Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 128

Search results for: inclined stretching sheet

128 Numerical Approach to a Mathematical Modeling of Bioconvection Due to Gyrotactic Micro-Organisms over a Nonlinear Inclined Stretching Sheet

Authors: Madhu Aneja, Sapna Sharma

Abstract:

The water-based bioconvection of a nanofluid containing motile gyrotactic micro-organisms over nonlinear inclined stretching sheet has been investigated. The governing nonlinear boundary layer equations of the model are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations via Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation and similarity transformations. Further, the modified set of equations with associated boundary conditions are solved using Finite Element Method. The impact of various pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature, nanoparticles concentration, density of motile micro-organisms profiles are obtained and analyzed in details. The results show that with the increase in angle of inclination δ, velocity decreases while temperature, nanoparticles concentration, a density of motile micro-organisms increases. Additionally, the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, Sherwood number, density number are computed for various thermophysical parameters. It is noticed that increasing Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameter leads to an increase in temperature of fluid which results in a reduction in Nusselt number. On the contrary, Sherwood number rises with an increase in Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameter. The findings have been validated by comparing the results of special cases with existing studies.

Keywords: Bioconvection, inclined stretching sheet, Gyrotactic micro-organisms, Brownian motion, thermophoresis, finite element method.

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127 Effects of Thermal Radiation and Magnetic Field on Unsteady Stretching Permeable Sheet in Presence of Free Stream Velocity

Authors: Phool Singh, Ashok Jangid, N. S. Tomer, Deepa Sinha

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to investigate twodimensional unsteady flow of a viscous incompressible fluid about stagnation point on permeable stretching sheet in presence of time dependent free stream velocity. Fluid is considered in the influence of transverse magnetic field in the presence of radiation effect. Rosseland approximation is use to model the radiative heat transfer. Using time-dependent stream function, partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum and energy equations are converted into non-linear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of these equations are obtained by using Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method with the help of Newton-Raphson shooting technique. In the present work the effect of unsteadiness parameter, magnetic field parameter, radiation parameter, stretching parameter and the Prandtl number on flow and heat transfer characteristics have been discussed. Skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number at the sheet are computed and discussed. The results reported in the paper are in good agreement with published work in literature by other researchers.

Keywords: Magneto hydrodynamics, stretching sheet, thermal radiation, unsteady flow.

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126 A Note on MHD Flow and Heat Transfer over a Curved Stretching Sheet by Considering Variable Thermal Conductivity

Authors: M. G. Murtaza, E. E. Tzirtzilakis, M. Ferdows

Abstract:

The mixed convective flow of MHD incompressible, steady boundary layer in heat transfer over a curved stretching sheet due to temperature dependent thermal conductivity is studied. We use curvilinear coordinate system in order to describe the governing flow equations. Finite difference solutions with central differencing have been used to solve the transform governing equations. Numerical results for the flow velocity and temperature profiles are presented as a function of the non-dimensional curvature radius. Skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number at the surface of the curved sheet are discussed as well.

Keywords: Curved stretching sheet, finite difference method, MHD, variable thermal conductivity.

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125 Mixed Convection with Radiation Effect over a Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet

Authors: Kai-Long Hsiao

Abstract:

In this study, an analysis has been performed for free convection with radiation effect over a thermal forming nonlinearly stretching sheet. Parameters n, k0, Pr, G represent the dominance of the nonlinearly effect, radiation effect, heat transfer and free convection effects which have been presented in governing equations, respectively. The similarity transformation and the finite-difference methods have been used to analyze the present problem. From the results, we find that the effects of parameters n, k0, Pr, Ec and G to the nonlinearly stretching sheet. The increase of Prandtl number Pr, free convection parameter G or radiation parameter k0 resulting in the increase of heat transfer effects, but increase of the viscous dissipation number Ec will decrease of heat transfer effect.

Keywords: Nonlinearly stretching sheet, Free convection, Finite-difference, Radiation effect.

