Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Non-isothermal wedge

23 Ion-Acoustic Double Layer in a Plasma with Two- Temperature Nonisothermal Electrons and Charged Dust Grains

Authors: Basudev Ghosh, Sreyasi Banerjee

Abstract:

Using the pseudopotential technique the Sagdeev potential equation has been derived in a plasma consisting of twotemperature nonisothermal electrons, negatively charged dust grains and warm positive ions. The study shows that the presence of nonisothermal two-temperature electrons and charged dust grains have significant effects on the excitation and structure of the ionacoustic double layers in the model plasma under consideration. Only compressive type double layer is obtained in the present plasma model. The double layer solution has also been obtained by including higher order nonlinearity and nonisothermality, which is shown to modify the amplitude and deform the shape of the double layer.

Keywords: Two temperature non-isothermal electrons and charged dust grains.

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22 Performance of Modified Wedge Anchorage System for Pre-Stressed FRP Bars

Authors: Othman S. Alsheraida, Sherif El-Gamal

Abstract:

Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is a composite material with exceptional properties that are capable to replace conventional steel reinforcement in reinforced and pre-stressed concrete structures. However, the main obstacle for their wide use in pre-stressed concrete application is the anchorage system. Due to the weakness of FRP in the transverse direction, the pre-stressing capacity of FRP bars are limited. This paper investigates the modification of the conventional wedge anchorage system to be used for stressing of FRP bars in pre-stressed applications. Epoxy adhesive material with glass FRP (GFRP) bars and conventional steel wedge were used in this paper. The GFRP bars are encased with epoxy at the anchor zone and the wedge system was used in pull-out test. The results showed a loading capacity of 47.6 kN which is 69% of the bar ultimate capacity. Additionally, nylon wedge was made with the same dimensions of the steel wedge and tested for GFRP bars without epoxy layer. The nylon wedge showed a loading capacity of 19.7 kN which is only 28.5% of the ultimate bar capacity.

Keywords: Anchorage, concrete, epoxy, FRP, pre-stressed.

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21 Study of Anti-Symmetric Flexural Mode Propagation along Wedge Tip with a Crack

Authors: Manikanta Prasad Banda, Che Hua Yang

Abstract:

Anti-symmetric wave propagation along the particle motion of the wedge waves is known as anti-symmetric flexural (ASF) modes which travel along the wedge tips of the mid-plane apex with a small truncation. This paper investigates the characteristics of the ASF modes propagation with the wedge tip crack. The simulation and experimental results obtained by a three-dimensional (3-D) finite element model explained the contact acoustic non-linear (CAN) behavior in explicit dynamics in ABAQUS and the ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) method is used for defect detection. The effect of various parameters on its high and low-level conversion modes are known for complex reflections and transmissions involved with direct reflections and transmissions. The results are used to predict the location of crack through complex transmission and reflection coefficients.

Keywords: ASF mode, crack detection, finite elements method, laser ultrasound technique, wedge waves.

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20 MHD Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Wedge Shaped Wick in Heat Pipe

Authors: Ziya Uddin

Abstract:

This paper deals with the theoretical and numerical investigation of magneto hydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a wedge shaped wick in heat pipe used for the cooling of electronic components and different type of machines. To incorporate the effect of nanoparticle diameter, concentration of nanoparticles in the pure fluid, nanothermal layer formed around the nanoparticle and Brownian motion of nanoparticles etc., appropriate models are used for the effective thermal and physical properties of nanofluids. To model the rotation of nanoparticles inside the base fluid, microfluidics theory is used. In this investigation ethylene glycol (EG) based nanofluids, are taken into account. The non-linear equations governing the flow and heat transfer are solved by using a very effective particle swarm optimization technique along with Runge-Kutta method. The values of heat transfer coefficient are found for different parameters involved in the formulation viz. nanoparticle concentration, nanoparticle size, magnetic field and wedge angle etc. It is found that, the wedge angle, presence of magnetic field, nanoparticle size and nanoparticle concentration etc. have prominent effects on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics for the considered configuration.

Keywords: Heat transfer, Heat pipe, numerical modeling, nanofluid applications, particle swarm optimization, wedge shaped wick.

