Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 779

Search results for: mini channel

779 Thermal Analysis on Heat Transfer Enhancement and Fluid Flow for Al2O3 Water-Ethylene Glycol Nanofluid in Single PEMFC Mini Channel

Authors: Irnie Zakaria, W. A. N. W Mohamed, W. H. Azmi

Abstract:

Thermal enhancement of a single mini channel in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cooling plate is numerically investigated. In this study, low concentration of Al2O3 in Water - Ethylene Glycol mixtures is used as coolant in single channel of carbon graphite plate to mimic the mini channels in PEMFC cooling plate. A steady and incompressible flow with constant heat flux is assumed in the channel of 1mm x 5mm x 100mm. Nano particle of Al2O3 used ranges from 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 vol % concentration and then dispersed in 60:40 (water: Ethylene Glycol) mixture. The effect of different flow rates to fluid flow and heat transfer enhancement in Re number range of 20 to 140 was observed. The result showed that heat transfer coefficient was improved by 18.11%, 9.86% and 5.37% for 0.5, 0.3 and 0.1 vol. % Al2O3 in 60:40 (water: EG) as compared to base fluid of 60:40 (water: EG). It is also showed that the higher vol. % concentration of Al2O3 performed better in term of thermal enhancement but at the expense of higher pumping power required due to increase in pressure drop experienced. Maximum additional pumping power of 0.0012W was required for 0.5 vol % Al2O3 in 60:40 (water: EG) at Re number 140.

Keywords: Heat transfer, mini channel, nanofluid, PEMFC.

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778 Numerical Analysis of Roughness Effect on Mini and Microchannels: Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer

Authors: El-Ghalia Filali, Cherif Gadouche, Mohamed Tahar

Abstract:

A three-dimensional numerical simulation of flow through mini and microchannels with designed roughness is conducted here. The effect of the roughness height (surface roughness), geometry, Reynolds number on the friction factor, and Nusselt number is investigated. The study is carried out by employing CFD software, CFX. Our work focuses on a water flow inside a circular mini-channel of 1 mm and microchannels of 500 and 100 m in diameter. The speed entry varies from 0.1 m/s to 20 m/s. The general trend can be observed that bigger sizes of roughness element lead to higher flow resistance. It is found that the friction factor increases in a nonlinear fashion with the increase in obstruction height. Particularly, the effect of roughness can no longer be ignored at relative roughness height higher than 3%. A significant increase in Poiseuille number is detected for all configurations considered. The same observation can be done for Nusselt number. The transition zone between laminar and turbulent flow depends on the channel diameter.

Keywords: Heat transfer, hydrodynamics, micro-channel, roughness.

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777 Experimental Study on Gas-Viscous Liquid Mixture Flow Regimes and Transitions Criteria in Vertical Narrow Rectangular Channels

Authors: F. J. Sowiński, M. Dziubiński

Abstract:

In the study the influence of the physical-chemical properties of a liquid, the width of a channel gap and the superficial liquid and gas velocities on the patterns formed during two phase flows in vertical, narrow mini-channels was investigated. The research was performed in the channels of rectangular cross-section and of dimensions: 15 x 0.65 mm and 7.5 x 0.73 mm. The experimental data were compared with the published criteria of the transitions between the patterns of two-phase flows.

Keywords: Two-phase flow, flow regimes, mini-channel, viscosity.

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776 Design and Analysis of a New Mini-Bike Prototype Using Fabrication Techniques

Authors: S. A Puviyarasu, V. S. Ukkeshwar

Abstract:

Elicitation of creative conceptual designing and fabrication of mini bikes is the primary aim of this study. Miniature bikes or pit bikes or simply mini bikes are found to be the recently prevalent trendsetters amongst the younger population around the globe, be it for commuting and sports. This study also focuses on the steps to be put forth in building a self-designed mini bike concept and showcases similar instances.

Keywords: Miniature bikes, design methods, creative styling.