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124 MHD Non-Newtonian Nanofluid Flow over a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Heat Generation and Velocity Slip

Authors: Rama Bhargava, Mania Goyal

Abstract:

The problem of magnetohydrodynamics boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a permeable stretching surface in a second grade nanofluid under the effect of heat generation and partial slip is studied theoretically. The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are also considered. The boundary layer equations governed by the PDE’s are transformed into a set of ODE’s with the help of local similarity transformations. The differential equations are solved by variational finite element method. The effects of different controlling parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics are examined. The numerical results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically. The comparison confirmed excellent agreement. The present study is of great interest in coating and suspensions, cooling of metallic plate, oils and grease, paper production, coal water or coal-oil slurries, heat exchangers technology, materials processing exploiting.

Keywords: Viscoelastic nanofluid, partial slip, stretching sheet, heat generation/absorption, MHD flow, FEM.

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123 Conjugate Heat transfer over an Unsteady Stretching Sheet Mixed Convection with Magnetic Effect

Authors: Kai-Long Hsiao

Abstract:

A conjugate heat transfer for steady two-dimensional mixed convection with magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an incompressible quiescent fluid over an unsteady thermal forming stretching sheet has been studied. A parameter, M, which is used to represent the dominance of the magnetic effect has been presented in governing equations. The similar transformation and an implicit finite-difference method have been used to analyze the present problem. The numerical solutions of the flow velocity distributions, temperature profiles, the wall unknown values of f''(0) and '(θ (0) for calculating the heat transfer of the similar boundary-layer flow are carried out as functions of the unsteadiness parameter (S), the Prandtl number (Pr), the space-dependent parameter (A) and temperature-dependent parameter (B) for heat source/sink and the magnetic parameter (M). The effects of these parameters have also discussed. At the results, it will produce greater heat transfer effect with a larger Pr and M, S, A, B will reduce heat transfer effects. At last, conjugate heat transfer for the free convection with a larger G has a good heat transfer effect better than a smaller G=0.

Keywords: Finite-difference method, Conjugate heat transfer, Unsteady Stretching Sheet, MHD, Mixed convection.

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122 Numerical Solutions of Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Stretching/Shrinking Sheet with Generalized Slip Velocity

Authors: Ezad Hafidz Hafidzuddin, Roslinda Nazar, Norihan M. Arifin, Ioan Pop

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of steady laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a permeable exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet with generalized slip velocity is considered. The similarity transformations are used to transform the governing nonlinear partial differential equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved numerically using the bvp4c function in MATLAB. Dual solutions are found for a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. The effects of the suction parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter, velocity slip parameter, critical shear rate and Prandtl number on the skin friction and heat transfer coefficients as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Boundary Layer, Exponentially Stretching/Shrinking Sheet, Generalized Slip, Heat Transfer, Numerical Solutions.

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121 Unsteady Laminar Boundary Layer Forced Flow in the Region of the Stagnation Point on a Stretching Flat Sheet

Authors: A. T. Eswara

Abstract:

This paper analyses the unsteady, two-dimensional stagnation point flow of an incompressible viscous fluid over a flat sheet when the flow is started impulsively from rest and at the same time, the sheet is suddenly stretched in its own plane with a velocity proportional to the distance from the stagnation point. The partial differential equations governing the laminar boundary layer forced convection flow are non-dimensionalised using semi-similar transformations and then solved numerically using an implicit finitedifference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Results pertaining to the flow and heat transfer characteristics are computed for all dimensionless time, uniformly valid in the whole spatial region without any numerical difficulties. Analytical solutions are also obtained for both small and large times, respectively representing the initial unsteady and final steady state flow and heat transfer. Numerical results indicate that the velocity ratio parameter is found to have a significant effect on skin friction and heat transfer rate at the surface. Furthermore, it is exposed that there is a smooth transition from the initial unsteady state flow (small time solution) to the final steady state (large time solution).

Keywords: Forced flow, Keller-box method, Stagnation point, Stretching flat sheet, Unsteady laminar boundary layer, Velocity ratio parameter.

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120 Heat and Mass Transfer for Viscous Flow with Radiation Effect past a Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet

Authors: Kai-Long Hsiao

Abstract:

In this study, an analysis has been performed for heat and mass transfer of a steady laminar boundary-layer flow of a viscous flow past a nonlinearly stretching sheet. Parameters n, Ec, k0, Sc represent the dominance of the nonlinearly effect, viscous effect, radiation effect and mass transfer effect which have presented in governing equations, respectively. The similarity transformation and the finite-difference method have been used to analyze the present problem.