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19 Gyrotactic Microorganisms Mixed Convection Nanofluid Flow along an Isothermal Vertical Wedge in Porous Media

Authors: A. Mahdy

Abstract:

The main objective of the present article is to explore the state of mixed convection nanofluid flow of gyrotactic microorganisms from an isothermal vertical wedge in porous medium. In our pioneering investigation, the easiest possible boundary conditions have been employed, in other words when the temperature, the nanofluid and motile microorganisms’ density have been considered to be constant on the wedge wall. Adding motile microorganisms to the nanofluid tends to enhance microscale mixing, mass transfer, and improve the nanofluid stability. Upon the Oberbeck–Boussinesq approximation and non-similarity transmutation, the paradigm of nonlinear equations are obtained and tackled numerically by using the R.K. Gill and shooting methods to obtain the dimensionless velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration and motile microorganisms density together with the reduced Sherwood, Nusselt, and numbers. Bioconvection parameters have strong effect upon the motile microorganism, heat, and volume fraction of nanoparticle transport rates. In the case when bioconvection is neglected, the obtained computations were found in very good agreement with the previous published data.

Keywords: Bioconvection, wedge, gyrotactic microorganisms, porous media, nanofluid, mixed.

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18 Numerical Simulation of Fluid-Structure Interaction on Wedge Slamming Impact Using Particle Method

Authors: Sung-Chul Hwang, Di Ren, Sang-Moon Yoon, Jong-Chun Park, Abbas Khayyer, Hitoshi Gotoh

Abstract:

This paper presents a fully Lagrangian coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) solver for simulations of fluid-structure interactions, which is based on the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method to solve the governing equations corresponding to incompressible flows as well as elastic structures. The developed solver is verified by reproducing the high velocity impact loads of deformable thin wedges with three different materials such as mild steel, aluminium and tin during water entry. The present simulation results for aluminium are compared with analytical solution derived from the hydrodynamic Wagner model and linear Wan’s theory. And also, the impact pressure and strain on the water entry wedge with three different materials, such as mild steel, aluminium and tin, are simulated and the effects of hydro-elasticity are discussed.

Keywords: Fluid-structure interaction (FSI), Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, Elastic structure, Incompressible fluid Wedge slamming impact.

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17 Dislocation Modelling of the 1997-2009 High-Precision Global Positioning System Displacements in Darjiling- Sikkim Himalaya, India

Authors: Kutubuddin Ansari, Malay Mukul, Sridevi Jade

Abstract:

We used high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS) to geodetically constrain the motion of stations in the Darjiling-Sikkim Himalayan (DSH) wedge and examine the deformation at the Indian-Tibetan plate boundary using IGS (International GPS Service) fiducial stations. High-precision GPS based displacement and velocity field was measured in the DSH between 1997 and 2009. To obtain additional insight north of the Indo-Tibetan border and in the Darjiling-Sikkim-Tibet (DaSiT) wedge, published velocities from four stations J037, XIGA, J029 and YADO were also included in the analysis. India-fixed velocities or the back-slip was computed relative to the pole of rotation of the Indian Plate (Latitude 52.97 ± 0.22º, Longitude - 0.30 ± 3.76º, and Angular Velocity 0.500 ± 0.008º/ Myr) in the DaSiT wedge. Dislocation modelling was carried out with the back-slip to model the best possible solution of a finite rectangular dislocation or the causative fault based on dislocation theory that produced the observed back-slip using a forward modelling approach. To find the best possible solution, three different models were attempted. First, slip along a single thrust fault, then two thrust faults and in finally, three thrust faults were modelled to simulate the back-slip in the DaSiT wedge. The three-fault case bests the measured displacements and is taken as the best possible solution.

Keywords: Global Positioning System, Darjiling-Sikkim Himalaya, Dislocation modelling.

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16 Reflection Performance of Truncated Pyramidal and Truncated Wedge Microwave Absorber Using Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB)

Authors: Liyana Zahid, Mohd Fareq Abd Malek, Ee Meng Cheng, Wei Wen Liu, Yeng Seng Lee, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal, Fwen Hoon Wee, Farrah Salwani Abdullah

Abstract:

One of the parameters that affect the performance of microwave absorbers is the shape of the absorbers. This paper shows the performance (reflection loss) of truncated pyramidal and truncated wedge microwave absorbers in the range frequency between 8.2 to 12.4 GHz (X-Band) in simulation. The material used is sugarcane bagasse (SCB) which is one of the new materials that used to fabricate the microwave absorber. The complex permittivity was measured using Agilent dielectric probe technique. The designs were simulated using CST Microwave Studio Software. The reflection losses between these two shapes were compared.

