Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7591

Search results for: layout design problem

7591 Optimal Facility Layout Problem Solution Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Maricar G. Misola, Bryan B. Navarro

Abstract:

Facility Layout Problem (FLP) is one of the essential problems of several types of manufacturing and service sector. It is an optimization problem on which the main objective is to obtain the efficient locations, arrangement and order of the facilities. In the literature, there are numerous facility layout problem research presented and have used meta-heuristic approaches to achieve optimal facility layout design. This paper presented genetic algorithm to solve facility layout problem; to minimize total cost function. The performance of the proposed approach was verified and compared using problems in the literature.

Keywords: Facility Layout Problem, Genetic Algorithm, Material Handling Cost, Meta-heuristic Approach.

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7590 Two Points Crossover Genetic Algorithm for Loop Layout Design Problem

Authors: Xu LiYun, Briand Florent, Fan GuoLiang

Abstract:

The loop-layout design problem (LLDP) aims at optimizing the sequence of positioning of the machines around the cyclic production line. Traffic congestion is the usual criteria to minimize in this type of problem, i.e. the number of additional cycles spent by each part in the network until the completion of its required routing sequence of machines. This paper aims at applying several improvements mechanisms such as a positioned-based crossover operator for the Genetic Algorithm (GA) called a Two Points Crossover (TPC) and an offspring selection process. The performance of the improved GA is measured using well-known examples from literature and compared to other evolutionary algorithms. Good results show that GA can still be competitive for this type of problem against more recent evolutionary algorithms.

Keywords: Crossover, genetic algorithm, layout design problem, loop-layout, manufacturing optimization.

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7589 Identification of Promising Infant Clusters to Obtain Improved Block Layout Designs

Authors: Mustahsan Mir, Ahmed Hassanin, Mohammed A. Al-Saleh

Abstract:

The layout optimization of building blocks of unequal areas has applications in many disciplines including VLSI floorplanning, macrocell placement, unequal-area facilities layout optimization, and plant or machine layout design. A number of heuristics and some analytical and hybrid techniques have been published to solve this problem. This paper presents an efficient high-quality building-block layout design technique especially suited for solving large-size problems. The higher efficiency and improved quality of optimized solutions are made possible by introducing the concept of Promising Infant Clusters in a constructive placement procedure. The results presented in the paper demonstrate the improved performance of the presented technique for benchmark problems in comparison with published heuristic, analytic, and hybrid techniques.

Keywords: Block layout problem, building-block layout design, CAD, optimization, search techniques.

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7588 Dynamic Construction Site Layout Using Ant Colony Optimization

Authors: Y. Abdelrazig

Abstract:

Evolutionary optimization methods such as genetic algorithms have been used extensively for the construction site layout problem. More recently, ant colony optimization algorithms, which are evolutionary methods based on the foraging behavior of ants, have been successfully applied to benchmark combinatorial optimization problems. This paper proposes a formulation of the site layout problem in terms of a sequencing problem that is suitable for solution using an ant colony optimization algorithm. In the construction industry, site layout is a very important planning problem. The objective of site layout is to position temporary facilities both geographically and at the correct time such that the construction work can be performed satisfactorily with minimal costs and improved safety and working environment. During the last decade, evolutionary methods such as genetic algorithms have been used extensively for the construction site layout problem. This paper proposes an ant colony optimization model for construction site layout. A simple case study for a highway project is utilized to illustrate the application of the model.

Keywords: Construction site layout, optimization, ant colony.

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7587 Research on the Optimization of the Facility Layout of Efficient Cafeterias for Troops

Authors: Qing Zhang, Jiachen Nie, Yujia Wen, Guanyuan Kou, Peng Yu, Kun Xia, Qin Yang, Li Ding

Abstract:

Background: A facility layout problem (FLP) is an NP-complete (non-deterministic polynomial) problem, for which is hard to obtain an exact optimal solution. FLP has been widely studied in various limited spaces and workflows. For example, cafeterias with many types of equipment for troops cause chaotic processes when dining. Objective: This article tried to optimize the layout of a troops’ cafeteria and to improve the overall efficiency of the dining process. Methods: First, the original cafeteria layout design scheme was analyzed from an ergonomic perspective and two new design schemes were generated. Next, three facility layout models were designed, and further simulation was applied to compare the total time and density of troops between each scheme. Last, an experiment of the dining process with video observation and analysis verified the simulation results. Results: In a simulation, the dining time under the second new layout is shortened by 2.25% and 1.89% (p<0.0001, p=0.0001) compared with the other two layouts, while troops-flow density and interference both greatly reduced in the two new layouts. In the experiment, process completing time and the number of interferences reduced as well, which verified corresponding simulation results. Conclusion: Our two new layout schemes are tested to be optimal by a series of simulation and space experiments. In future research, similar approaches could be applied when taking layout-design algorithm calculation into consideration.