Keywords: Nonlinearly stretching sheet, heat and mass transfer, radiation effect, viscous effect.

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119 Radiation Effect on MHD Casson Fluid Flow over a Power-Law Stretching Sheet with Chemical Reaction

Authors: Motahar Reza, Rajni Chahal, Neha Sharma

Abstract:

This article addresses the boundary layer flow and heat transfer of Casson fluid over a nonlinearly permeable stretching surface with chemical reaction in the presence of variable magnetic field. The effect of thermal radiation is considered to control the rate of heat transfer at the surface. Using similarity transformations, the governing partial differential equations of this problem are reduced into a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved by finite difference method. It is observed that the velocity at fixed point decreases with increasing the nonlinear stretching parameter but the temperature increases with nonlinear stretching parameter.

Keywords: Boundary layer flow, nonlinear stretching, Casson fluid, heat transfer, radiation.

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118 Unsteady Boundary Layer Flow over a Stretching Sheet in a Micropolar Fluid

Authors: Roslinda Nazar, Anuar Ishak, Ioan Pop

Abstract:

Unsteady boundary layer flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid over a stretching sheet when the sheet is stretched in its own plane is studied in this paper. The stretching velocity is assumed to vary linearly with the distance along the sheet. Two equal and opposite forces are impulsively applied along the x-axis so that the sheet is stretched, keeping the origin fixed in a micropolar fluid. The transformed unsteady boundary layer equations are solved numerically using the Keller-box method for the whole transient from the initial state to final steady-state flow. Numerical results are obtained for the velocity and microrotation distributions as well as the skin friction coefficient for various values of the material parameter K. It is found that there is a smooth transition from the small-time solution to the large-time solution.

Keywords: Boundary layer, micropolar fluid, stretching surface, unsteady flow.

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117 FEM Simulation of Triple Diffusive Magnetohydrodynamics Effect of Nanofluid Flow over a Nonlinear Stretching Sheet

Authors: Rangoli Goyal, Rama Bhargava

Abstract:

The triple diffusive boundary layer flow of nanofluid under the action of constant magnetic field over a non-linear stretching sheet has been investigated numerically. The model includes the effect of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, and cross-diffusion; slip mechanisms which are primarily responsible for the enhancement of the convective features of nanofluid. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations (by using group theory transformations) and solved numerically by using variational finite element method. The effects of various controlling parameters, such as the magnetic influence number, thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter, modified Dufour parameter, and Dufour solutal Lewis number, on the fluid flow as well as on heat and mass transfer coefficients (both of solute and nanofluid) are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. The present study has industrial applications in aerodynamic extrusion of plastic sheets, coating and suspensions, melt spinning, hot rolling, wire drawing, glass-fibre production, and manufacture of polymer and rubber sheets, where the quality of the desired product depends on the stretching rate as well as external field including magnetic effects.

Keywords: FEM, Thermophoresis, Diffusiophoresis, Brownian motion.

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116 Numerical Simulation of unsteady MHD Flow and Heat Transfer of a Second Grade Fluid with Viscous Dissipation and Joule Heating using Meshfree Approach

Authors: R. Bhargava, Sonam Singh

Abstract:

In the present study, a numerical analysis is carried out to investigate unsteady MHD (magneto-hydrodynamic) flow and heat transfer of a non-Newtonian second grade viscoelastic fluid over an oscillatory stretching sheet. The flow is induced due to an infinite elastic sheet which is stretched oscillatory (back and forth) in its own plane. Effect of viscous dissipation and joule heating are taken into account. The non-linear differential equations governing the problem are transformed into system of non-dimensional differential equations using similarity transformations. A newly developed meshfree numerical technique Element free Galerkin method (EFGM) is employed to solve the coupled non linear differential equations. The results illustrating the effect of various parameters like viscoelastic parameter, Hartman number, relative frequency amplitude of the oscillatory sheet to the stretching rate and Eckert number on velocity and temperature field are reported in terms of graphs and tables. The present model finds its application in polymer extrusion, drawing of plastic films and wires, glass, fiber and paper production etc.