Keywords: Microwave Absorber, Reflection Loss, Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB), X- Band.

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15 Lightweight High-Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Compressor for Vehicles-Investigation of Pipe Diffuser Designs by Means of CFD

Authors: Eleni Ioannou, Pascal Nucara, Keith Pullen

Abstract:

The subject of this paper is the investigation of the best efficiency design of a compressor diffuser applied in new lightweight, ultra efficient micro-gas turbine engines for vehicles. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results are obtained utilizing steady state simulations for a wedge and an ”oval” type pipe diffuser in an effort to identify the beneficial effects of the pipe diffuser design. The basic flow features are presented with particular focus on the optimization of the pipe diffuser leading to higher efficiencies for the compressor stage. The optimised pipe diffuser is designed to exploit the 3D freedom enabled by Selective Laser Melting, hence purposely involves an investigation of geometric characteristics that do not follow the traditional diffuser concept.

Keywords: CFD, centrifugal compressor, micro-gas turbine, pipe diffuser, SLM, wedge diffuser.

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14 Measurement of Convective Heat Transfer from a Vertical Flat Plate Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with Wedge Fringe Setting

Authors: Divya Haridas, C. B. Sobhan

Abstract:

Laser interferometric methods have been utilized for the measurement of natural convection heat transfer from a heated vertical flat plate, in the investigation presented here. The study mainly aims at comparing two different fringe orientations in the wedge fringe setting of Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), used for the measurements. The interference fringes are set in horizontal and vertical orientations with respect to the heated surface, and two different fringe analysis methods, namely the stepping method and the method proposed by Naylor and Duarte, are used to obtain the heat transfer coefficients. The experimental system is benchmarked with theoretical results, thus validating its reliability in heat transfer measurements. The interference fringe patterns are analyzed digitally using MATLAB 7 and MOTIC Plus softwares, which ensure improved efficiency in fringe analysis, hence reducing the errors associated with conventional fringe tracing. The work also discuss the relative merits and limitations of the two methods used.

Keywords: MZI, Natural Convection, Naylor Method, Vertical Flat Plate.

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13 MHD Falkner-Skan Boundary Layer Flow with Internal Heat Generation or Absorption

Authors: G.Ashwini, A.T.Eswara

Abstract:

This paper examines the forced convection flow of incompressible, electrically conducting viscous fluid past a sharp wedge in the presence of heat generation or absorption with an applied magnetic field. The system of partial differential equations governing Falkner - Skan wedge flow and heat transfer is first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations which is later solved using an implicit finite - difference scheme, along with quasilinearization technique. Numerical computations are performed for air (Pr = 0.7) and displayed graphically to illustrate the influence of pertinent physical parameters on local skin friction and heat transfer coefficients and, also on, velocity and temperature fields. It is observed that the magnetic field increases both the coefficients of skin friction and heat transfer. The effect of heat generation or absorption is found to be very significant on heat transfer, but its effect on the skin friction is negligible. Indeed, the occurrence of overshoot is noticed in the temperature profiles during heat generation process, causing the reversal in the direction of heat transfer.

Keywords: Heat generation / absorption, MHD Falkner- Skan flow, skin friction and heat transfer

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12 Spectral Investigation for Boundary Layer Flow over a Permeable Wall in the Presence of Transverse Magnetic Field

Authors: Saeed Sarabadan, Mehran Nikarya, Kouroah Parand

Abstract:

The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Falkner-Skan equations appear in study of laminar boundary layers flow over a wedge in presence of a transverse magnetic field. The partial differential equations of boundary layer problems in presence of a transverse magnetic field are reduced to MHD Falkner-Skan equation by similarity solution methods. This is a nonlinear ordinary differential equation. In this paper, we solve this equation via spectral collocation method based on Bessel functions of the first kind. In this approach, we reduce the solution of the nonlinear MHD Falkner-Skan equation to a solution of a nonlinear algebraic equations system. Then, the resulting system is solved by Newton method. We discuss obtained solution by studying the behavior of boundary layer flow in terms of skin friction, velocity, various amounts of magnetic field and angle of wedge. Finally, the results are compared with other methods mentioned in literature. We can conclude that the presented method has better accuracy than others.