Keywords: Troops’ cafeteria, layout optimization, dining efficiency, AnyLogic simulation, field experiment

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7586 Combining Ant Colony Optimization and Dynamic Programming for Solving a Dynamic Facility Layout Problem

Authors: A. Udomsakdigool, S. Bangsaranthip

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm which combining ant colony optimization in the dynamic programming for solving a dynamic facility layout problem. The problem is separated into 2 phases, static and dynamic phase. In static phase, ant colony optimization is used to find the best ranked of layouts for each period. Then the dynamic programming (DP) procedure is performed in the dynamic phase to evaluate the layout set during multi-period planning horizon. The proposed algorithm is tested over many problems with size ranging from 9 to 49 departments, 2 and 4 periods. The experimental results show that the proposed method is an alternative way for the plant layout designer to determine the layouts during multi-period planning horizon.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, Dynamicprogramming, Dynamic facility layout planning, Metaheuristic

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7585 Improvement Plant Layout Using Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) for Increased Productivity

Authors: W. Wiyaratn, A. Watanapa

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to study plant layout of iron manufacturing based on the systematic layout planning pattern theory (SLP) for increased productivity. In this case study, amount of equipments and tools in iron production are studied. The detailed study of the plant layout such as operation process chart, flow of material and activity relationship chart has been investigated. The new plant layout has been designed and compared with the present plant layout. The SLP method showed that new plant layout significantly decrease the distance of material flow from billet cutting process until keeping in ware house.

Keywords: Plant layout, Systematic Layout Planning, Flowanalysis, Activity relationship chart

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7584 Plant Layout Analysis by Computer Simulation for Electronic Manufacturing Service Plant

Authors: Visuwan D., Phruksaphanrat B

Abstract:

In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyze and design the possible cellular layouts for the factory. The cellular layout was selected based on the main criteria of the plant. Computer simulation was used to analyze and compare the performance of the proposed cellular layout and the current layout. It found that the proposed cellular layout can generate better performances than the current layout. In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyze and design the possible cellular layouts for the factory. The cellular layout was selected based on the main criteria of the plant. Computer simulation was used to analyze and compare the performance of the proposed cellular layout and the current layout. It found that the proposed cellular layout can generate better performances than the current layout. 

Keywords: Layout, Electronic Manufacturing Service Plant (EMS), Computer Simulation, Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS).

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7583 Artificial Neural Network based Parameter Estimation and Design Optimization of Loop Antenna

Authors: Kumaresh Sarmah, Kandarpa Kumar Sarma

Abstract:

Artificial Neural Network (ANN)s are best suited for prediction and optimization problems. Trained ANNs have found wide spread acceptance in several antenna design systems. Four parameters namely antenna radiation resistance, loss resistance, efficiency, and inductance can be used to design an antenna layout though there are several other parameters available. An ANN can be trained to provide the best and worst case precisions of an antenna design problem defined by these four parameters. This work describes the use of an ANN to generate the four mentioned parameters for a loop antenna for the specified frequency range. It also provides insights to the prediction of best and worst-case design problems observed in applications and thereby formulate a model for physical layout design of a loop antenna.

Keywords: MLP, ANN, parameter, prediction, optimization.

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7582 Robot Cell Planning

Authors: Allan Tubaileh, Ibrahim Hammad, Loay Al Kafafi

Abstract:

A new approach to determine the machine layout in flexible manufacturing cell, and to find the feasible robot configuration of the robot to achieve minimum cycle time is presented in this paper. The location of the input/output location and the optimal robot configuration is obtained for all sequences of work tasks of the robot within a specified period of time. A more realistic approach has been presented to model the problem using the robot joint space. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem and solved using Sequential Quadratic Programming algorithm.

Keywords: Robotics, Layout.

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7581 An Improved Design of Area Efficient Two Bit Comparator

Authors: Shashank Gautam, Pramod Sharma

Abstract:

In present era, development of digital circuits, signal processors and other integrated circuits, magnitude comparators are challenged by large area and more power consumption. Comparator is most basic circuit that performs comparison. This paper presents a technique to design a two bit comparator which consumes less area and power. DSCH and MICROWIND version 3 are used to design the schematic and design the layout of the schematic, observe the performance parameters at different nanometer technologies respectively.