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775 Study on Wireless Transmission for Reconnaissance UAV with Wireless Sensor Network and Cylindrical Array of Microstrip Antennas

Authors: Chien-Chun Hung, Chun-Fong Wu

Abstract:

It is important for a commander to have real-time information to aware situations and to make decision in the battlefield. Results of modern technique developments have brought in this kind of information for military purposes. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is one of the means to gather intelligence owing to its widespread applications. It is still not clear whether or not the mini UAV with short-range wireless transmission system is used as a reconnaissance system in Taiwanese. In this paper, previous experience on the research of the sort of aerial vehicles has been applied with a data-relay system using the ZigBee modulus. The mini UAV developed is expected to be able to collect certain data in some appropriate theaters. The omni-directional antenna with high gain is also integrated into mini UAV to fit the size-reducing trend of airborne sensors. Two advantages are so far obvious. First, mini UAV can fly higher than usual to avoid being attacked from ground fires. Second, the data will be almost gathered during all maneuvering attitudes.

Keywords: Mini UAV, reconnaissance, wireless transmission, ZigBee modulus.

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774 BER Performance of UWB Modulations through S-V Channel Model

Authors: Risanuri Hidayat

Abstract:

BER analysis of Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IRUWB) pulse modulations over S-V channel model is proposed in this paper. The UWB pulse is Gaussian monocycle pulse modulated using Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) and Pulse Position Modulation (PPM). The channel model is generated from a modified S-V model. Bit-error rate (BER) is measured over several of bit rates. The result shows that all modulation are appropriate for both LOS and NLOS channel, but PAM gives better performance in bit rates and SNR. Moreover, as standard of speed has been given for UWB, the communication is appropriate with high bit rates in LOS channel.

Keywords: IR-UWB, S-V Channel Model, LOS NLOS, PAM, PPM

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773 Development of Low-Profile Antenna for Mini UAV with Reconnaissance Mission

Authors: Chien-Chun Hung, Yao-Jen Teng, Yung-Sheng Tien, Yu-Tsung Tsai

Abstract:

Microstrip antennas are conformable to planar and nonplanar surfaces, simple and inexpensive to fabricate using modern printed-circuit technology. Circular polarization of low-profile microstrip patch with high bandwidth is achieved in this research through the use of a three-cross-arms branch-line coupler with sequential rotated arrays, another low-profile antenna of hollow cylinder is also proposed and the function of reconnaissance with microstrip antenna on Mini UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) are evaluated in practical flight test.

Keywords: low-profile antenna, Mini UAV, reconnaissance

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772 Analysis of Joint Source Channel LDPC Coding for Correlated Sources Transmission over Noisy Channels

Authors: Marwa Ben Abdessalem, Amin Zribi, Ammar Bouallègue

Abstract:

In this paper, a Joint Source Channel coding scheme based on LDPC codes is investigated. We consider two concatenated LDPC codes, one allows to compress a correlated source and the second to protect it against channel degradations. The original information can be reconstructed at the receiver by a joint decoder, where the source decoder and the channel decoder run in parallel by transferring extrinsic information. We investigate the performance of the JSC LDPC code in terms of Bit-Error Rate (BER) in the case of transmission over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, and for different source and channel rate parameters. We emphasize how JSC LDPC presents a performance tradeoff depending on the channel state and on the source correlation. We show that, the JSC LDPC is an efficient solution for a relatively low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) channel, especially with highly correlated sources. Finally, a source-channel rate optimization has to be applied to guarantee the best JSC LDPC system performance for a given channel.

Keywords: AWGN channel, belief propagation, joint source channel coding, LDPC codes.

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771 A Finite Volume Procedure on Unstructured Meshes for Fluid-Structure Interaction Problems

Authors: P I Jagad, B P Puranik, A W Date

Abstract:

Flow through micro and mini channels requires relatively high driving pressure due to the large fluid pressure drop through these channels. Consequently the forces acting on the walls of the channel due to the fluid pressure are also large. Due to these forces there are displacement fields set up in the solid substrate containing the channels. If the movement of the substrate is constrained at some points, then stress fields are established in the substrate. On the other hand, if the deformation of the channel shape is sufficiently large then its effect on the fluid flow is important to be calculated. Such coupled fluid-solid systems form a class of problems known as fluidstructure interactions. In the present work a co-located finite volume discretization procedure on unstructured meshes is described for solving fluid-structure interaction type of problems. A linear elastic solid is assumed for which the effect of the channel deformation on the flow is neglected. Thus the governing equations for the fluid and the solid are decoupled and are solved separately. The procedure is validated by solving two benchmark problems, one from fluid mechanics and another from solid mechanics. A fluid-structure interaction problem of flow through a U-shaped channel embedded in a plate is solved.