Keywords: MHD Falkner-Skan, nonlinear ODE, spectral collocation method, Bessel functions, skin friction, velocity.

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11 Study of a Four-Bed Pressure Swing Adsorption for Oxygen Separation from Air

Authors: Moghadazadeh Zahra, Towfighi Jafar, Mofarahi Masoud

Abstract:

This article is presented an experimental and modeling study of a four-bed pressure swing adsorption process using zeolite13X to provide oxygen-enriched air. The binary mixture N2/O2 (79/21 vol %) was used as a feed stream. The effects of purge/feed ratio (P/F), adsorption pressure, cyclic time and product flow rate on product purity and recovery under nonisothermal condition were studied. The adsorption dynamics of process were determined using a mathematical model incorporated mass and energy balances. A Mathlab code using finite difference method was developed to solve the set of coupled differential-algebraic equations, and the simulation results are agreed well with experimental results.

Keywords: Pressure swing adsorption (PSA), Oxygen, Zeolite 13X.

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10 Overtopping Protection Systems for Overflow Earth Dams

Authors: Omid Pourabdollah, Mohsen Misaghian

Abstract:

Overtopping is known as one the most important reasons for the failure of earth dams. In some cases, it has resulted in heavy damages and losses. Therefore, enhancing the safety of earth dams against overtopping has received much attention in the past four decades. In this paper, at first, the overtopping phenomena and its destructive consequences will be introduced. Then, overtopping failure mechanism of embankments will be described. Finally, different types of protection systems for stabilization of earth dams against overtopping will be presented. These include timber cribs, riprap and gabions, reinforced earth, roller compacted concrete, and the precast concrete blocks.

Keywords: Embankment dam, overtopping, roller compacted concrete, wedge concrete block.

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9 Lemon Effect on Some Elements in Turkish Teas

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, O. Dere Ozdemir, E. Moroydor Derun, M. B. Piskin

Abstract:

Tea has several types of essential elements. Potassium, magnesium and phosphorus are some examples of these elements. Tea is widely used drink in Turkey, also some people puts a lemon wedge to tea for different taste. In this study potassium, magnesium and phosphorus contents after the hot water brewing of black and green tea were determined by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICPOES). Furthermore, how the lemon addition to teas affects the concentrations of the potassium, magnesium and phosphorus amount are investigated. From the results, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus concentrations are found as 3003.3, 597.1, 1167.2 ppm in black tea and 3718.0, 3830.5, 376.4 ppm in green tea, respectively. After lemon addition potassium, magnesium and phosphorus concentrations are changed to 14930, 830.4, 1113.5 ppm in black tea and 15460.0, 909.5, 1152.5 ppm in green tea, respectively. It is seen that lemon addition affects some essential elements in black and green Turkish teas.

Keywords: Hot water brewing, ICP-OES, lemon, tea

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8 Cr, Fe and Se Contents of the Turkish Black and Green Teas and the Effect of Lemon Addition

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, A. S. Kipcak, O. Dere Ozdemir, M. B. Piskin

Abstract:

Tea is consumed by a big part of the world-s population. It has an enormous importance for the Turkish culture. Nearly it is brewed every morning and evening at the all houses. Also it is consumed with lemon wedge. Habitual drinking of tea infusions may significantly contribute to daily dietary requirements of elements. Different instrumental techniques are used for determination of these elements. But atomic and mass spectroscopic methods are preferred most. In these study chromium, iron and selenium contents after the hot water brewing of black and green tea were determined by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Furthermore, effect of lemon addition on chromium, iron and selenium concentration tea infusions is investigated. Results of the investigation showed that concentration of chromium, iron and selenium increased in black tea with lemon addition. On the other hand only selenium is increased with lemon addition in green tea. And iron concentration is not detected in green tea but its concentration is determined as 1.420 ppm after lemon addition.

Keywords: Black tea, green tea, ICP-OES, lemon

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7 Reliable One-Dimensional Model of Two-Dimensional Insulated Oval Duct Considering Heat Radiation

Authors: King-Leung Wong, Wen-Lih Chen, Yu-feng Chang

Abstract:

The reliable results of an insulated oval duct considering heat radiation are obtained basing on accurate oval perimeter obtained by integral method as well as one-dimensional Plane Wedge Thermal Resistance (PWTR) model. This is an extension study of former paper of insulated oval duct neglecting heat radiation. It is found that in the practical situations with long-short-axes ratio a/b <= 5/1, heat transfer rate errors are within 1.2 % by comparing with accurate two-dimensional numerical solutions for most practical dimensionless insulated thickness (t/R2 <= 0.5). On the contrary, neglecting the heat radiation effect is likely to produce very big heat transfer rate errors of non-insulated (E>43% at t/R2=0) and thin-insulated (E>4.5% while t/R2<= 0.1) oval ducts in situations of ambient air with lower external convection heat coefficients and larger surface emissivity.