Keywords: Chip design, consumed power, layout area, two bit comparator.

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7580 Automated Method Time Measurement System for Redesigning Dynamic Facility Layout

Authors: Salam Alzubaidi, G. Fantoni, F. Failli, M. Frosolini

Abstract:

The dynamic facility layout problem is a really critical issue in the competitive industrial market; thus, solving this problem requires robust design and effective simulation systems. The sustainable simulation requires inputting reliable and accurate data into the system. So this paper describes an automated system integrated into the real environment to measure the duration of the material handling operations, collect the data in real-time, and determine the variances between the actual and estimated time schedule of the operations in order to update the simulation software and redesign the facility layout periodically. The automated method- time measurement system collects the real data through using Radio Frequency-Identification (RFID) and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. Hence, attaching RFID- antenna reader and RFID tags enables the system to identify the location of the objects and gathering the time data. The real duration gathered will be manipulated by calculating the moving average duration of the material handling operations, choosing the shortest material handling path, and then updating the simulation software to redesign the facility layout accommodating with the shortest/real operation schedule. The periodic simulation in real-time is more sustainable and reliable than the simulation system relying on an analysis of historical data. The case study of this methodology is in cooperation with a workshop team for producing mechanical parts. Although there are some technical limitations, this methodology is promising, and it can be significantly useful in the redesigning of the manufacturing layout.

Keywords: Dynamic facility layout problem, internet of things, method time measurement, radio frequency identification, simulation.

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7579 Production Line Layout Planning Based on Complexity Measurement

Authors: Guoliang Fan, Aiping Li, Nan Xie, Liyun Xu, Xuemei Liu

Abstract:

Mass customization production increases the difficulty of the production line layout planning. The material distribution process for variety of parts is very complex, which greatly increases the cost of material handling and logistics. In response to this problem, this paper presents an approach of production line layout planning based on complexity measurement. Firstly, by analyzing the influencing factors of equipment layout, the complexity model of production line is established by using information entropy theory. Then, the cost of the part logistics is derived considering different variety of parts. Furthermore, the function of optimization including two objectives of the lowest cost, and the least configuration complexity is built. Finally, the validity of the function is verified in a case study. The results show that the proposed approach may find the layout scheme with the lowest logistics cost and the least complexity. Optimized production line layout planning can effectively improve production efficiency and equipment utilization with lowest cost and complexity.

Keywords: Production line, layout planning, complexity measurement, optimization, mass customization.

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7578 Research and Development of Intelligent Cooling Channels Design System

Authors: Q. Niu, X. H. Zhou, W. Liu

Abstract:

The cooling channels of injection mould play a crucial role in determining the productivity of moulding process and the product quality. It’s not a simple task to design high quality cooling channels. In this paper, an intelligent cooling channels design system including automatic layout of cooling channels, interference checking and assembly of accessories is studied. Automatic layout of cooling channels using genetic algorithm is analyzed. Through integrating experience criteria of designing cooling channels, considering the factors such as the mould temperature and interference checking, the automatic layout of cooling channels is implemented. The method of checking interference based on distance constraint algorithm and the function of automatic and continuous assembly of accessories are developed and integrated into the system. Case studies demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of the intelligent design system.

Keywords: Injection mould, cooling channel, automatic layout, interference checking.

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7577 Design and Layout of Two Stage High Band Width Operational Amplifier

Authors: Yasir Mahmood Qureshi

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and layout of a two stage, high speed operational amplifiers using standard 0.35um CMOS technology. The design procedure involves designing the bias circuit, the differential input pair, and the gain stage using CAD tools. Both schematic and layout of the operational amplifier along with the comparison in the results of the two has been presented. The operational amplifier designed, has a gain of 93.51db at low frequencies. It has a gain bandwidth product of 55.07MHz, phase margin of 51.9º and a slew rate of 22v/us for a load of capacitor of 10pF.

Keywords: Gain bandwidth product, Operational Amplifier, phase margin, slew rate.

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7576 Layout Design Optimization of Spars under Multiple Load Cases of the High-Aspect-Ratio Wing

Authors: Yu Li, Jingwu He, Yuexi Xiong

Abstract:

The spar layout will affect the wing’s stiffness characteristics, and irrational spar arrangement will reduce the overall bending and twisting resistance capacity of the wing. In this paper, the active structural stiffness design theory is used to match the stiffness-center axis position and load-cases under the corresponding multiple flight conditions, in order to achieve better stiffness properties of the wing. The combination of active stiffness method and principle of stiffness distribution is proved to be reasonable supplying an initial reference for wing designing. The optimized layout of spars is eventually obtained, and the high-aspect-ratio wing will have better stiffness characteristics.

