amount of inositol was deemed preferred. Subsequent studies suggest this moderate level of inositol in combination with ASI leads to cognitive improvements including reaction time, executive function, and concentration.
Keywords: Arginine, blood flow, colorimetry, urea cycle.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 83
1441 Antimicrobial Activity of Girardinia heterophylla
Authors: P. S. Bedi, Neayti Thakur, Balvinder Singh
In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare the crude extracts of leaves and stem of ‘Girardinia heterophylla’ by using various solvents like petroleum ether, ethanol and double distilled water. The samples were given the code NGLS 1, NGLS 2, NGLS 3 and NGSS 1, NGSS 2 and NGSS 3 respectively. All the extracts were used to study their antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria e.g. Bacillus subtilis, gram negative bacteria e.g. E. coli and K. pneumonia and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. The results of the antimicrobial activity showed that all the crude extracts of the plant possesses antibacterial activity. Maximum antibacterial activity was shown by NGLS 2, NGLS 3 and NGSS 3 against K. pneumonia. The growth of fungus A. niger was also inhibited by all the crude extracts. Maximum inhibition was shown by NGSS 2 followed by NGSS 1.
Keywords: Girardinia heterophylla, leaves and stem extracts, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2194
1440 Phytochemical Study and Biological Activity of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)
Authors: Mekhaldi Abdelkader, Bouznad Ahcen, Djibaoui Rachid, Hamoum Hakim
This study presents an attempt to evaluate the antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract, and essential oils prepared from the leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The content of polyphenol in the methanolic extracts from the leaves of Salvia officinalis was determined spectrophotometrically, calculated as gallic acid and catechin equivalent. The essential oils and methanol extract were also subjected to screenings for the evaluation of their antioxidant activities using 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. While the plant essential oils showed only weak antioxidant activities, its methanol extract was considerably active in DPPH (IC50 = 37.29 μg/ml) test. Appreciable total polyphenol content (31.25 mg/g) was also detected for the plant methanol extract as gallic acid equivalent in the Folin–Ciocalteu test. The plant was also screened for its antimicrobial activity and good to moderate inhibitions were recorded for its essential oils, and methanol extracts against most of the tested microorganisms. The present investigation revealed that this plant had rich source of antioxidant properties. It is for this reason that sage has found increasing application in food formulations.
Keywords: Antibacterial, Antioxidant, Flavonoid, Polyphenol, Salvia officinalis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4228
1439 The Effect of Substitution of CaO/MgO and CaO/SrO on in vitro Bioactivity of Sol-Gel Derived Bioactive Glass
Authors: Zeinab Hajifathali, Moghan Amirhosseinian
This study had two main aims: firstly, to determine how the individual substitution of CaO/MgO and CaO/SrO can affect the in vitro bioactivity of sol-gel derived substituted 58S bioactive glass (BG) and secondly to introduce a composition in the 60SiO2–(36-x)CaO–4P2O5–(x)MgO and 60SiO2–(36-x)CaO–4P2O5–(x)SrO quaternary systems (where x= 0, 5, 10 mol.%) with enhanced biocompatibility, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and more efficient antibacterial activity against MRSA bacteria. Results showed that both magnesium-substituted bioactive glasses (M-BGs) and strontium- substituted bioactive glasses (S-BGs) retarded the Hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. Meanwhile, magnesium had more pronounced effect. The 3-(4, 5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and ALP assays revealed that the presence of moderate amount (5 mol%) of Mg and Sr had a stimulating effect on increasing of both proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Live dead and Dapi/actin staining revealed both substitution of CaO/MgO and CaO/SrO resulted in more biocompatibility and stimulation potential of the MC3T3 cells compared with control. Taken together, among all of the synthesized magnesium substituted (MBGs) and strontium substituted (SBGs), the sample 58- BG with 5 mol% CaO/MgO substitution (BG-5M) was considered as a multifunctional biomaterial in bone tissue regeneration field with enhanced biocompatibility, ALP activity as well as the highest antibacterial efficiency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria.
