The Relationships between Physical Activity Levels, Enjoyment of Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index among Bruneian Secondary School Adolescents
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between objectively measured physical activity levels (PALs), enjoyment of physical activity (EPA), and body mass index (BMI) among adolescents. A total of 188 12-14-year-old Bruneian secondary school adolescents (88 boys and 100 girls) voluntarily took part in this study. Subjects wore the RT3 accelerometer for seven consecutive days in order to measure their PALs. Times of students’ engagement in total (TPA), light (LPA), moderate (MPV), and vigorous PA (VPA) were obtained from the accelerometer. Their BMIs were calculated from their body height and weight. Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was administrated to obtain their EPA levels. Four key enjoyment factors including fun factors, positive perceptions, unexciting in doing activities, and negative perceptions were identified. Subjects’ social economic status (SES) was provided by school administration. Results show that all the adolescents did not meet the recommended PA guidelines even though boys were engaged in more MVPA than girls. No relationships were found between BMI and all PALs in both boys and girls. BMI was significantly related to the PACES scores (r = -.22, p = 0.01), fun factors (r = -.20, p = 0.05) and positive perceptions (r =- .21, p < 0.05). The PACES scores were significantly related to LPA (r = .18, p = 0.01) but not related to MVPA (r = .04, p > 0.05). After controlling for age and SES, BMI was only significantly related to the PACES scores in girls (r = -.27, p < .01) but boys (r = -.06, p > 0.05). Fun factors were significantly related to LPA and MVPA (p < .01) in girls while negative perceptions were significantly related to LPA and MVPA (p < .01) in boys. This study provides evidence that enjoyment may be a trigger of LPA but MVPA and may be influenced by their BMI status particularly in girls. Based on these findings, physical and health educators are suggested to not only make PA more enjoyable, but also consider gender differences in promoting adolescents' participation in MVPA
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1093360Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1937
 S. Han, "59% Bruneians Obese: WHO”. The Brunei Times (Oct. 4, 2007), sec. p.1 http://www.bt.com.bn/home_news/2007/10/04/ 59_Bruneians_obese_who
 Health Information Booklet 2012. Statistic Unit, Research and Development Section, Department of Policy and Planning. Ministry of Health, Brunei Darussalam, 2012. http://www.moh.gov.bn/ satisticshealthguidelines/download/HIB_2012.pdf
 M. Goran, D. Ball and M. L. Cruz, "Obesity and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 4, pp.1417-1427, 2003.
 J. A. Mitchell, R. R. Pate, V. España‐Romero, J. R. O'Neill, M. Dowda and P. R. Nader, "Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is associated with decreases in body mass index from ages 9 to 15 years. Obesity, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 280-286, 2013.
 World Health Organization, "Recommended levels of physical activity for children aged 5-17 years,” 2012. http://www.who.int/ dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_young_people/en/index/html
 R. W. Motl, R. K. Dishman, R. Saunders, M. Dowda, G. Felton and R. R. Pate, "Measuring enjoyment of physical activity in adolescent girls,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 21, no. 2, pp.110-117, 2001.
 T. K. Scanlan and J. P. Simons, "The construct of sport enjoyment,” In Horn T.S., (2002), Advances in Sport psychology, Champaign, Ill., Human Kinetics. 1992.
 T. L. Wallhead and J. Buckworth, "The role of physical education in the promotion of youth physical activity,” Quest, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 285-301, 2004.
 "Assessment of energy expenditure for physical activity using a triaxial accelerometer,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 23, no.1, pp. 21-27, 1994.
 C. E. Matthews and P. S. Freedson, "Field trial of a three-dimensional activity monitor: comparison with self report,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 27, no.7, p. 1071,1995.
 E. Y. Chu, A. M. McMANUS, and C. C. Yu, "Calibration of the RT3 accelerometer for ambulation and nonambulation in children,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol.39, no. 11,pp. 2085-2091. 2007.
 D. X. Sun, G. J. Schmidt and S. M. Teo-Koh, "Validation of the RT3 accelerometer for measuring physical activity of children in simulated free-living conditions,” Pediatric Exercise Science, vol.20, no. 2,. pp. 181-197, 2008.
 B. J. Joschtel and S. G. Trost, "Comparison of intensity-based cut-points for the RT3 accelerometer in youth,” Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, available online 2 November, 2013.pii: S1440-2440(13)00479-9.
 P. R. Crocker, M. Bouffard and M. E. Gessaroli, "Measuring enjoyment in youth sport settings: A confirmatory factor analysis of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale,” Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 1995.
 J. R. Ruiz, N. S. Rizzo, N. S. Rizzo, A. Hurtig-Wennlöf, F. B. Ortega, J., Wärnberg, M. Sjöström,".Relations of total physical activity and intensity to fitness and fatness in children: the European Heart Health Study,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 88 no. 2, pp. 299-303, 2006
 R. R. Pate, P. S. Freedson, J. F. Sallis., W. C. Taylor, J. Sirard, S. G. Trost and M. Dowda, "Compliance with physical activity guidelines: prevalence in a population of children and youth,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 303-308, 2002.
 C. J. Riddoch, L. B. Andersen, N. Wedderkopp, M. Harro, L. Klasson-Heggebo, L. Sardinha,... and U. L. F. Ekelund, "Physical activity levels and patterns of 9-and 15-yr-old European children,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 86-92, 2004.
 C.J. Riddoch, C. Mattocks, K. Deere, J. Saunders, J. Kirkby, K. Tilling, ... and A. R. Ness, "Objective measurement of levels and patterns of physical activity,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 963-969, 2004.
 A. V. Rowlands, R. G. Eston and D. K. Ingledew, "Relationship between activity levels, aerobic fitness, and body fat in 8-to 10-yr-old children,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 1428-1435, 1999.
 S. D. Vincent, R. P. Pangrazi, A. Raustorp, L. M. Tomson and T. F. Cuddihy, "Activity levels and body mass index of children in the United States, Sweden, and Australia,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1367-1373, 2003.
 T. Scheers, R. Philippaerts and J. Lefevre, "Objectively-determined intensity-and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to percent body fat,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 999-1006, 2013.
 H. I. Lanza, L. Echols and S. Graham, "Deviating from the norm: body mass index (BMI) differences and psychosocial adjustment among early adolescent girls,” Journal of pediatric psychology, vol. 38, no.4, pp. 376-386, 2013.
 Deforche, B. I., De Bourdeaudhuij, I. M., & Tanghe, A. P. (2006). Attitude toward physical activity in normal-weight, overweight and obese adolescents. Journal of adolescent health, 38(5), 560-568.
 S. Kamtsios and N. Digelidis, "Physical activity levels, exercise attitudes, self-perceptions and BMI type of 11 to 12-year-old children,” Journal of Child Health Care, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 232-240, 2008.
 F. Kreuser, K. Kromeyer-Hauschild, A. Gollhofer, U. Korsten-Reck, and K. Röttger, "Obese equals lazy?” Analysis of the association between weight status and physical activity in children,” Journal of Obesity, 2013.http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/437017
 D. G. Chapman and C. M. Salome, "Lifestyles of the fat and lazy,” Clinical & Experimental Allergy, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 2-4, 2013.