Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Injection mould

9 Time Temperature Dependence of Long Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Manufactured by Direct Long Fiber Thermoplastic Process

Authors: K. A. Weidenmann, M. Grigo, B. Brylka, P. Elsner, T. Böhlke

Abstract:

In order to reduce fuel consumption, the weight of automobiles has to be reduced. Fiber reinforced polymers offer the potential to reach this aim because of their high stiffness to weight ratio. Additionally, the use of fiber reinforced polymers in automotive applications has to allow for an economic large-scale production. In this regard, long fiber reinforced thermoplastics made by direct processing offer both mechanical performance and processability in injection moulding and compression moulding. The work presented in this contribution deals with long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene directly processed in compression moulding (D-LFT). For the use in automotive applications both the temperature and the time dependency of the materials properties have to be investigated to fulfill performance requirements during crash or the demands of service temperatures ranging from -40 °C to 80 °C. To consider both the influence of temperature and time, quasistatic tensile tests have been carried out at different temperatures. These tests have been complemented by high speed tensile tests at different strain rates. As expected, the increase in strain rate results in an increase of the elastic modulus which correlates to an increase of the stiffness with decreasing service temperature. The results are in good accordance with results determined by dynamic mechanical analysis within the range of 0.1 to 100 Hz. The experimental results from different testing methods were grouped and interpreted by using different time temperature shift approaches. In this regard, Williams-Landel-Ferry and Arrhenius approach based on kinetics have been used. As the theoretical shift factor follows an arctan function, an empirical approach was also taken into consideration. It could be shown that this approach describes best the time and temperature superposition for glass fiber reinforced polypropylene manufactured by D-LFT processing.

Keywords: Composite, long fiber reinforced thermoplastics, mechanical properties, dynamic mechanical analysis, time temperature superposition.

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8 Visualization of Flow Behaviour in Micro-Cavities during Micro Injection Moulding

Authors: Reza Gheisari, Paulo J. Bartolo, Nicholas Goddard

Abstract:

Polymeric micro-cantilevers (Cs) are rapidly becoming popular for MEMS applications such as chemo- and biosensing as well as purely electromechanical applications such as microrelays. Polymer materials present suitable physical and chemical properties combined with low-cost mass production. Hence, micro-cantilevers made of polymers indicate much more biocompatibility and adaptability of rapid prototyping along with mechanical properties. This research studies the effects of three process and one size factors on the filling behaviour in micro cavity, and the role of each in the replication of micro parts using different polymer materials i.e. polypropylene (PP) SABIC 56M10 and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) Magnum 8434 . In particular, the following factors are considered: barrel temperature, mould temperature, injection speed and the thickness of micro features. The study revealed that the barrel temperature and the injection speed are the key factors affecting the flow length of micro features replicated in PP and ABS. For both materials, an increase of feature sizes improves the melt flow. However, the melt fill of micro features does not increase linearly with the increase of their thickness.

Keywords: Flow length, micro-cantilevers, micro injection moulding, microfabrication.

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7 Effect of Injection Moulding Process Parameter on Tensile Strength Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Gurjeet Singh, M. K. Pradhan, Ajay Verma

Abstract:

The plastic industry plays very important role in the economy of any country. It is generally among the leading share of the economy of the country. Since metals and their alloys are very rarely available on the earth. Therefore, to produce plastic products and components, which finds application in many industrial as well as household consumer products is beneficial. Since 50% plastic products are manufactured by injection moulding process. For production of better quality product, we have to control quality characteristics and performance of the product. The process parameters plays a significant role in production of plastic, hence the control of process parameter is essential. In this paper the effect of the parameters selection on injection moulding process has been described. It is to define suitable parameters in producing plastic product. Selecting the process parameter by trial and error is neither desirable nor acceptable, as it is often tends to increase the cost and time. Hence, optimization of processing parameter of injection moulding process is essential. The experiments were designed with Taguchi’s orthogonal array to achieve the result with least number of experiments. Plastic material polypropylene is studied. Tensile strength test of material is done on universal testing machine, which is produced by injection moulding machine. By using Taguchi technique with the help of MiniTab-14 software the best value of injection pressure, melt temperature, packing pressure and packing time is obtained. We found that process parameter packing pressure contribute more in production of good tensile plastic product.

Keywords: Injection moulding, tensile strength, Taguchi method, poly-propylene.

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6 Determination of Material Properties for Biodegradable Polylactic Acid Plastic Used in 3D Printers

Authors: Juraj Beniak, Ľubomír Šooš, Peter Križan, Miloš Matúš

Abstract:

Within Rapid Prototyping technologies are used many types of materials. Many of them are recyclable but there are still as plastic like, so practically they do not degrade in the landfill. Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the special plastic materials, which are biodegradable and available for 3D printing within Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technology. The question is, if the mechanical properties of produced models are comparable to similar technical plastic materials which are usual for prototype production. Presented paper shows the experiments results for tensile strength measurements for specimens prepared with different 3D printer settings and model orientation. Paper contains also the comparison of tensile strength values with values measured on specimens produced by conventional technologies as injection moulding.

