**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**791

# Search results for: limit equilibrium.

##### 791 Static Analysis and Pseudostatic Slope Stability

**Authors:**
Meftah Ali

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Slope stability,
pseudo static,
safety factor,
limit
equilibrium.

##### 790 Transmission Model for Plasmodium Vivax Malaria: Conditions for Bifurcation

**Authors:**
P. Pongsumpun,
I.M. Tang

**Abstract:**

Plasmodium vivax malaria differs from P. falciparum malaria in that a person suffering from P. vivax infection can suffer relapses of the disease. This is due the parasite being able to remain dormant in the liver of the patients where it is able to re-infect the patient after a passage of time. During this stage, the patient is classified as being in the dormant class. The model to describe the transmission of P. vivax malaria consists of a human population divided into four classes, the susceptible, the infected, the dormant and the recovered. The effect of a time delay on the transmission of this disease is studied. The time delay is the period in which the P. vivax parasite develops inside the mosquito (vector) before the vector becomes infectious (i.e., pass on the infection). We analyze our model by using standard dynamic modeling method. Two stable equilibrium states, a disease free state E0 and an endemic state E1, are found to be possible. It is found that the E0 state is stable when a newly defined basic reproduction number G is less than one. If G is greater than one the endemic state E1 is stable. The conditions for the endemic equilibrium state E1 to be a stable spiral node are established. For realistic values of the parameters in the model, it is found that solutions in phase space are trajectories spiraling into the endemic state. It is shown that the limit cycle and chaotic behaviors can only be achieved with unrealistic parameter values.

**Keywords:**
Equilibrium states,
Hopf bifurcation,
limit cyclebehavior,
local stability,
Plasmodium Vivax,
time delay.

##### 789 Power Reference Control of Wind Farms Based On the Operational Limit

**Authors:**
Dae-Hee Son,
Seung-Hwa Kang,
Sang-Hee Kang,
Soon-Ryul Nam

**Abstract:**

Wind farms usually produce power irregularly, due to unpredictable change of wind speed. Accordingly, we should determine the penetration limit of wind power to consider stability of power system and build a facility to control the wind power. The operational limit of wind power is determined as the minimum between the technical limit and the dynamic limit of wind power. The technical limit is calculated by the number of generators and the dynamic limit is calculated by the constraint of frequency variation when a wind farm is disconnected suddenly. According to the determined operational limit of wind power, pitch angles of wind generators are controlled. PSS/E simulation results show that the pitch angles were correctly controlled when wind speeds are changed in addition to loads.

**Keywords:**
Pitch Angle,
Dynamic limit,
Operational limit,
Technical limit.

##### 788 Analysis of Model in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Dengue Patients

**Authors:**
R. Kongnuy,
P. Pongsumpun

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Basic reproductive number,
dengue disease,
equilibrium states,
pregnancy.

##### 787 Multi-Stakeholder Road Pricing Game: Solution Concepts

**Authors:**
Anthony E. Ohazulike,
Georg Still,
Walter Kern,
Eric C. van Berkum

**Abstract:**

A road pricing game is a game where various stakeholders and/or regions with different (and usually conflicting) objectives compete for toll setting in a given transportation network to satisfy their individual objectives. We investigate some classical game theoretical solution concepts for the road pricing game. We establish results for the road pricing game so that stakeholders and/or regions playing such a game will beforehand know what is obtainable. This will save time and argument, and above all, get rid of the feelings of unfairness among the competing actors and road users. Among the classical solution concepts we investigate is Nash equilibrium. In particular, we show that no pure Nash equilibrium exists among the actors, and further illustrate that even “mixed Nash equilibrium" may not be achievable in the road pricing game. The paper also demonstrates the type of coalitions that are not only reachable, but also stable and profitable for the actors involved.

**Keywords:**
Road pricing game,
Equilibrium problem with equilibrium constraint (EPEC),
Nash equilibrium,
Game stability.

##### 786 The Optimal Equilibrium Capacity of Information Hiding Based on Game Theory

**Authors:**
Ziquan Hu,
Kun She,
Shahzad Ali,
Kai Yan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
2-Phase Game,
Expected Equilibrium damage,
InformationHiding,
Optimal Equilibrium Capacity.