Keywords: Finite volume method, flow induced stresses, fluidstructureinteraction, unstructured meshes.

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770 Numerical Simulation of Effect of Various Rib Configurations on Enhancing Heat Transfer of Matrix Cooling Channel

Authors: Seok Min Choi, Minho Bang, Seuong Yun Kim, Hyungmin Lee, Won-Gu Joo, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

The matrix cooling channel was used for gas turbine blade cooling passage. The matrix cooling structure is useful for the structure stability however the cooling performance of internal cooling channel was not enough for cooling. Therefore, we designed the rib configurations in the matrix cooling channel to enhance the cooling performance. The numerical simulation was conducted to analyze cooling performance of rib configured matrix cooling channel. Three different rib configurations were used which are vertical rib, angled rib and c-type rib. Three configurations were adopted in two positions of matrix cooling channel which is one fourth and three fourth of channel. The result shows that downstream rib has much higher cooling performance than upstream rib. Furthermore, the angled rib in the channel has much higher cooling performance than vertical rib. This is because; the angled rib improves the swirl effect of matrix cooling channel more effectively. The friction factor was increased with the installation of rib. However, the thermal performance was increased with the installation of rib in the matrix cooling channel.

Keywords: Matrix cooling, rib, heat transfer, gas turbine.

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769 Bit Error Rate Analysis of Mobile Communication Network in Nakagami Fading Channel: Interference Considerations

Authors: Manoranjan Das, Benudhar Sahu, Urmila Bhanja

Abstract:

Co-channel interference is one of the major problems in wireless systems. The effects of co-channel interference in a Nakagami fading channel on the ABER (Average Bit Error Rate) with static nodes are well analyzed. In this paper, we derive the ABER with the presence of mobile nodes. ABER is also derived for mobile systems in the presence of co-channel interference.

Keywords: ABER, co-channel interference, Nakagami fading.

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768 Adaptive Transmission Scheme Based on Channel State in Dual-Hop System

Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Yong-Jun Kim, Jung-In Baik, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In this paper, a dual-hop relay based on channel state is studied. In the conventional relay scheme, a relay uses the same modulation method without reference to channel state. But, a relay uses an adaptive modulation method with reference to channel state. If the channel state is poor, a relay eliminates latter 2 bits and uses Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation. If channel state is good, a relay modulates the received symbols with 16-QAM symbols by using 4 bits. The performance of the proposed scheme for Symbol Error Rate (SER) and throughput is analyzed.

Keywords: Adaptive transmission, channel state, dual-hop, hierarchical modulation, relay.

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767 Robust Image Transmission Over Time-varying Channels using Hierarchical Joint Source Channel Coding

Authors: Hatem. Elmeddeb, Noureddine, Hamdi, Ammar. Bouallègue

Abstract:

In this paper, a joint source-channel coding (JSCC) scheme for time-varying channels is presented. The proposed scheme uses hierarchical framework for both source encoder and transmission via QAM modulation. Hierarchical joint source channel codes with hierarchical QAM constellations are designed to track the channel variations which yields to a higher throughput by adapting certain parameters of the receiver to the channel variation. We consider the problem of still image transmission over time-varying channels with channel state information (CSI) available at 1) receiver only and 2) both transmitter and receiver being informed about the state of the channel. We describe an algorithm that optimizes hierarchical source codebooks by minimizing the distortion due to source quantizer and channel impairments. Simulation results, based on image representation, show that, the proposed hierarchical system outperforms the conventional schemes based on a single-modulator and channel optimized source coding.

Keywords: Channel-optimized VQ (COVQ), joint optimization, QAM, hierarchical systems.

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766 Formation of Round Channel for Microfluidic Applications

Authors: A. Zahra, G. de Cesare, D. Caputo, A. Nascetti

Abstract:

PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) polymer is a suitable material for biological and MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) designers, because of its biocompatibility, transparency and high resistance under plasma treatment. PDMS round channel is always been of great interest due to its ability to confine the liquid with membrane type micro valves. In this paper we are presenting a very simple way to form round shapemicrofluidic channel, which is based on reflow of positive photoresist AZ® 40 XT. With this method, it is possible to obtain channel of different height simply by varying the spin coating parameters of photoresist.

Keywords: Lab-on-Chip, PDMS, Reflow, Round microfluidic channel.