Keywords: 3D printing, biodegradable plastic, fused deposition modeling, PLA plastic, rapid prototyping.

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5 Impact Modified Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber/Poly(Lactic) Acid Composite

Authors: Mohammad D. H. Beg, John O. Akindoyo, Suriati Ghazali, Abdullah A. Mamun

Abstract:

In this study, composites were fabricated from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber and poly(lactic) acid by extrusion followed by injection moulding. Surface of the fiber was pre-treated by ultrasound in an alkali medium and treatment efficiency was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Effect of fiber treatment on composite was characterized by tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM) and impact strength (IS). Furthermore, biostrong impact modifier was incorporated into the treated fiber composite to improve its impact properties. Mechanical testing showed an improvement of up to 23.5% and 33.6% respectively for TS and TM of treated fiber composite above untreated fiber composite. On the other hand incorporation of impact modifier led to enhancement of about 20% above the initial IS of the treated fiber composite.

Keywords: Fiber treatment, impact modifier, natural fibers, ultrasound.

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4 Research and Development of Intelligent Cooling Channels Design System

Authors: Q. Niu, X. H. Zhou, W. Liu

Abstract:

The cooling channels of injection mould play a crucial role in determining the productivity of moulding process and the product quality. It’s not a simple task to design high quality cooling channels. In this paper, an intelligent cooling channels design system including automatic layout of cooling channels, interference checking and assembly of accessories is studied. Automatic layout of cooling channels using genetic algorithm is analyzed. Through integrating experience criteria of designing cooling channels, considering the factors such as the mould temperature and interference checking, the automatic layout of cooling channels is implemented. The method of checking interference based on distance constraint algorithm and the function of automatic and continuous assembly of accessories are developed and integrated into the system. Case studies demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of the intelligent design system.

Keywords: Injection mould, cooling channel, automatic layout, interference checking.

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3 Characterization and Degradation Analysis of Tapioca Starch Based Biofilms

Authors: R. R. Ali, W. A. W. A. Rahman, R. M. Kasmani, H. Hasbullah, N. Ibrahim, A. N. Sadikin, U. A. Asli

Abstract:

In this study, tapioca starch, which acts as natural polymer, was added in the blend in order to produce biodegradable product. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) and tapioca starch blends were prepared by extrusion and the test sample by injection moulding process. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) acts as compatibilizer while glycerol as processing aid was added in the blend. The blends were characterized by using melt flow index (MFI), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and the effects of water absorption to the sample. As the starch content increased, MFI of the blend was decreased. Tensile testing were conducted shows the tensile strength and elongation at break decreased while the modulus increased as the starch increased. For the biodegradation, soil burial test was conducted and the loss in weight was studied as the starch content increased. Morphology studies were conducted in order to show the distribution between LDPE and starch.

Keywords: Biofilms, degradable polymers, starch based polyethylene, injection moulding.

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2 Performance Evaluation of Purely Mechanical Wireless In-Mould Sensor for Injection Moulding

Authors: Florian Müller, Christian Kukla, Thomas Lucyshyn, Clemens Holzer

Abstract:

In this paper, the influencing parameters of a novel purely mechanical wireless in-mould injection moulding sensor were investigated. The sensor is capable of detecting the melt front at predefined locations inside the mould. The sensor comprises a movable pin which acts as the sensor element generating structure-borne sound triggered by the passing melt front. Due to the sensor design, melt pressure is the driving force. For pressure level measurement during pin movement a pressure transducer located at the same position as the movable pin. By deriving a mathematical model for the mechanical movement, dominant process parameters could be investigated towards their impact on the melt front detection characteristic. It was found that the sensor is not affected by the investigated parameters enabling it for reliable melt front detection. In addition, it could be proved that the novel sensor is in comparable range to conventional melt front detection sensors.

Keywords: Injection Moulding, In-Mould Sensor, Structure-Borne Sound, Wireless Sensor

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1 Improving Injection Moulding Processes Using Experimental Design

Authors: Yousef Amer, Mehdi Moayyedian, Zeinab Hajiabolhasani, Lida Moayyedian

Abstract:

Moulded parts contribute to more than 70% of components in products. However, common defects particularly in plastic injection moulding exist such as: warpage, shrinkage, sink marks, and weld lines. In this paper Taguchi experimental design methods are applied to reduce the warpage defect of thin plate Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and are demonstrated in two levels; namely, orthogonal arrays of Taguchi and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Eight trials have been run in which the optimal parameters that can minimize the warpage defect in factorial experiment are obtained. The results obtained from ANOVA approach analysis with respect to those derived from MINITAB illustrate the most significant factors which may cause warpage in injection moulding process. Moreover, ANOVA approach in comparison with other approaches like S/N ratio is more accurate and with the interaction of factors it is possible to achieve higher and the better outcomes.

Keywords: Analysis of variance, ANOVA, plastic injection mould, Taguchi methods, Warpage.

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