Keywords: EFGM, MHD, Oscillatory stretching sheet, Unsteady, Viscoelastic

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115 Similarity Solutions of Nonlinear Stretched Biomagnetic Flow and Heat Transfer with Signum Function and Temperature Power Law Geometries

Authors: M. G. Murtaza, E. E. Tzirtzilakis, M. Ferdows

Abstract:

Biomagnetic fluid dynamics is an interdisciplinary field comprising engineering, medicine, and biology. Bio fluid dynamics is directed towards finding and developing the solutions to some of the human body related diseases and disorders. This article describes the flow and heat transfer of two dimensional, steady, laminar, viscous and incompressible biomagnetic fluid over a non-linear stretching sheet in the presence of magnetic dipole. Our model is consistent with blood fluid namely biomagnetic fluid dynamics (BFD). This model based on the principles of ferrohydrodynamic (FHD). The temperature at the stretching surface is assumed to follow a power law variation, and stretching velocity is assumed to have a nonlinear form with signum function or sign function. The governing boundary layer equations with boundary conditions are simplified to couple higher order equations using usual transformations. Numerical solutions for the governing momentum and energy equations are obtained by efficient numerical techniques based on the common finite difference method with central differencing, on a tridiagonal matrix manipulation and on an iterative procedure. Computations are performed for a wide range of the governing parameters such as magnetic field parameter, power law exponent temperature parameter, and other involved parameters and the effect of these parameters on the velocity and temperature field is presented. It is observed that for different values of the magnetic parameter, the velocity distribution decreases while temperature distribution increases. Besides, the finite difference solutions results for skin-friction coefficient and rate of heat transfer are discussed. This study will have an important bearing on a high targeting efficiency, a high magnetic field is required in the targeted body compartment.

Keywords: Biomagnetic fluid, FHD, nonlinear stretching sheet, slip parameter.

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114 Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids through a Porous Media Due to a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Viscous Dissipation and Chemical Reaction Effects

Authors: Yohannes Yirga, Daniel Tesfay

Abstract:

The convective heat and mass transfer in nanofluid flow through a porous media due to a permeable stretching sheet with magnetic field, viscous dissipation, chemical reaction and Soret effects are numerically investigated. Two types of nanofluids, namely Cu-water and Ag-water were studied. The governing boundary layer equations are formulated and reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Keller box method. Numerical results are obtained for the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number as well as for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for selected values of the governing parameters. Excellent validation of the present numerical results has been achieved with the earlier linearly stretching sheet problems in the literature.

Keywords: Heat and mass transfer, magnetohydrodynamics, nanofluid.

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113 Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Inclined Enclosure

Authors: A. Karimipour, M. Afrand, M. Akbari, M.R. Safaei

Abstract:

Mixed convection in two-dimensional shallow rectangular enclosure is considered. The top hot wall moves with constant velocity while the cold bottom wall has no motion. Simulations are performed for Richardson number ranging from Ri = 0.001 to 100 and for Reynolds number keeping fixed at Re = 408.21. Under these conditions cavity encompasses three regimes: dominating forced, mixed and free convection flow. The Prandtl number is set to 6 and the effects of cavity inclination on the flow and heat transfer are studied for different Richardson number. With increasing the inclination angle, interesting behavior of the flow and thermal fields are observed. The streamlines and isotherm plots and the variation of the Nusselt numbers on the hot wall are presented. The average Nusselt number is found to increase with cavity inclination for Ri ³ 1 . Also it is shown that the average Nusselt number changes mildly with the cavity inclination in the dominant forced convection regime but it increases considerably in the regime with dominant natural convection.

Keywords: Mixed convection, inclined driven cavity, Richardson number.

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112 Effects of Thermal Radiation on Mixed Convection in a MHD Nanofluid Flow over a Stretching Sheet Using a Spectral Relaxation Method

Authors: Nageeb A. H. Haroun, Sabyasachi Mondal, Precious Sibanda

Abstract:

The effects of thermal radiation, Soret and Dufour parameters on mixed convection and nanofluid flow over a stretching sheet in the presence of a magnetic field are investigated. The flow is subject to temperature dependent viscosity and a chemical reaction parameter. It is assumed that the nanoparticle volume fraction at the wall may be actively controlled. The physical problem is modelled using systems of nonlinear differential equations which have been solved numerically using a spectral relaxation method. In addition to the discussion on heat and mass transfer processes, the velocity, nanoparticles volume fraction profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient are determined for different important physical parameters. A comparison of current findings with previously published results for some special cases of the problem shows an excellent agreement.