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765 Parallel Joint Channel Coding and Cryptography

Authors: Nataša Živić, Christoph Ruland

Abstract:

Method of Parallel Joint Channel Coding and Cryptography has been analyzed and simulated in this paper. The method is an extension of Soft Input Decryption with feedback, which is used for improvement of channel decoding of secured messages. Parallel Joint Channel Coding and Cryptography results in improved coding gain of channel decoding, which achieves more than 2 dB. Such results are an implication of a combination of receiver components and their interoperability.

Keywords: Block length, Coding gain, Feedback, L-values, Parallel Joint Channel Coding and Cryptography, Soft Input Decryption.

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764 Well-Being of Lagos Urban Mini-Bus Drivers: The Influence of Age and Marital Status

Authors: Bolajoko I. Malomo, Maryam O. Yusuf

Abstract:

Lagos urban mini bus drivers play a critical role in the transportation sector. The current major mode of transportation within Lagos metropolis remains road transportation and this confirms the relevance of urban mini-bus drivers in transporting the populace to their various destinations. Other modes of transportation such as the train and waterways are currently inadequate. Various threats to the well-being of urban bus drivers include congested traffic typical of modern day lifestyles, dwindling financial returns due to long hours in traffic, fewer hours of sleep, inadequate diet, time pressure, and assaults related to fare disputes. Several healthrelated problems have been documented to be associated with urban bus driving. For instance, greater rates of hypertension, obesity and cholesterol level have been reported. Research studies are yet to identify the influence of age and marital status on the well-being of urban mini-bus drivers in Lagos metropolis. A study of this nature is necessary as it is culturally perceived in Nigeria that older and married people are especially influenced by family affiliation and would behave in ways that would project positive outcomes. The study sample consisted of 150 urban mini-bus drivers who were conveniently sampled from six (6) different terminuses where their journey begins and terminates. The well-being questionnaire was administered to participants. The criteria for inclusion in the study included the ability to read in English language and the confirmation that interested participants were on duty and suited to be driving mini-buses. Due to the nature of the job of bus driving, the researcher administered the questionnaires on participants who were free and willing to respond to the survey. All participants were males of various age groups and of different marital statuses. Results of analyses conducted revealed no significant influence of age and marital status on the well-being of urban mini-bus drivers. This indicates that the well-being of urban mini bus drivers is not influenced by age or marital status. The findings of this study have cultural implications. It negates the popularly held belief that older and married people care more about their well-being than younger and single people. It brings to fore the need to also identify and consider other factors when certifying people for the job of urban bus driving.

Keywords: Age, Lagos metropolis, marital status, well-being of urban mini bus drivers.

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763 CFD simulation of Pressure Drops in Liquid Acquisition Device Channel with Sub-Cooled Oxygen

Authors: David J. Chato, John B. McQuillen, Brian J.Motil, David F. Chao, Nengli Zhang

Abstract:

In order to better understand the performance of screen channel liquid acquisition devices (LADs) in liquid oxygen (LOX), a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of LOX passing through a LAD screen channel was conducted. In the simulation, the screen is taken as a 'porous jump' where the pressure drop across the screen depends on the incoming velocity and is formulated by Δp = Av + Bv2 . The CFD simulation reveals the importance of the pressure losses due to the flow entering from across the screen and impacting and merging with the channel flow and the vortices in the channel to the cumulative flow resistance. In fact, both the flow resistance of flows impact and mergence and the resistance created by vortices are much larger than the friction and dynamic pressure losses in the channel and are comparable to the flow resistance across the screen. Therefore, these resistances in the channel must be considered as part of the evaluation for the LAD channel performance. For proper operation of a LAD in LOX these resistances must be less than the bubble point pressure for the screen channel in LOX. The simulation also presents the pressure and velocity distributions within the LAD screen channel, expanding the understanding of the fluid flow characteristics within the channel.

Keywords: Liquid acquisition devices, liquid oxygen, pressure drop, vortex, bubble point, flow rate limitation.

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762 Study of Adaptive Filtering Algorithms and the Equalization of Radio Mobile Channel

Authors: Said Elkassimi, Said Safi, B. Manaut

Abstract:

This paper presented a study of three algorithms, the equalization algorithm to equalize the transmission channel with ZF and MMSE criteria, application of channel Bran A, and adaptive filtering algorithms LMS and RLS to estimate the parameters of the equalizer filter, i.e. move to the channel estimation and therefore reflect the temporal variations of the channel, and reduce the error in the transmitted signal. So far the performance of the algorithm equalizer with ZF and MMSE criteria both in the case without noise, a comparison of performance of the LMS and RLS algorithm.