##### 785 Pure Scalar Equilibria for Normal-Form Games

**Authors:**
H. W. Corley

**Abstract:**

A scalar equilibrium (SE) is an alternative type of equilibrium in pure strategies for an n-person normal-form game G. It is defined using optimization techniques to obtain a pure strategy for each player of G by maximizing an appropriate utility function over the acceptable joint actions. The players’ actions are determined by the choice of the utility function. Such a utility function could be agreed upon by the players or chosen by an arbitrator. An SE is an equilibrium since no players of G can increase the value of this utility function by changing their strategies. SEs are formally defined, and examples are given. In a greedy SE, the goal is to assign actions to the players giving them the largest individual payoffs jointly possible. In a weighted SE, each player is assigned weights modeling the degree to which he helps every player, including himself, achieve as large a payoff as jointly possible. In a compromise SE, each player wants a fair payoff for a reasonable interpretation of fairness. In a parity SE, the players want their payoffs to be as nearly equal as jointly possible. Finally, a satisficing SE achieves a personal target payoff value for each player. The vector payoffs associated with each of these SEs are shown to be Pareto optimal among all such acceptable vectors, as well as computationally tractable.

**Keywords:**
Compromise equilibrium,
greedy equilibrium,
normal-form game,
parity equilibrium,
pure strategies,
satisficing equilibrium,
scalar equilibria,
utility function,
weighted equilibrium.

##### 784 Assessment of Slope Stability by Continuum and Discontinuum Methods

**Authors:**
Taleb Hosni Abderrahmane,
Berga Abdelmadjid

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Comparison,
factor of safety,
geomechanics,
numerical methods,
slope analysis,
slip surfaces.

##### 783 Constructive Proof of the Existence of an Equilibrium in a Competitive Economy with Sequentially Locally Non-Constant Excess Demand Functions

**Authors:**
Yasuhito Tanaka

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Sequentially locally non-constant excess demand functions,
Equilibrium in a competitive economy,
Constructive mathematics

##### 782 Calibration of the Radical Installation Limit Error of the Accelerometer in the Gravity Gradient Instrument

**Authors:**
Danni Cong,
Meiping Wu,
Xiaofeng He,
Junxiang Lian,
Juliang Cao,
Shaokuncai,
Hao Qin

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Gravity gradient sensor,
radial installation limit error,
accelerometer,
uniaxial rotational modulation.

##### 781 A Comparative Study on Different Approaches to Evaluate Ship Equilibrium Point

**Authors:**
Alessandro A. Zizzari,
Francesca Calabrese,
Giovanni Indiveri,
Andrea Coraddu,
Diego Villa

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Algorithms,
Computer applications,
Equilibrium,
Marine applications,
Stability System.

##### 780 Slip Limit Prediction of High-Strength Bolt Joints Based on Local Approach

**Authors:**
Chang He,
Hiroshi Tamura,
Hiroshi Katsuchi,
Jiaqi Wang

**Abstract:**

In this study, the aim is to infer the slip limit (static friction limit) of contact interfaces in bolt friction joints by analyzing other bolt friction joints with the same contact surface but in a different shape. By using the Weibull distribution to deal with microelements on the contact surface statistically, the slip limit of a certain type of bolt joint was predicted from other types of bolt joint with the same contact surface. As a result, this research succeeded in predicting the slip limit of bolt joins with different numbers of contact surfaces and with different numbers of bolt rows.

**Keywords:**
Bolt joints,
slip coefficient,
finite element method,
Weibull distribution.

##### 779 Simulation of Reactive Distillation: Comparison of Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Stage Models

**Authors:**
Asfaw Gezae Daful

**Abstract:**

In the present study, two distinctly different approaches are followed for modeling of reactive distillation column, the equilibrium stage model and the nonequilibrium stage model. These models are simulated with a computer code developed in the present study using MATLAB programming. In the equilibrium stage models, the vapor and liquid phases are assumed to be in equilibrium and allowance is made for finite reaction rates, where as in the nonequilibrium stage models simultaneous mass transfer and reaction rates are considered. These simulated model results are validated from the experimental data reported in the literature. The simulated results of equilibrium and nonequilibrium models are compared for concentration, temperature and reaction rate profiles in a reactive distillation column for Methyl Tert Butyle Ether (MTBE) production. Both the models show similar trend for the concentration, temperature and reaction rate profiles but the nonequilibrium model predictions are higher and closer to the experimental values reported in the literature.

**Keywords:**
Reactive Distillation,
Equilibrium model,
Nonequilibrium model,
Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether

##### 778 Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Binary Mixture of Methyl Acetate with Isopropylbenzene at 97.3 kPa

**Authors:**
Seema Kapoor,
Baljinder K. Gill,
V. K. Rattan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Binary mixture,
Isopropylbenzene,
Methyl acetate,
Vapor-liquid equilibrium.