Keywords: Active structural stiffness design theory, high-aspect-ratio wing, flight load cases, layout of spars.

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7575 Design and Analysis of Piping System with Supports Using CAESAR-II

Authors: M. Jamuna Rani, K. Ramanathan

Abstract:

A steam power plant is housed with various types of equipments like boiler, turbine, heat exchanger etc. These equipments are mainly connected with piping systems. Such a piping layout design depends mainly on stress analysis and flexibility. It will vary with respect to pipe geometrical properties, pressure, temperature, and supports. The present paper is to analyze the presence and effect of hangers and expansion joints in the piping layout/routing using CAESAR-II software. Main aim of piping stress analysis is to provide adequate flexibility for absorbing thermal expansion, code compliance for stresses and displacement incurred in piping system. The design is said to be safe if all these are in allowable range as per code. In this study, a sample problem is considered for analysis as per power piping ASME B31.1 code and the results thus obtained are compared.

Keywords: ASTM B31.1, hanger, expansion joint, CAESAR-II.

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7574 A new Heuristic Algorithm for the Dynamic Facility Layout Problem with Budget Constraint

Authors: Parham Azimi, Hamid Reza Charmchi

Abstract:

In this research, we have developed a new efficient heuristic algorithm for the dynamic facility layout problem with budget constraint (DFLPB). This heuristic algorithm combines two mathematical programming methods such as discrete event simulation and linear integer programming (IP) to obtain a near optimum solution. In the proposed algorithm, the non-linear model of the DFLP has been changed to a pure integer programming (PIP) model. Then, the optimal solution of the PIP model has been used in a simulation model that has been designed in a similar manner as the DFLP for determining the probability of assigning a facility to a location. After a sufficient number of runs, the simulation model obtains near optimum solutions. Finally, to verify the performance of the algorithm, several test problems have been solved. The results show that the proposed algorithm is more efficient in terms of speed and accuracy than other heuristic algorithms presented in previous works found in the literature.

Keywords: Budget constraint, Dynamic facility layout problem, Integer programming, Simulation

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7573 Study on the Design of Supermarket Store Layouts: The Principle of “Sales Magnet“

Authors: Masao Ohta, Yoshiyuki Higuchi

Abstract:

This study analyses store layout among the many factors that underlie supermarket store design, this; in terms of what to display in a shop and where to place the items. This report examines newly-opened stores and evaluates their interior shop floor layouts, which we then attempt to categorize by various styles. We then consider the interaction between shop floor layout and customer behavior from the perspective of the supermarket as the seller. At this point, we focus on the “store magnets"–the main sections within the shop likely to attract customers into the store.

Keywords: Supermarket Store Layout, Sales magnet, Customer Circulation Rate, Section Drop-by Rates.

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7572 Machine Learning in Production Systems Design Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Abu Qudeiri Jaber, Yamamoto Hidehiko Rizauddin Ramli

Abstract:

To create a solution for a specific problem in machine learning, the solution is constructed from the data or by use a search method. Genetic algorithms are a model of machine learning that can be used to find nearest optimal solution. While the great advantage of genetic algorithms is the fact that they find a solution through evolution, this is also the biggest disadvantage. Evolution is inductive, in nature life does not evolve towards a good solution but it evolves away from bad circumstances. This can cause a species to evolve into an evolutionary dead end. In order to reduce the effect of this disadvantage we propose a new a learning tool (criteria) which can be included into the genetic algorithms generations to compare the previous population and the current population and then decide whether is effective to continue with the previous population or the current population, the proposed learning tool is called as Keeping Efficient Population (KEP). We applied a GA based on KEP to the production line layout problem, as a result KEP keep the evaluation direction increases and stops any deviation in the evaluation.

Keywords: Genetic algorithms, Layout problem, Machinelearning, Production system.

