Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 32119
Can Physical Activity and Dietary Fat Intake Influence Body Mass Index in a Cross-sectional Correlational Design?
Abstract:The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of physical activity and dietary fat intake on Body Mass Index (BMI) of lecturers within a higher learning institutionalized setting. The study adopted a Cross-sectional Correlational Design and included 120 lecturers selected proportionately by simple random sampling techniques from a population of 600 lecturers. Data was collected using questionnaires, which had sections including physical activity checklist adopted from the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), 24-hour food recall, anthropometric measurements mainly weight and height. Analysis involved the use of bivariate correlations and linear regression. A significant inverse association was registered between BMI and duration (in minutes) spent doing moderate intense physical activity per day (r=-0.322, p<0.01). Physical activity also predicted BMI (r2=0.096, F=13.616, β=-3.22, t=-3.69, n=120, P<0.01). However, the association between Body Mass Index and dietary fat was not significant (r=0.038, p>0.05). Physical activity emerged as a more powerful determinant of BMI compared to dietary fat intake.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1070057Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1552
 Central Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Health, Kenya Medical Research Institute, National Council of Population Development and Centre for Disease Control Kenya Demographic Health Survey results. CBS, MOH, KMRI, NCPD, CDC, Nairobi, 2003
 M.L. Klem, R.R. Wing, M.T. Mc Guire, H.M. Seagle and J.O. A Hill "Descriptive study of individuals successful at long-term maintenance of substantial weight loss" American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol.66, pp.239-246, 1997.
 D.M.W. Salmon, and J.P. Flatt "Effect of dietary fat content on the incidence of obesity among ad libitum fed mice," International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 9, pp. 443-449, 1985.
 R. Schemmel, O. Mickelsen, and K. Motawi, "Conversion of dietary to body energy in rats as affected by strain, sex and ration," Journal of Nutrition, Vol.102, no.9, pp.1187-1197, 1972.
 W. Willett "Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity," Obesity Review, Vo 3, no.2, pp. 59-68, May 2002.
 C. T. Sempos, K. Liu, and N.D. Ernst, "Food and nutrient exposures: What to consider when evaluating epidemiologic evidence," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol.69, pp. 1330S-1338S, 1999.
 Creative Research Systems (2003). The survey system: Sample size calculator. Available: http://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm.
 L. Ibironke, (Fall 2002) "Scholarly Communication: The Use and Non- Use of E-Print Archives for the Dissemination of Scientific Information," Science and Technology Librarianship. Available: http://www.istl.org/02-fall/article3.html.
 R. Mugnaini, A.L. Packer and R. Meneghini, "Comparison of scientists of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences and of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA on the basis of the h-index," Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Vol. 41, No.4, 258-262, Feb. 2008.
 B.E. Ainsworth, W.L. Haskell, L. William, M.C. Whitt, M.L. Irwin, L. Melinda, et al. " Compendium of physical activity classification of energy cost of human physical activity," Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 25, no.1, pp. 71-80, 1993.
 Ainsworth, B.E., Haskell, WL., William, L., Whitt, M.C., Irwin, M.L., B.E. Ainsworth, W.L. Haskell, L. William, M.C. Whitt, M.L. Irwin, L. Melinda, et al. "Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities.," Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise," Vol. 32, no.9, pp.498-516, 2000.
 United States Department Health and Human Services Physical activity fundamental to preventing disease. Rockville, MD Inc. Washington, 2002.
 World Health Organization, "Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health," presented at African Regional Consultation Meeting Report Harare, Zimbabwe, 28-20 March, 2003.
 M.C. Latham, Human nutrition in tropical Africa: A textbook for health workers with special reference to community health problems in East Africa. New York; NY: Cornel University, 1979.
 N.O.R. K- Okul, Maternal and child health in Kenya: A study of poverty, disease and malnutrition in Samia. Published by The Finish Society for Development Studies in cooperation with The Scandinavian Institute of African studies, Nairobi, 1991.
 World Health Organization "Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic" WHO technical report series 894. WHO Geneva, 2000.
 O.D. Omondi, O.A.L. Othuon, and G.M. Mbagaya, "Physical activity patterns, dietary intake and health status among University of Nairobi lecturers," South African Journal for research in sport, physical education and recreation, Vol.29, no.2, pp. 87-98, Nov., 2007.
 S. Paeratakul, B.M. Popkin, G. Keyou, L.S. Adair, and J. Stevens "Changes in diet and physical activity affect the Body Mass Index of Chinese adults," International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 22, no.5, pp. 424-431, 1998.
 E.M. Berry, J. Hirsch, and J. Most, and J. Thorton "The role of dietary fat in human obesity" International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 10, pp.123- 131, 1986.
 J.P. Flatt, "The difference in the storage capacities for carbohydrate and for fat, and its implications in the regulation of body weight," Ann NY Academic Science, Vol. 499, pp. 104-123, 1987.
 L. Lissner, and B.L. Heitmann "Dietary fat and obesity: Evidence from epidemiology," European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 49, no.2, pp.79-90, 1995.
 L.E. Braitman, E.V. Adlin and J.L. Stanton "Obesity and caloric intake: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 1971-1975 (HANES I). Journal of Chronic Diseases, Vol. 38, pp.727-732, 1985.
 W.C. Willett, Nutritional epidemiology. Oxford University Press: New York, 1990.