Keywords: Apatite, alkaline earth, bioactivity, biomedical applications, sol-gel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 693
1438 Assessing Complexity of Neuronal Multiunit Activity by Information Theoretic Measure
Authors: Young-Seok Choi
This paper provides a quantitative measure of the time-varying multiunit neuronal spiking activity using an entropy based approach. To verify the status embedded in the neuronal activity of a population of neurons, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used to isolate the inherent spiking activity of MUA. Due to the de-correlating property of DWT, the spiking activity would be preserved while reducing the non-spiking component. By evaluating the entropy of the wavelet coefficients of the de-noised MUA, a multiresolution Shannon entropy (MRSE) of the MUA signal is developed. The proposed entropy was tested in the analysis of both simulated noisy MUA and actual MUA recorded from cortex in rodent model. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the dynamics of a population can be quantified by using the proposed entropy.
Keywords: Discrete wavelet transform, Entropy, Multiresolution, Multiunit activity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1702
1437 ORR Activity and Stability of Pt-Based Electrocatalysts in PEM Fuel Cell
Authors: S. Limpattayanate, M. Hunsom
Abstract:A comparison of activity and stability of the as-formed Pt/C, Pt-Co and Pt-Pd/C electrocatalysts, prepared by a combined approach of impregnation and seeding, was performed. According to the activity test in a single Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) activity of the Pt-M/C electrocatalyst was slightly lower than that of Pt/C. The j0.9 V and E10 mA/cm2 of the as-prepared electrocatalysts increased in the order of Pt/C > Pt-Co/C > Pt-Pd/C. However, in the medium-to-high current density region, Pt-Pd/C exhibited the best performance. With regard to their stability in a 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte solution, the electrochemical surface area decreased as the number of rounds of repetitive potential cycling increased due to the dissolution of the metals within the catalyst structure. For long-term measurement, Pt- Pd/C was the most stable than the other three electrocatalysts.
Keywords: ORR activity, Stability, Pt-based electrocatalysts, PEM fuel cell.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2159
1436 Induction of Alternative Oxidase Activity in Candida albicans by Oxidising Conditions
Authors: Simon Brown, Raewyn Tuffery
Candida albicans ATCC 10231 had low endogenous activity of the alternative oxidase compared with that of C. albicans ATCC 10261. In C. albicans ATCC 10231 the endogenous activity declined as the cultures aged. Alternative oxidase activity could be induced in C. albicans ATCC 10231 by treatment with cyanide, but the induction of this activity required the presence of oxygen which could be replaced, at least in part, with high concentrations of potassium ferricyanide. We infer from this that the expression of the gene encoding the alternative oxidase is under the control of a redoxsensitive transcription factor.
Keywords: alternative oxidase, Candida albicans, enzymeinduction, oxygen, redox potential.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1519
1435 Pre-Clinical Studying of Antitumor Ramon Preparation: Specific Activity
Authors: Raissa A. Muzychkina, Irina M. Korulkina, Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin
In article the data of pre-clinical researches of Ramon preparation is described. Antitumor activity of Ramon has been studied on 19 strains of transplantated tumors of different hystogenesis.
Keywords: Cancer, antitumor activity, pre-clinical testing, anthraquinones, phytopreparation, Ramon.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1557
1434 Effects of Adding Different Levels of Anaerobic Fungi on Cellulase Activity of Ostrich Digestive Tract-s Microorganisms under in Vitro Condition
Authors: Seyed Azizollah Ghotb, Mohammad Chamani, Elmira Abdollahzadeh Esmaeili, Farhad Foroudi
Abstract:the objective of this study is to measure the levels of cellulas activity of ostrich GI microorganisms, and comparing it with the levels of cellulas activity of rumen-s microorganisms, and also to estimate the probability of increasing enzyme activity with injecting different dosages (30%, 50% and 70%) of pure anaerobic goat rumen fungi. The experiment was conducted in laboratory and under a complete anaerobic condition (in vitro condition). 40 ml of “CaldWell" medium and 1.4g wheat straw were placed in incubator for an hour. The cellulase activity of ostrich microorganisms was compared with other treatments, and then different dosages (30%, 50% and 70%) of pure anaerobic goat rumen fungi were injected to ostrich microorganism-s media. Due to the results, cattle and goat with 2.13 and 2.08 I.U (international units) respectively showed the highest activity and ostrich with 0.91 (I.U) had the lowest cellulose activity (p < 0.05). Injecting 30% and 50% of anaerobic fungi had no significant incensement in enzyme activity, but with injecting 70% of rumen fungi to ostrich microorganisms culture a significant increase was observed 1.48 I.U. (p < 0.05).