Keywords: Adaptive filtering second equalizer, LMS, RLS Bran A, Proakis (B) MMSE, ZF.

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761 A Fast Adaptive Tomlinson-Harashima Precoder for Indoor Wireless Communications

Authors: M. Naresh Kumar, Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil

Abstract:

A fast adaptive Tomlinson Harashima (T-H) precoder structure is presented for indoor wireless communications, where the channel may vary due to rotation and small movement of the mobile terminal. A frequency-selective slow fading channel which is time-invariant over a frame is assumed. In this adaptive T-H precoder, feedback coefficients are updated at the end of every uplink frame by using system identification technique for channel estimation in contrary with the conventional T-H precoding concept where the channel is estimated during the starting of the uplink frame via Wiener solution. In conventional T-H precoder it is assumed the channel is time-invariant in both uplink and downlink frames. However assuming the channel is time-invariant over only one frame instead of two, the proposed adaptive T-H precoder yields better performance than conventional T-H precoder if the channel is varied in uplink after receiving the training sequence.

Keywords: Tomlinson-Harashima precoder, Adaptive channel estimation, Indoor wireless communication, Bit error rate.

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760 Influence of Channel Depth on the Performance of Wavy Fin Absorber Solar Air Heater

Authors: Abhishek Priyam, Prabha Chand

Abstract:

Channel depth is an important design parameter to be fixed in designing a solar air heater. In this paper, a mathematical model has been developed to study the influence of channel duct on the thermal performance of solar air heaters. The channel depth has been varied from 1.5 cm to 3.5 cm for the mass flow range 0.01 to 0.11 kg/s. Based on first law of thermodynamics, the channel depth of 1.5 cm shows better thermal performance for all the mass flow range. Also, better thermohydraulic performance has been found up to 0.05 kg/s, and beyond this, thermohydraulic efficiency starts decreasing. It has been seen that, with the increase in the mass flow rate, the difference between thermal and thermohydraulic efficiency increases because of the increase in pressure drop. At lower mass flow rate, 0.01 kg/s, the thermal and thermohydraulic efficiencies for respective channel depth remain the same.

Keywords: Channel depth, thermal efficiency, wavy fin, thermohydraulic efficiency.

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759 A Novel Pilot Scheme for Frequency Offset and Channel Estimation in 2x2 MIMO-OFDM

Authors: N. Promsuwanna, P. Uthansakul, M. Uthansakul

Abstract:

The Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) due to timevarying fading channel is the main cause of the loss of orthogonality among OFDM subcarriers which is linked to inter-carrier interference (ICI). Hence, it is necessary to precisely estimate and compensate the CFO. Especially for mobile broadband communications, CFO and channel gain also have to be estimated and tracked to maintain the system performance. Thus, synchronization pilots are embedded in every OFDM symbol to track the variations. In this paper, we present the pilot scheme for both channel and CFO estimation where channel estimation process can be carried out with only one OFDM symbol. Additional, the proposed pilot scheme also provides better performance in CFO estimation comparing with the conventional orthogonal pilot scheme due to the increasing of signal-tointerference ratio.

Keywords: MIMO, OFDM, carrier frequency offset, channel, estimation.

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758 Brand Position Communication Channel for Rajabhat University

Authors: Narong Anurak

Abstract:

The objective of this research was to study Brand Position Communication Channel in Brand Building in Rajabhat University Affecting Decision Making of Higher Education from of qualitative research and in-depth interview with executive members Rajabhat University and also quantitative by questionnaires which are personal data of students, study of the acceptance and the finding of the information of Rajabhat University, study of pattern or Brand Position Communication Channel affecting the decision making of studying in Rajabhat University and the result of the communication in Brand Position Communication Channel. It is found that online channel and word of mount are highly important and necessary for education business since media channel is a tool and the management of marketing communication to create brand awareness, brand credibility and to achieve the high acclaim in terms of bringing out qualified graduates. Also, off-line channel can enable the institution to survive from the high competition especially in education business regarding management of the Rajabhat University. Therefore, Rajabhat University has to communicate by the various communication channel strategies for brand building for attractive student to make decision making of higher education.