Keywords: Non-isothermal wedge, thermal radiation, nanofluid, magnetic field, Soret and Dufour effects.

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111 Analysis for MHD Flow of a Maxwell Fluid past a Vertical Stretching Sheet in the Presence of Thermophoresis and Chemical Reaction

Authors: Noor Fadiya Mohd Noor

Abstract:

The hydromagnetic flow of a Maxwell fluid past a vertical stretching sheet with thermophoresis is considered. The impact of chemical reaction species to the flow is analyzed for the first time by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM). The h-curves for the flow boundary layer equations are presented graphically. Several values of wall skin friction, heat and mass transfer are obtained and discussed.

Keywords: homotopy, MHD, thermophoresis, chemical reaction, Maxwell

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110 Unsteady Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids over Stretching Sheet with a Non-Uniform Heat Source/Sink

Authors: Bandaris Shankar, Yohannes Yirga

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of heat and mass transfer in unsteady MHD boundary-layer flow of nanofluids over stretching sheet with a non uniform heat source/sink is considered. The unsteadiness in the flow and temperature is caused by the time-dependent stretching velocity and surface temperature. The unsteady boundary layer equations are transformed to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations and solved numerically using Keller box method. The velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles were obtained and utilized to compute the skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, and local Sherwood number for different values of the governing parameters viz. solid volume fraction parameter, unsteadiness parameter, magnetic field parameter, Schmidt number, space-dependent and temperature-dependent parameters for heat source/sink. A comparison of the numerical results of the present study with previously published data revealed an excellent agreement.

Keywords: Manetohydrodynamics, nanofluid, non-uniform heat source/sink, unsteady.

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109 Slugging Frequency Correlation for Inclined Gas-liquid Flow

Authors: V. Hernandez-Perez, M. Abdulkadir, B. J. Azzopardi

Abstract:

In this work, new experimental data for slugging frequency in inclined gas-liquid flow are reported, and a new correlation is proposed. Scale experiments were carried out using a mixture of air and water in a 6 m long pipe. Two different pipe diameters were used, namely, 38 and 67 mm. The data were taken with capacitance type sensors at a data acquisition frequency of 200 Hz over an interval of 60 seconds. For the range of flow conditions studied, the liquid superficial velocity is observed to influence the frequency strongly. A comparison of the present data with correlations available in the literature reveals a lack of agreement. A new correlation for slug frequency has been proposed for the inclined flow, which represents the main contribution of this work.

Keywords: slug frequency, inclined flow

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108 Dominant Flow Features of Two Inclined Impinging Jets Confined in Large Enclosure

Authors: T. Chammem, H. Mhiri, O. Vauquelin

Abstract:

The present study was provided to examine the vortical structures generated by two inclined impinging jets with experimental and numerical investigations. The jets are issuing with a pitch angle α=40° into a confined quiescent fluid. The experimental investigation on flow patterns was visualized by using olive particles injected into the jets illuminated by Nd:Yag laser light to reveal the finer details of the confined jets interaction. It was observed that two counter-rotating vortex pairs (CVPs) were generated in the near region. A numerical investigation was also performed. First, the numerical results were validates against the experimental results and then the numerical model was used to study the effect of section ratio on the evolution of the CVPs. Our results show promising agreement with experimental data, and indicate that our model has the potential to produce useful and accurate data regarding the evolution of CVPs.

Keywords: Inclined impinging jets, counter-rotating vortex pair, CFD, experimental investigation, section ratio.

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107 Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Inclined Cavity using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Arash Karimipour, A. Hossein Nezhad, E. Shirani, A. Safaei

Abstract:

In this paper, Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is used to study laminar flow with mixed convection heat transfer inside a two-dimensional inclined lid-driven rectangular cavity with aspect ratio AR = 3. Bottom wall of the cavity is maintained at lower temperature than the top lid, and its vertical walls are assumed insulated. Top lid motion results in fluid motion inside the cavity. Inclination of the cavity causes horizontal and vertical components of velocity to be affected by buoyancy force. To include this effect, calculation procedure of macroscopic properties by LBM is changed and collision term of Boltzmann equation is modified. A computer program is developed to simulate this problem using BGK model of lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of the variations of Richardson number and inclination angle on the thermal and flow behavior of the fluid inside the cavity are investigated. The results are presented as velocity and temperature profiles, stream function contours and isotherms. It is concluded that LBM has good potential to simulate mixed convection heat transfer problems.