##### 777 Using Axiomatic Design for Developing a Framework of Manufacturing Cloud Service Composition in the Equilibrium State

**Authors:**
Ehsan Vaziri Goodarzi,
Mahmood Houshmand,
Omid Fatahi Valilai,
Vahidreza Ghezavati,
Shahrooz Bamdad

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Axiomatic design,
manufacturing cloud service composition,
cloud manufacturing,
Industry 4.0.

##### 776 Non-equilibrium Statistical Mechanics of a Driven Lattice Gas Model: Probability Function, FDT-violation, and Monte Carlo Simulations

**Authors:**
K. Sudprasert,
M. Precharattana,
N. Nuttavut,
D. Triampo,
B. Pattanasiri,
Y. Lenbury,
W. Triampo

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Non-equilibrium,
lattice gas,
stochastic process

##### 775 Ten Limit Cycles in a Quintic Lyapunov System

**Authors:**
Li Feng

**Abstract:**

In this paper, center conditions and bifurcation of limit cycles at the nilpotent critical point in a class of quintic polynomial differential system are investigated.With the help of computer algebra system MATHEMATICA, the first 10 quasi Lyapunov constants are deduced. As a result, sufficient and necessary conditions in order to have a center are obtained. The fact that there exist 10 small amplitude limit cycles created from the three order nilpotent critical point is also proved. Henceforth we give a lower bound of cyclicity of three-order nilpotent critical point for quintic Lyapunov systems. At last, we give an system which could bifurcate 10 limit circles.

**Keywords:**
Three-order nilpotent critical point,
center-focus problem,
bifurcation of limit cycles,
Quasi-Lyapunov constant.

##### 774 Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Binary Mixture of 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran and Cumene

**Authors:**
V. K. Rattan,
Baljinder K. Gill,
Seema Kapoor

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Binary mixture,
2-Methyltetrahydrofuran,
Cumene,
Vapor-liquid equilibrium,
UNIFAC,
Excess Gibbs free energy.

##### 773 On the Central Limit Theorems for Forward and Backward Martingales

**Authors:**
Yilun Shang

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
central limit theorem,
martingale difference sequence,
backward martingale.

##### 772 Equilibrium and Rate Based Simulation of MTBE Reactive Distillation Column

**Authors:**
Debashish Panda,
Kannan A.

**Abstract:**

Equilibrium and rate based models have been applied in the simulation of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis through reactive distillation. Temperature and composition profiles were compared for both the models and found that both the profiles trends, though qualitatively similar are significantly different quantitatively. In the rate based method (RBM), multicomponent mass transfer coefficients have been incorporated to describe interphase mass transfer. MTBE mole fraction in the bottom stream is found to be 0.9914 in the Equilibrium Model (EQM) and only 0.9904 for RBM when the same column configuration was preserved. The individual tray efficiencies were incorporated in the EQM and simulations were carried out. Dynamic simulation have been also carried out for the two column configurations and compared.

**Keywords:**
Aspen Plus,
equilibrium stage model,
methyl
tertiary-butyl ether,
rate based model.

##### 771 Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Binary Mixtures of n-Butylamine and Triethylamine with Cumene at 97.3 kPa

**Authors:**
Baljinder K. Gill,
V. K. Rattan,
Seema Kapoor

**Abstract:**

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements are reported for the binary mixtures of n-Butylamine and Triethylamine with Cumene at 97.3 kPa. The measurements have been performed using a vapor recirculating type (modified Othmer's) equilibrium still. The binary mixture of n-Butylamine + Cumene shows positive deviation from ideality. Triethylamine + Cumene mixture shows negligible deviation from ideality. None of the systems form an azeotrope. The activity coefficients have been calculated taking into consideration the vapor phase nonideality. The data satisfy the thermodynamic consistency test of Herington. The activity coefficients have been satisfactorily correlated by means of the Margules, NRTL, and Black equations. The activity coefficient values obtained by the UNIFAC model are also reported.

**Keywords:**
Binary mixture,
cumene,
n-butylamine,
triethylamine,
vapor-liquid equilibrium.

##### 770 Finding Equilibrium in Transport Networks by Simulation and Investigation of Behaviors

**Authors:**
Gábor Szűcs,
Gyula Sallai

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Dempster-Shafer theory,
S-O and U-Otransportation network,
uncertainty of information,
Wardropequilibrium.