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7571 Lean Manufacturing: Systematic Layout Planning Application to an Assembly Line Layout of a Welding Industry

Authors: Fernando Augusto Ullmann Tobe, Moacyr Amaral Domingues, Figueiredo, Stephany Rie Yamamoto Gushiken

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present the process of elaborating the layout of an assembly line of a welding industry using the principles of lean manufacturing as the main driver. The objective of this paper is relevant since the current layout of the assembly line causes non-productive times for operators, being related to the lean waste of unnecessary movements. The methodology used for the project development was Project-based Learning (PBL), which is an active way of learning focused on real problems. The process of selecting the methodology for layout planning was developed considering three criteria to evaluate the most relevant one for this paper's goal. As a result of this evaluation, Systematic Layout Planning was selected, and three steps were added to it – Value Stream Mapping for the current situation and after layout changed and the definition of lean tools and layout type. This inclusion was to consider lean manufacturing in the layout redesign of the industry. The layout change resulted in an increase in the value-adding time of operations carried out in the sector, reduction in movement times between previous and final assemblies, and in cost savings regarding the man-hour value of the employees, which can be invested in productive hours instead of movement times.

Keywords: Assembly line, layout, lean manufacturing, systematic layout planning.

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7570 Preliminary Study on Fixture Layout Optimization Using Element Strain Energy

Authors: Zeshan Ahmad, Matteo Zoppi, Rezia Molfino

Abstract:

The objective of positioning the fixture elements in the fixture is to make the workpiece stiff, so that geometric errors in the manufacturing process can be reduced. Most of the work for optimal fixture layout used the minimization of the sum of the nodal deflection normal to the surface as objective function. All deflections in other direction have been neglected. We propose a new method for fixture layout optimization in this paper, which uses the element strain energy. The deformations in all the directions have been considered in this way. The objective function in this method is to minimize the sum of square of element strain energy. Strain energy and stiffness are inversely proportional to each other. The optimization problem is solved by the sequential quadratic programming method. Three different kinds of case studies are presented, and results are compared with the method using nodal deflections as objective function to verify the propose method.

Keywords: Fixture layout, optimization, strain energy, quadratic programming.

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7569 The Technological Problem of Simulation of the Logistics Center

Authors: Juraj Camaj, Anna Dolinayova, Jana Lalinska, Miroslav Bariak

Abstract:

Planning of infrastructure and processes in logistic center within the frame of various kinds of logistic hubs and technological activities in them represent quite complex problem. The main goal is to design appropriate layout, which enables to realize expected operation on the desired levels. The simulation software represents progressive contemporary experimental technique, which can support complex processes of infrastructure planning and all of activities on it. It means that simulation experiments, reflecting various planned infrastructure variants, investigate and verify their eligibilities in relation with corresponding expected operation. The inducted approach enables to make qualified decisions about infrastructure investments or measures, which derive benefit from simulation-based verifications. The paper represents simulation software for simulation infrastructural layout and technological activities in marshalling yard, intermodal terminal, warehouse and combination between them as the parts of logistic center.

Keywords: Marshalling yard, intermodal terminal, warehouse, transport technology, simulation.

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7568 LFSR Counter Implementation in CMOS VLSI

Authors: Doshi N. A., Dhobale S. B., Kakade S. R.

Abstract:

As chip manufacturing technology is suddenly on the threshold of major evaluation, which shrinks chip in size and performance, LFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register) is implemented in layout level which develops the low power consumption chip, using recent CMOS, sub-micrometer layout tools. Thus LFSR counter can be a new trend setter in cryptography and is also beneficial as compared to GRAY & BINARY counter and variety of other applications. This paper compares 3 architectures in terms of the hardware implementation, CMOS layout and power consumption, using Microwind CMOS layout tool. Thus it provides solution to a low power architecture implementation of LFSR in CMOS VLSI.

Keywords: Chip technology, Layout level, LFSR, Pass transistor

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7567 Design of OTA with Common Drain and Folded Cascade Used in ADC

Authors: Gu Wei, Gao Wei

Abstract:

In this report, an OTA which is used in fully differential pipelined ADC was described. Using gain-boost architecture with difference-ended amplifier, this OTA achieve high-gain and high-speed. Besides, the CMFB circuit is also used, and some methods are concerned to improve the performance. Then, by optimization the layout design, OTA-s mismatch was reduced. This design was using TSMC 0.18um CMOS process and simulation both schematic and layout in Cadence. The result of the simulation shows that the OTA has a gain up to 80dB,a unity gain bandwidth of about 1.437GHz for a 2pF load, a slew rate is about 428V/μs, a output swing is 0.2V~1.35V, with the power supply of 1.8V, the power consumption is 88mW. This amplifier was used in a 10bit 150MHz pipelined ADC.