Keywords: Heat convection, heat radiation, oval duct, PWTR model.

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6 Effects of Thermal Radiation on Mixed Convection in a MHD Nanofluid Flow over a Stretching Sheet Using a Spectral Relaxation Method

Authors: Nageeb A. H. Haroun, Sabyasachi Mondal, Precious Sibanda

Abstract:

The effects of thermal radiation, Soret and Dufour parameters on mixed convection and nanofluid flow over a stretching sheet in the presence of a magnetic field are investigated. The flow is subject to temperature dependent viscosity and a chemical reaction parameter. It is assumed that the nanoparticle volume fraction at the wall may be actively controlled. The physical problem is modelled using systems of nonlinear differential equations which have been solved numerically using a spectral relaxation method. In addition to the discussion on heat and mass transfer processes, the velocity, nanoparticles volume fraction profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient are determined for different important physical parameters. A comparison of current findings with previously published results for some special cases of the problem shows an excellent agreement.

Keywords: Non-isothermal wedge, thermal radiation, nanofluid, magnetic field, Soret and Dufour effects.

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5 Effect of Confinement on the Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Spread Foundations

Authors: Tahsin Toma Sabbagh, Ihsan Al-Abboodi, Ali Al-Jazaairry

Abstract:

Allowable-bearing capacity is the competency of soil to safely carries the pressure from the superstructure without experiencing a shear failure with accompanying excessive settlements. Ensuring a safe bearing pressure with respect to failure does not tolerate settlement of the foundation will be within acceptable limits. Therefore, settlement analysis should always be performed since most structures are settlement sensitive. When visualising the movement of a soil wedge in the bearing capacity criterion, both vertically and horizontally, it becomes clear that by confining the soil surrounding the foundation, both the bearing capacity and settlement values improve. In this study, two sizes of spread foundation were considered; (2×4) m and (3×5) m. These represent two real problem case studies of an existing building. The foundations were analysed in terms of dimension as well as position with respect to a confining wall (i.e., sheet piles on both sides). Assuming B is the least foundation dimension, the study comprised the analyses of three distances; (0.1 B), (0.5 B), and (0.75 B) between the sheet piles and foundations alongside three depths of confinement (0.5 B), (1 B), and (1.5 B). Nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis (ANSYS) was adopted to perform an analytical investigation on the behaviour of the two foundations contained by the case study. Results showed that confinement of foundations reduced the overall stresses near the foundation by 65% and reduced the vertical displacement by 90%. Moreover, the most effective distance between the confinement wall and the foundation was found to be 0.5 B.

Keywords: Bearing capacity, cohesionless soils, spread footings, soil confinement, soil modelling.

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4 A Fundamental Study on the Anchor Performance of Non-Surface Treated Multi CFRP Tendons

Authors: Woo-tai Jung, Jong-sup Park, Jae-yoon Kang, Moon-seoung Keum

Abstract:

CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) is mainly used as reinforcing material for degraded structures owing to its advantages including its non-corrodibility, high strength and lightweight properties. Recently, dedicated studies focused not only on its simple bonding but also on its tensioning. The tension necessary for prestressing requires the anchoring of multi-CFRP tendons with high capacity and the surface treatment of the CFRP tendons may also constitute an important issue according to the type of anchor. The wedge type, swage type or bonded type anchor can be used to anchor the CFRP tendon. The bonded type anchor presents the disadvantage to lengthen the length of the anchor due to the low bond strength of the CFRP tendon without surface treatment. This study intends to overcome this drawback through the application of a method enlarging the bond area at the end of the CFRP tendon. This method enlarges the bond area by splitting the end of the CFRP tendon along its length and can be applied when CFRP is produced by pultrusion. The application of this method shows that the mono-CFRP tendon and 3-multi CFRP tendon secured the anchor performance corresponding to the tensile performance of the CFRP tendon and that the 7-multi tendon secured anchor performance corresponding to 90% of the tensile strength due to the occurrence of buckling in the steel tube anchorage. 