##### 769 Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Biosorption of Cd (II) and Pb (II) from Aqueous Solution Using a Spore Forming Bacillus Isolated from Wastewater of a Leather Factory

**Authors:**
Sh. Kianfar,
A. Moheb,
H. Ghaforian

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
biosorption,
kinetics,
Metal ion removal,
thermodynamics

##### 768 Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Ramipril in Commercial Dosage Forms

**Authors:**
Nafisur Rahman,
Habibur Rahman,
Syed Najmul Hejaz Azmi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Equilibrium method,
Fixed-time (ΔA) method,
Ramipril,
Spectrophotometry.

##### 767 Effect of Al Addition on Microstructure and Physical Properties of Fe-36Ni Invar Alloy

**Authors:**
Seok Hong Min,
Tae Kwon Ha

**Abstract:**

High strength Fe-36Ni-base Invar alloys containing Al contents up to 0.3 weight percent were cast into ingots and thermodynamic equilibrium during solidification has been investigated in this study. From the thermodynamic simulation using Thermo-Calc®, it has been revealed that equilibrium phases which can be formed are two kinds of MC-type precipitates, MoC, and M_{2}C carbides. The mu phase was also expected to form by addition of aluminum. Microstructure observation revealed the coarse precipitates in the as-cast ingots, which was non-equilibrium phase and could be resolved by the successive heat treatment. With increasing Al contents up to 0.3 wt.%, tensile strength of Invar alloy increased as 1400MPa after cold rolling and thermal expansion coefficient increased significantly. Cold rolling appeared to dramatically decrease thermal expansion coefficient.

**Keywords:**
Invar alloy,
Aluminum,
Phase equilibrium,
thermal expansion coefficient,
microstructure,
tensile properties.

##### 766 Complex Dynamics of Bertrand Duopoly Games with Bounded Rationality

**Authors:**
Jixiang Zhang,
Guocheng Wang

**Abstract:**

A dynamic of Bertrand duopoly game is analyzed, where players use different production methods and choose their prices with bounded rationality. The equilibriums of the corresponding discrete dynamical systems are investigated. The stability conditions of Nash equilibrium under a local adjustment process are studied. The stability conditions of Nash equilibrium under a local adjustment process are studied. The stability of Nash equilibrium, as some parameters of the model are varied, gives rise to complex dynamics such as cycles of higher order and chaos. On this basis, we discover that an increase of adjustment speed of bounded rational player can make Bertrand market sink into the chaotic state. Finally, the complex dynamics, bifurcations and chaos are displayed by numerical simulation.

**Keywords:**
Bertrand duopoly model,
Discrete dynamical system,
Heterogeneous expectations,
Nash equilibrium.

##### 765 Limit Cycle Behaviour of a Neural Controller with Delayed Bang-Bang Feedback

**Authors:**
Travis Wiens,
Greg Schoenau,
Rich Burton

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Control and automation,
artificial neural networks,
limit cycle

##### 764 Effects of Tap Changing Transformer and Shunt Capacitor on Voltage Stability Enhancement of Transmission Networks

**Authors:**
Pyone Lai Swe,
Wanna Swe,
Kyaw Myo Lin

**Abstract:**

Voltage stability has become an important issue to many power systems around the world due to the weak systems and long line on power system networks. In this paper, MATLAB load flow program is applied to obtain the weak points in the system combined with finding the voltage stability limit. The maximum permissible loading of a system, within the voltage stability limit, is usually determined. The methods for varying tap ratio (using tap changing transformer) and applying different values of shunt capacitor injection to improve the voltage stability within the limit are also provided.

**Keywords:**
Load flow,
Voltage stability,
Tap changingtransformer,
Shunt capacitor injection,
Voltage stability limit

##### 763 The Comparisons of Average Outgoing Quality Limit between the MCSP-2-C and MCSP-C

**Authors:**
P. Guayjarernpanishkand,
T. Mayureesawan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
average outgoing quality,
average outgoing quality
limit,
continuous sampling plan.

##### 762 Study of Mixed Convection in a Vertical Channel Filled with a Reactive Porous Medium in the Absence of Local Thermal Equilibrium

**Authors:**
Hamid Maidat,
Khedidja Bouhadef,
Djamel Eddine Ameziani,
Azzedine Abdedou

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Mixed convection,
porous medium,
power
generation,
local thermal non equilibrium model.