Keywords: Cellulase enzyme, Microorganisms, Ostrich, RuminantsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1934
1433 Optimization of Enzymatic Activities in Malting of Oat
Authors: E. Hosseini, M. Kadivar, M. Shahedi
Abstract:Malting is usually carried out on intact barley seed, while hull is still attached to it. In this study, oat grain with and without hull was subjected to controlled germination to optimize its enzymes activity, in such a way that lipase has the lowest and α- amylase and proteinase the highest activities. Since pH has a great impact on the activity of the enzymes, the pH of germination media was set up to 3 to 8. In dehulled oats, lipase and α-amylase had the lowest and highest activities in pHs 3 and 6, respectively whereas the highest proteinase activity was evidenced at pH 7 and 4 in the oats with and without hull respectively. While measurements indicated that the effect of hull on the enzyme activities particularly in lipase and amylase at each level of the pH are significantly different, the best results were obtained in those samples in which their hull had been removed. However, since the similar lipase activity in germinated dehulled oat were recorded at the pHs 4 and 5, therefore it was concluded that pH 5 in dehulled oat seed may provide the optimum enzyme activity for all the enzymes.
Keywords: Enzyme activity, malting, oat, optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2752
1432 A Human Activity Recognition System Based On Sensory Data Related to Object Usage
Authors: M. Abdullah-Al-Wadud
Sensor-based Activity Recognition systems usually accounts which sensors have been activated to perform an activity. The system then combines the conditional probabilities of those sensors to represent different activities and takes the decision based on that. However, the information about the sensors which are not activated may also be of great help in deciding which activity has been performed. This paper proposes an approach where the sensory data related to both usage and non-usage of objects are utilized to make the classification of activities. Experimental results also show the promising performance of the proposed method.
Keywords: Naïve Bayesian-based classification, Activity recognition, sensor data, object-usage model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1661
1431 Innovative Activity and Firm Performance: The Case of Eurozone Periphery
Authors: Ilias A. Makris
In this work, we attempt to analyze the contribution of innovative activities to firm performance and growth. We examine economic data from some of the economies that were heavily affected by current economic crisis: the countries of southern Europe (Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain) and Ireland. Following literature, an appropriate econometric model is developed and several indicators are tested in order to disclose possible relation with innovative activity. Findings confirm the crucial effect of innovative process in economic activity, in firm and country level.
Keywords: Eurozone Periphery, Firm Performance, Innovative activity, R&D.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1658
1430 Rear Separation in a Rotating Fluid at Moderate Taylor Numbers
Authors: S. Damodaran, T. V. S.Sekhar
Abstract:The motion of a sphere moving along the axis of a rotating viscous fluid is studied at high Reynolds numbers and moderate values of Taylor number. The Higher Order Compact Scheme is used to solve the governing Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are written in the form of Stream function, Vorticity function and angular velocity which are highly non-linear, coupled and elliptic partial differential equations. The flow is governed by two parameters Reynolds number (Re) and Taylor number (T). For very low values of Re and T, the results agree with the available experimental and theoretical results in the literature. The results are obtained at higher values of Re and moderate values of T and compared with the experimental results. The results are fourth order accurate.
Keywords: Navier_Stokes equations, Taylor number, Reynolds number, Higher order compact scheme, Rotating Fluid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1212
1429 The Relationship between Motivation for Physical Activity and Level of Physical Activity over Time
Authors: Keyvan Molanorouzi, Selina Khoo, Tony Morris
Abstract:In recent years, there has been a decline in physical activity among adults. Motivation has been shown to be a crucial factor in maintaining physical activity. The purpose of this study was to whether PA motives measured by the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale PALMS predicted the actual amount of PA at a later time to provide evidence for the construct validity of the PALMS. A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive research design was employed. The Demographic Form, PALMS, and International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short form (IPAQ-S) questionnaires were used to assess motives and amount for physical activity in adults on two occasions. A sample of 489 male undergraduate students aged 18 to 25 years (mean ±SD; 22.30±8.13 years) took part in the study. Participants were divided into three types of activities, namely exercise, racquet sport, and team sports and female participants only took part in one type of activity, namely team sports. After 14 weeks, all 489 undergraduate students who had filled in the initial questionnaire (Occasion 1) received the questionnaire via email (Occasion 2). Of the 489 students, 378 males emailed back the completed questionnaire. The results showed that not only were pertinent sub-scales of PALMS positively related to amount of physical activity, but separate regression analyses showed the positive predictive effect of PALMS motives for amount of physical activity for each type of physical activity among participants. This study supported the construct validity of the PALMS by showing that the motives measured by PALMS did predict amount of PA. This information can be obtained to match people with specific sport or activity which in turn could potentially promote longer adherence to the specific activity.