Keywords: gravity, inclined lid driven cavity, lattice Boltzmannmethod, mixed convection.

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106 Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow Phenomenon in Near Horizontal Upward and Downward Inclined Pipe Orientations

Authors: Afshin J. Ghajar, Swanand M. Bhagwat

Abstract:

The main purpose of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of pipe orientation on two phase flow phenomenon. Flow pattern, void fraction and two phase pressure drop is measured in a polycarbonate pipe with an inside diameter of 12.7mm for inclination angles ranging from -20o to +20o using air-water fluid combination. The experimental data covers all flow patterns and the entire range of void fraction typically observed in two phase flow. The effect of pipe orientation on void fraction and two phase pressure drop is justified with reference to the change in flow structure and two phase flow behavior. In addition to this, the top performing void fraction and two phase pressure drop correlations available in the literature are presented and their performance is assessed against the experimental data in the present study and that available in the literature.

Keywords: Flow patterns, inclined two phase flow, pressure drop, void fraction.

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105 Magnetohydrodynamics Boundary Layer Flows over a Stretching Surface with Radiation Effect and Embedded in Porous Medium

Authors: Siti Khuzaimah Soid, Zanariah Mohd Yusof, Ahmad Sukri Abd Aziz, Seripah Awang Kechil

Abstract:

A steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics flow and heat transfer over a stretching vertical sheet influenced by radiation and porosity is studied. The governing boundary layer equations of partial differential equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. The system is solved numerically by using a finite difference scheme known as the Keller-box method for some values of parameters, namely the radiation parameter N, magnetic parameter M, buoyancy parameter l , Prandtl number Pr and permeability parameter K. The effects of the parameters on the heat transfer characteristics are analyzed and discussed. It is found that both the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number decrease as the magnetic parameter M and permeability parameter K increase. Heat transfer rate at the surface decreases as the radiation parameter increases.

Keywords: Keller-box, MHD boundary layer flow, permeability stretching.

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104 On Leak Localization in the Main Branched and Simple Inclined Gas Pipelines

Authors: T. Davitashvili, G. Gubelidze

Abstract:

In this paper two mathematical models for definition of gas accidental escape localization in the gas pipelines are suggested. The first model was created for leak localization in the horizontal branched pipeline and second one for leak detection in inclined section of the main gas pipeline. The algorithm of leak localization in the branched pipeline did not demand on knowledge of corresponding initial hydraulic parameters at entrance and ending points of each sections of pipeline. For detection of the damaged section and then leak localization in this section special functions and equations have been constructed. Some results of calculations for compound pipelines having two, four and five sections are presented. Also a method and formula for the leak localization in the simple inclined section of the main gas pipeline are suggested. Some results of numerical calculations defining localization of gas escape for the inclined pipeline are presented.

Keywords: Branched and inclined gas pipelines, leak detection, mathematical modeling.

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103 Graded Orientation of the Linear Polymers

Authors: Levan Nadareishvili, Roland Bakuradze, Barbara Kilosanidze, Nona Topuridze, Liana Sharashidze, Ineza Pavlenishvili

Abstract:

Some regularities of formation of a new structural state of the thermoplastic polymers - gradually oriented (stretched) state (GOS) are discussed. Transition into GOS is realized by the graded oriented stretching - by action of inhomogeneous mechanical field on the isotropic linear polymers or by zone stretching that is implemented on a standard tensile-testing machine with using a specially designed zone stretching device (ZSD). Both technical approaches (especially zone stretching method) allows to manage the such quantitative parameters of gradually oriented polymers as a range of change in relative elongation/orientation degree, length of this change and profile (linear, hyperbolic, parabolic, logarithmic, etc.). The possibility of obtaining functionally graded materials (FGMs) by graded orientation method is briefly discussed. Uniaxial graded stretching method should be considered as an effective technological solution to create polymer materials with a predetermined gradient of physical properties.

Keywords: Controlled graded stretching, gradually oriented state, linear polymers, zone stretching device.