Keywords: Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), Tendon, Anchor, Tensile property, Bond strength.

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3 Analysis of Highway Slope Failure by an Application of the Stereographic Projection

Authors: Chin-Yu Lee, Iau-Teh Wang

Abstract:

The mountain road slope failures triggered by earthquake activities and torrential rain namely to create the disaster. Province Road No. 24 is a main route to the Wutai Township. The area of the study is located at the mileages between 46K and 47K along the road. However, the road has been suffered frequent damages as a result of landslide and slope failures during typhoon seasons. An understanding of the sliding behaviors in the area appears to be necessary. Slope failures triggered by earthquake activities and heavy rainfalls occur frequently. The study is to understand the mechanism of slope failures and to look for the way to deal with the situation. In order to achieve these objectives, this paper is based on theoretical and structural geology data interpretation program to assess the potential slope sliding behavior. The study showed an intimate relationship between the landslide behavior of the slopes and the stratum materials, based on structural geology analysis method to analysis slope stability and finds the slope safety coefficient to predict the sites of destroyed layer. According to the case study and parameter analyses results, the slope mainly slips direction compared to the site located in the southeast area. Find rainfall to result in the rise of groundwater level is main reason of the landslide mechanism. Future need to set up effective horizontal drain at corrective location, that can effective restrain mountain road slope failures and increase stability of slope.

Keywords: slope stability analysis, Stereographic Projection, wedge Failure.

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2 Evaluation of Sensitometric Properties of Radiographic Films at Different Processing Solutions

Authors: Mojiri M, Ghazi Khanloo Sani K, Moghim Beigi A

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to compare the sensitometric properties of commonly used radiographic films processed with chemical solutions in different workload hospitals. The effect of different processing conditions on induced densities on radiologic films was investigated. Two accessible double emulsions Fuji and Kodak films were exposed with 11-step wedge and processed with Champion and CPAC processing solutions. The mentioned films provided in both workloads centers, high and low. Our findings displays that the speed and contrast of Kodak filmscreen in both work load (high and low) is higher than Fuji filmscreen for both processing solutions. However there was significant differences in films contrast for both workloads when CPAC solution had been used (p=0.000 and 0.028). The results showed base plus fog density for Kodak film was lower than Fuji. Generally Champion processing solution caused more speed and contrast for investigated films in different conditions and there was significant differences in 95% confidence level between two used processing solutions (p=0.01). Low base plus fog density for Kodak films provide more visibility and accuracy and higher contrast results in using lower exposure factors to obtain better quality in resulting radiographs. In this study we found an economic advantages since Champion solution and Kodak film are used while it makes lower patient dose. Thus, in a radiologic facility any change in film processor/processing cycle or chemistry should be carefully investigated before radiological procedures of patients are acquired.

Keywords: Sensitometry, densitometry, Radiographic film, processing solution

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1 An Evaluation Method for Two-Dimensional Position Errors and Assembly Errors of a Rotational Table on a 4 Axis Machine Tool

Authors: Jooho Hwang, Chang-Kyu Song, Chun-Hong Park

Abstract:

This paper describes a method to measure and compensate a 4 axes ultra-precision machine tool that generates micro patterns on the large surfaces. The grooving machine is usually used for making a micro mold for many electrical parts such as a light guide plate for LCD and fuel cells. The ultra precision machine tool has three linear axes and one rotational table. Shaping is usually used to generate micro patterns. In the case of 50 μm pitch and 25 μm height pyramid pattern machining with a 90° wedge angle bite, one of linear axis is used for long stroke motion for high cutting speed and other linear axis are used for feeding. The triangular patterns can be generated with many times of long stroke of one axis. Then 90° rotation of work piece is needed to make pyramid patterns with superposition of machined two triangular patterns. To make a two dimensional positioning error, straightness of two axes in out of plane, squareness between the each axis are important. Positioning errors, straightness and squarness were measured by laser interferometer system. Those were compensated and confirmed by ISO230-6. One of difficult problem to measure the error motions is squareness or parallelism of axis between the rotational table and linear axis. It was investigated by simultaneous moving of rotary table and XY axes. This compensation method is introduced in this paper.

Keywords: Ultra-precision machine tool, muti-axis errors, squraness, positioning errors.

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