Keywords: Physical activity, motivation, the level of physical activity, types of physical activities.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3426
1428 Stages of Changes for Physical Activity among Iranian Adolescent Girls
Authors: Ashraf Pirasteh, Alireza Hidarnia, Ali Asghari, Soghrate Faghihzadeh, Fazlollah Ghofranipour
Abstract:Background: Regular physical activity contributes positively to physical and psychological health. In the present study, the stages of change of physical activity and the total physical Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the proportion of adolescent girls in each stages of change and the causative factors associated with physical activity such as the related social support and self efficacy in a sample of the high school students. Methods: In this study, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and the Transtheorical Model (TTM) guided instrument development. The data regarding the demographics, psychosocial determinants of physical activity, stage of change and physical activity was gathered by questionnaires. Several measures of psychosocial determinants of physical activity were translated from English into Persian using the back-translation technique. These translated measures were administered to 512 ninth and tenth-grade Iranian high school students for factor analysis. Results: The distribution of the stage of change for physical activity was as follow: 18/5% in precontemplation, 23.4% in contemplation, 38.2% in preparation, 4.6% in action and 15.3% in maintenance. They were in 80.1% pre-adoption stages (precontemplation stage, contemplation stage and preparation stage) and 19.9% post-adoption stages (action stage and maintenance stage) of physical activity. There was a significant relate between age and physical activity in adolescent girls (age-related decline of physical activity) p<0001. Conclusion: The findings of the present study can contribute to improve health behaviors and for administration of health promotion programs in the adolescent populations.
Keywords: Adolescent, Iranian girls, Physical activity, Stages of changeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1836
1427 Approaches to Promote Healthy Recreation Activities for Elderly Tourists at Bang Nam Phueng Floating Market, Prapradeang District, Samutprakarn Province
Authors: Sasitorn Chetanont
The objectives of this study are to find out the approaches to promote healthy recreation activities for elderly tourists and develop Bang Nam Phueng Floating Market to be a health tourism attraction. The research methodology was to analyze internal and external situations according to MP-MF and the MCSTEPS principles. As for the results of this study the researcher found that the healthy recreational activities for elderly tourists could be divided in 7 groups; travelling Bang Nam Phueng Floating Market activity, homestay relaxation, arts center platform activity, healthy massage activity, paying homage to a Buddha image activity, herbal joss-stick home activity, making local desserts and food activity.
Keywords: Elderly tourists, recreational activities, Bang Nam Phueng Floating Market.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1869
1426 The Effect of Physical Activity and Responses of Leptin
Authors: Sh. Khoshemehry, M. J. Pourvaghar, M. E. Bahram
In modern life, daily physical activity is relatively reduced, which is why the incidence of some diseases associated with overweight and obesity, such as hypertension, diabetes and other chronic illnesses, even in young people are observed. Obesity and overweight is one of the most common metabolic disorders in industrialized countries and in developing countries. One consequence of pathological obesity is cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. In the past, it was believed that adipose tissue was ineffective and served only for storing triglycerides. In this review article, it was tried to refer to the esteemed scientific sources about physical activity and responses of leptin.
Keywords: Disease, leptin, obesity, physical activity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 911
1425 Intermolecular Dynamics between Alcohols and Fatty Acid Ester Solvents
Authors: Jacques J. Scheepers, Edison Muzenda
This work focused on the interactions which occur between ester solvents and alcohol solutes. The alcohols selected ranged from the simplest alcohol (methanol) to C10-alcohols, and solubility predictions in the form of infinite dilution activity coefficients were made using the Modified UNIFAC Dortmund group contribution model. The model computation was set up on a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet specifically designed for this purpose. It was found that alcohol/ ester interactions yielded an increase in activity coefficients (i.e. became less soluble) with an increase in the size of the ester solvent molecule. Furthermore, activity coefficients decreased with an increase in the size of the alcohol solute. The activity coefficients also decreased with an increase in the degree of unsaturation of the ester hydrocarbon tail. Tertiary alcohols yielded lower activity coefficients than primary alcohols. Finally, cyclic alcohols yielded higher activity coefficients than straight-chain alcohols until a point is reached where the trend is reversed, referred to as the ‘crossover’ point.