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102 Effect of Cavities on the Behaviour of Strip Footing Subjected to Inclined Load

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh

Abstract:

One of the important concerns within the field of geotechnical engineering is the presence of cavities in soils. This present work is an attempt to understand the behaviour of strip footing subjected to inclined load and constructed on cavitied soil. The failure mechanism of strip footing located above such soils was studied analytically. The capability of analytical model to correctly expect the system behaviour is assessed by carrying out verification analysis on available studies. The study was prepared by finite element software (PLAXIS) in which an elastic-perfectly plastic soil model was used. It was indicated, from the results of the study, that the load carrying capacity of foundation constructed on cavity can be analysed well using such analysis. The research covered many foundation cases, and in each foundation case, there occurs a critical depth under which the presence of cavities has shown minimum impact on the foundation performance. When cavities are found above this critical depth, the load carrying capacity of the foundation differs with many influences, such as the location and size of the cavity and footing depth. Figures involving the load carrying capacity with the affecting factors studied are presented. These figures offer information beneficial for the design of strip footings rested on underground cavities. Moreover, the results might be used to design a shallow foundation constructed on cavitied soil, whereas the obtained failure mechanisms may be employed to improve numerical solutions for this kind of problems.

Keywords: Axial load, cavity, inclined load, strip footing.

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101 Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Deep Excavation on Adjacent Pile Groups Subjected to Inclined Loading

Authors: Ashkan Shafee, Ahmad Fahimifar

Abstract:

There is a growing demand for construction of high-rise buildings and infrastructures in large cities, which sometimes require deep excavations in the vicinity of pile foundations. In this study, a two-dimensional finite element analysis is used to gain insight into the response of pile groups adjacent to deep excavations in sand. The numerical code was verified by available experimental works, and a parametric study was performed on different working load combinations, excavation depth and supporting system. The results show that the simple two-dimensional plane strain model can accurately simulate the excavation induced changes on adjacent pile groups. It was found that further excavation than pile toe level and also inclined loading on adjacent pile group can severely affect the serviceability of the foundation.

Keywords: Deep excavation, pile group, inclined loading, lateral deformation.

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100 Heat Transfer and Frictional Characteristics in Rectangular Channel with Inclined Perforated Baffles

Authors: Se Kyung Oh, Ary Bachtiar Krishna Putra, Soo Whan Ahn

Abstract:

A numerical study on the turbulent flow and heat transfer characteristics in the rectangular channel with different types of baffles is carried out. The inclined baffles have the width of 19.8 cm, the square diamond type hole having one side length of 2.55 cm, and the inclination angle of 5o. Reynolds number is varied between 23,000 and 57,000. The SST turbulence model is applied in the calculation. The validity of the numerical results is examined by the experimental data. The numerical results of the flow field depict that the flow patterns around the different baffle type are entirely different and these significantly affect the local heat transfer characteristics. The heat transfer and friction factor characteristics are significantly affected by the perforation density of the baffle plate. It is found that the heat transfer enhancement of baffle type II (3 hole baffle) has the best values.

Keywords: Turbulent flow, rectangular channel, inclined baffle, heat transfer, friction factor.

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99 Simulation of Natural Convection in Concentric Annuli between an Outer Inclined Square Enclosure and an Inner Horizontal Cylinder

Authors: Sattar Al-Jabair, Laith J. Habeeb

Abstract:

In this work, the natural convection in a concentric annulus between a cold outer inclined square enclosure and heated inner circular cylinder is simulated for two-dimensional steady state. The Boussinesq approximation was applied to model the buoyancy-driven effect and the governing equations were solved using the time marching approach staggered by body fitted coordinates. The coordinate transformation from the physical domain to the computational domain is set up by an analytical expression. Numerical results for Rayleigh numbers 103 , 104 , 105 and 106, aspect ratios 1.5 , 3.0 and 4.5 for seven different inclination angles for the outer square enclosure 0o , -30o , -45o , -60o , -90o , -135o , -180o are presented as well. The computed flow and temperature fields were demonstrated in the form of streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt numbers variation. It is found that both the aspect ratio and the Rayleigh number are critical to the patterns of flow and thermal fields. At all Rayleigh numbers angle of inclination has nominal effect on heat transfer.

Keywords: natural convection, concentric annulus, square inclined enclosure

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