Keywords: Brand Position, Communication Channel, Rajabhat University.

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757 A Degraded Practical MIMOME Channel: Issues Insecret Data Communications

Authors: Mohammad Rakibul Islam

Abstract:

In this paper, a Gaussian multiple input multiple output multiple eavesdropper (MIMOME) channel is considered where a transmitter communicates to a receiver in the presence of an eavesdropper. We present a technique for determining the secrecy capacity of the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel under Gaussian noise. We transform the degraded MIMOME channel into multiple single input multiple output (SIMO) Gaussian wire-tap channels and then use scalar approach to convert it into two equivalent multiple input single output (MISO) channels. The secrecy capacity model is then developed for the condition where the channel state information (CSI) for main channel only is known to the transmitter. The results show that the secret communication is possible when the eavesdropper channel noise is greater than a cutoff noise level. The outage probability is also analyzed of secrecy capacity is also analyzed. The effect of fading and outage probability is also analyzed.

Keywords: Secrecy capacity, MIMO, wiretap channel, covariance matrix, fading.

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756 Software-Defined Radio Based Channel Measurement System of Wideband HF Communication System in Low-Latitude Region

Authors: P. H. Mukti, I. Kurniawati, F. Oktaviansyah, A. D. Adhitya, N. Rachmadani, R. Corputty, G. Hendrantoro, T. Fukusako

Abstract:

HF Communication system is one of the attractive fields among many researchers since it can be reached long-distance areas with low-cost. This long-distance communication can be achieved by exploiting the ionosphere as a transmission medium for the HF radio wave. However, due to the dynamic nature of ionosphere, the channel characteristic of HF communication has to be investigated in order to gives better performances. Many techniques to characterize HF channel are available in the literature. However, none of those techniques describe the HF channel characteristic in low-latitude regions, especially equatorial areas. Since the ionosphere around equatorial region has an ESF phenomenon, it becomes an important investigation to characterize the wideband HF Channel in low-latitude region. On the other sides, the appearance of software-defined radio attracts the interest of many researchers. Accordingly, in this paper a SDR-based channel measurement system is proposed to be used for characterizing the HF channel in low-latitude region.

Keywords: Channel Characteristic, HF Communication System, LabVIEW, Software-Defined Radio, Universal Software Radio Pheripheral.

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755 Flight Control of a Trirotor Mini-UAV for Enhanced Situational Awareness

Authors: Igor Astrov, Andrus Pedai

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a critical component of the situational awareness (SA), the control of autonomous vertical flight for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Autonomous vertical flight is a challenging but important task for tactical UAVs to achieve high level of autonomy under adverse conditions. With the SA strategy, we proposed a two stage flight control procedure using two autonomous control subsystems to address the dynamics variation and performance requirement difference in initial and final stages of flight trajectory for a nontrivial nonlinear trirotor mini-UAV model. This control strategy for chosen mini-UAV model has been verified by simulation of hovering maneuvers using software package Simulink and demonstrated good performance for fast SA in realtime search-and-rescue operations.

Keywords: Flight control, trirotor aircraft, situational awareness, unmanned aerial vehicle.

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754 IMM based Kalman Filter for Channel Estimation in MB OFDM Systems

Authors: C.Ramesh, V.Vaidehi

Abstract:

Ultra-wide band (UWB) communication is one of the most promising technologies for high data rate wireless networks for short range applications. This paper proposes a blind channel estimation method namely IMM (Interactive Multiple Model) Based Kalman algorithm for UWB OFDM systems. IMM based Kalman filter is proposed to estimate frequency selective time varying channel. In the proposed method, two Kalman filters are concurrently estimate the channel parameters. The first Kalman filter namely Static Model Filter (SMF) gives accurate result when the user is static while the second Kalman filter namely the Dynamic Model Filter (DMF) gives accurate result when the receiver is in moving state. The static transition matrix in SMF is assumed as an Identity matrix where as in DMF, it is computed using Yule-Walker equations. The resultant filter estimate is computed as a weighted sum of individual filter estimates. The proposed method is compared with other existing channel estimation methods.