Keywords: Activity coefficients, alcohols, esters, solubility, van der Waals, UNIFAC.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1936
1424 Entrepreneurial Intention and Social Entrepreneurship among Students in Malaysian Higher Education
Authors: Radin Siti Aishah Radin A Rahman, Norasmah Othman, Zaidatol Akmaliah Lope Pihie, Hariyaty Ab. Wahid
Abstract:The recent instability in economy was found to be influencing the situation in Malaysia whether directly or indirectly. Taking that into consideration, the government needs to find the best approach to balance its citizen’s socio-economic strata level urgently. Through education platform is among the efforts planned and acted upon for the purpose of balancing the effects of the influence, through the exposure of social entrepreneurial activity towards youth especially those in higher institution level. Armed with knowledge and skills that they gained, with the support by entrepreneurial culture and environment while in campus; indirectly, the students will lean more on making social entrepreneurship as a career option when they graduate. Following the issues of marketability and workability of current graduates that are becoming dire, research involving how far the willingness of student to create social innovation that contribute to the society without focusing solely on personal gain is relevant enough to be conducted. With that, this research is conducted with the purpose of identifying the level of entrepreneurial intention and social entrepreneurship among higher institution students in Malaysia. Stratified random sampling involves 355 undergraduate students from five public universities had been made as research respondents and data were collected through surveys. The data was then analyzed descriptively using min score and standard deviation. The study found that the entrepreneurial intention of higher education students are on moderate level, however it is the contrary for social entrepreneurship activities, where it was shown on a high level. This means that while the students only have moderate level of willingness to be a social entrepreneur, they are very committed to created social innovation through the social entrepreneurship activities conducted. The implication from this study can be contributed towards the higher institution authorities in prediction the tendency of student in becoming social entrepreneurs. Thus, the opportunities and facilities for realizing the courses related to social entrepreneurship must be created expansively so that the vision of creating as many social entrepreneurs as possible can be achieved.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial intention, higher education institutions (HEIs), social entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurial activity, gender.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3133
1423 Bioleaching of Spent Catalyst using Moderate Thermophiles with Different Pulp Densities and Varying Size Fractions without Fe Supplemented Growth Medium
Authors: Haragobinda Srichandan, Chandra Sekhar Gahan, Dong-Jin Kim, Seoung-Won Lee
Bioleaching of spent catalyst using moderate thermophilic chemolithotrophic acidophiles in growth medium without Fe source was investigated with two different pulp densities and three different size fractions. All the experiments were conducted on shake flasks at a temperature of 65 °C. The leaching yield of Ni and Al was found to be promising with very high leaching yield of 92-96% followed by Al as 41-76%, which means both Ni and Al leaching were favored by the moderate thermophilic bioleaching compared to the mesophilic bioleaching. The acid consumption was comparatively higher for the 10% pulp density experiments. Comparatively minimal difference in the leaching yield with different size fractions and different pulp densities show no requirement of grinding and using low pulp density less than 10%. This process would rather be economical as well as eco-friendly process for future optimization of the recovery of metal values from spent catalyst.
Keywords: Bioleaching, spent catalyst, leaching yield, thermophile.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2214
1422 The Effectiveness of Ultrasound Treatment on the Germination Stimulation of Barley Seed and its Alpha-Amylase Activity
Authors: M. Yaldagard, S.A. Mortazavi, F. Tabatabaie
Abstract:In the present study, the effects of ultrasound as emerging technology were investigated on germination stimulation, amount of alpha-amylase activity on dry barley seeds before steeping stage of malting process. All experiments were carried out at 20 KHz on the ultrasonic generator in 3 different ultrasonic intensities (20, 60 and 100% setting from total power of device) and time (5, 10 and 15 min) at constant temperature (30C). For determining the effects of these parameters on enzyme the Fuwa method assay based on the decreased staining value of blue starch–iodine complexes employed for measurement an activity. The results of these assays were analyzed by Qualitek4 software using the Taguchi statistical method to evaluate the factor-s effects on enzyme activity. It has been found that when malting barley is irradiated with an ultrasonic power, a stimulating effect occurs as to the enzyme activity.
Keywords: ultrasound, alpha-amylase activity, stimulationand Taguchi statistical method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4266