Keywords: OTA, common drain, CMFB, pipelined ADC

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7566 Studies on Lucrative Process Layout for Medium Scale Industries

Authors: Balamurugan Baladhandapani, Ganesh Renganathan, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper a comprehensive review on various factory layouts has been carried out for designing a lucrative process layout for medium scale industries. Industry data base reveals that the end product rejection rate is on the order of 10% amounting large profit loss. In order to avoid these rejection rates and to increase the quality product production an intermediate non-destructive testing facility (INDTF) has been recommended for increasing the overall profit. We observed through detailed case studies that while introducing INDTF to medium scale industries the expensive production process can be avoided to the defective products well before its final shape. Additionally, the defective products identified during the intermediate stage can be effectively utilized for other applications or recycling; thereby the overall wastage of the raw materials can be reduced and profit can be increased. We concluded that the prudent design of a factory layout through critical path method facilitating with INDTF will warrant profitable outcome.

Keywords: Intermediate Non-destructive testing, Medium scale industries, Process layout design.

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7565 Layout Based Spam Filtering

Authors: Claudiu N.Musat

Abstract:

Due to the constant increase in the volume of information available to applications in fields varying from medical diagnosis to web search engines, accurate support of similarity becomes an important task. This is also the case of spam filtering techniques where the similarities between the known and incoming messages are the fundaments of making the spam/not spam decision. We present a novel approach to filtering based solely on layout, whose goal is not only to correctly identify spam, but also warn about major emerging threats. We propose a mathematical formulation of the email message layout and based on it we elaborate an algorithm to separate different types of emails and find the new, numerically relevant spam types.

Keywords: Clustering, layout, k-means, spam.

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7564 A Proposal of an Automatic Formatting Method for Transforming XML Data

Authors: Zhe JIN, Motomichi TOYAMA

Abstract:

PPX(Pretty Printer for XML) is a query language that offers a concise description method of formatting the XML data into HTML. In this paper, we propose a simple specification of formatting method that is a combination description of automatic layout operators and variables in the layout expression of the GENERATE clause of PPX. This method can automatically format irregular XML data included in a part of XML with layout decision rule that is referred to DTD. In the experiment, a quick comparison shows that PPX requires far less description compared to XSLT or XQuery programs doing same tasks.

Keywords: PPX, Irregular XML data, Layout decision rule, HTML.

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7563 A Survey of Various Algorithms for Vlsi Physical Design

Authors: Rajine Swetha R, B. Shekar Babu, Sumithra Devi K.A

Abstract:

Electronic Systems are the core of everyday lives. They form an integral part in financial networks, mass transit, telephone systems, power plants and personal computers. Electronic systems are increasingly based on complex VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) integrated circuits. Initial electronic design automation is concerned with the design and production of VLSI systems. The next important step in creating a VLSI circuit is Physical Design. The input to the physical design is a logical representation of the system under design. The output of this step is the layout of a physical package that optimally or near optimally realizes the logical representation. Physical design problems are combinatorial in nature and of large problem sizes. Darwin observed that, as variations are introduced into a population with each new generation, the less-fit individuals tend to extinct in the competition of basic necessities. This survival of fittest principle leads to evolution in species. The objective of the Genetic Algorithms (GA) is to find an optimal solution to a problem .Since GA-s are heuristic procedures that can function as optimizers, they are not guaranteed to find the optimum, but are able to find acceptable solutions for a wide range of problems. This survey paper aims at a study on Efficient Algorithms for VLSI Physical design and observes the common traits of the superior contributions.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Physical Design, VLSI.

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7562 Physical Verification Flow on Multiple Foundries

Authors: R. Abdul Wahab, R. Mohd Fuad Tengku Aziz, N. Othman, S. Saleh, N. Razali, M. Al Baqir Zinal Abidin, M. Hanif Md Nasir

Abstract:

This paper will discuss how we optimize our physical verification flow in our IC Design Department having various rule decks from multiple foundries. Our ultimate goal is to achieve faster time to tape-out and avoid schedule delay. Currently the physical verification runtimes and memory usage have drastically increased with the increasing number of design rules, design complexity, and the size of the chips to be verified. To manage design violations, we use a number of solutions to reduce the amount of violations needed to be checked by physical verification engineers. The most important functions in physical verifications are DRC (design rule check), LVS (layout vs. schematic), and XRC (extraction). Since we have a multiple number of foundries for our design tape-outs, we need a flow that improve the overall turnaround time and ease of use of the physical verification process. The demand for fast turnaround time is even more critical since the physical design is the last stage before sending the layout to the foundries.

Keywords: Physical verification, DRC, LVS, XRC, flow, foundry, runset.

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