Keywords: Channel estimation, Kalman filter, UWB, Channel model, AR model

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753 Channel Length Modulation Effect on Monolayer Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor

Authors: Mehdi Saeidmanesh, Razali Ismail

Abstract:

Recently, Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors (GNR FETs) attract a great deal of attention due to their better performance in comparison with conventional devices. In this paper, channel length Modulation (CLM) effect on the electrical characteristics of GNR FETs is analytically studied and modeled. To this end, the special distribution of the electric potential along the channel and current-voltage characteristic of the device is modeled. The obtained results of analytical model are compared to the experimental data of published works. As a result, it is observable that considering the effect of CLM, the current-voltage response of GNR FET is more realistic.

Keywords: Graphene nanoribbon, field effect transistors, short channel effects, channel length modulation.

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752 MIMO-OFDM Channel Tracking Using a Dynamic ANN Topology

Authors: Manasjyoti Bhuyan, Kandarpa Kumar Sarma

Abstract:

All the available algorithms for blind estimation namely constant modulus algorithm (CMA), Decision-Directed Algorithm (DDA/DFE) suffer from the problem of convergence to local minima. Also, if the channel drifts considerably, any DDA looses track of the channel. So, their usage is limited in varying channel conditions. The primary limitation in such cases is the requirement of certain overhead bits in the transmit framework which leads to wasteful use of the bandwidth. Also such arrangements fail to use channel state information (CSI) which is an important aid in improving the quality of reception. In this work, the main objective is to reduce the overhead imposed by the pilot symbols, which in effect reduces the system throughput. Also we formulate an arrangement based on certain dynamic Artificial Neural Network (ANN) topologies which not only contributes towards the lowering of the overhead but also facilitates the use of the CSI. A 2×2 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system is simulated and the performance variation with different channel estimation schemes are evaluated. A new semi blind approach based on dynamic ANN is proposed for channel tracking in varying channel conditions and the performance is compared with perfectly known CSI and least square (LS) based estimation.

Keywords: MIMO, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), CMA, LS, CSI.

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751 Low-Complexity Channel Estimation Algorithm for MIMO-OFDM Systems

Authors: Ali Beydoun, Hamzé H. Alaeddine

Abstract:

One of the main challenges in MIMO-OFDM system to achieve the expected performances in terms of data rate and robustness against multi-path fading channels is the channel estimation. Several methods were proposed in the literature based on either least square (LS) or minimum mean squared error (MMSE) estimators. These methods present high implementation complexity as they require the inversion of large matrices. In order to overcome this problem and to reduce the complexity, this paper presents a solution that benefits from the use of the STBC encoder and transforms the channel estimation process into a set of simple linear operations. The proposed method is evaluated via simulation in AWGN-Rayleigh fading channel. Simulation results show a maximum reduction of 6.85% of the bit error rate (BER) compared to the one obtained with the ideal case where the receiver has a perfect knowledge of the channel.

Keywords: Channel estimation, MIMO, OFDM, STBC, CAZAC sequence.

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750 Text-independent Speaker Identification Based on MAP Channel Compensation and Pitch-dependent Features

Authors: Jiqing Han, Rongchun Gao

Abstract:

One major source of performance decline in speaker recognition system is channel mismatch between training and testing. This paper focuses on improving channel robustness of speaker recognition system in two aspects of channel compensation technique and channel robust features. The system is text-independent speaker identification system based on two-stage recognition. In the aspect of channel compensation technique, this paper applies MAP (Maximum A Posterior Probability) channel compensation technique, which was used in speech recognition, to speaker recognition system. In the aspect of channel robust features, this paper introduces pitch-dependent features and pitch-dependent speaker model for the second stage recognition. Based on the first stage recognition to testing speech using GMM (Gaussian Mixture Model), the system uses GMM scores to decide if it needs to be recognized again. If it needs to, the system selects a few speakers from all of the speakers who participate in the first stage recognition for the second stage recognition. For each selected speaker, the system obtains 3 pitch-dependent results from his pitch-dependent speaker model, and then uses ANN (Artificial Neural Network) to unite the 3 pitch-dependent results and 1 GMM score for getting a fused result. The system makes the second stage recognition based on these fused results. The experiments show that the correct rate of two-stage recognition system based on MAP channel compensation technique and pitch-dependent features is 41.7% better than the baseline system for closed-set test.

Keywords: Channel Compensation, Channel Robustness, MAP, Speaker Identification

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