Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 682

Search results for: fermented organic substances.

682 Sweetpotato Organic Cultivation with Wood Vinegar, Entomopathogenic Nematode and Fermented Organic Substance from Plants

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, P. Tayamanont, R. Kurubunjerdjit

Abstract:

The effect of wood vinegar, entomopathogenic nematodes ((Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.) and fermented organic substances from four plants such as: Derris elliptica Roxb, Stemona tuberosa Lour, Tinospora crispa Mier and Azadirachta indica J. were tested on the five varieties of sweetpotato with potential for bioethanol production ie. Taiwan, China, PROC No.65-16, Phichit 166-5, and Phichit 129-6. The experimental plots were located at Faculty of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of the five treatments for growth, yield and insect infestation on the five varieties of sweetpotato. Treatment with entomopathogenic nematodes gave the highest average weight of sweetpotato tubers (1.3 kg/tuber), followed by wood vinegar, fermented organic substances and mixed treatment with yields of 0.88, 0.46 and 0.43 kg/tuber, respectively. Also the entomopathogenic nematode treatment gave significantly higher average width and length of sweet potato (9.82 cm and 9.45 cm, respectively). Additionally, the entomopathogenic nematode provided the best control of insect infestation on sweetpotato leaves and tubers. Comparison among the varieties of sweetpotato, PROC NO.65-16 showed the highest weight and length. However, Phichit 129-6 gave significantly higher weight of 0.94 kg/tuber. Lastly, the lowest sweet potato weevil infestation on leaves and tubers occurred on Taiwan and Phichit 129-6.

Keywords: Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas), sweetpotato weevil (Cylas formicarius Fabr), wood vinegar, Entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), fermented organic substances.

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681 Acute and Chronic Effect of Biopesticide on Infestation of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on the Culantro Cultivation

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, S. Chuenchooklin

Abstract:

Acute and chronic effects of biopesticide from entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens), wood vinegar and fermented organic substances from plants: (neem Azadirachta indica + citronella grass Cymbopogon nardus Rendle + bitter bush Chromolaena odorata L.) were tested on culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.). The biopesticide was investigated for infestation reduction of the major insect pest whitefly (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)). The experimental plots were located at a farm in Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand. This study was undertaken during the drought season (late November to May). Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated in terms of acute and chronic effect. The populations of whitefly were observed and recorded every hour up to 3 hours with insect nets and yellow sticky traps after the treatments were applied for the acute effect. The results showed that bacteria ISR had the highest effectiveness for controlling whitefly infestation on culantro; the whitefly numbers on insect nets were 12.5, 10.0 and 7.5 after 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr, respectively while the whitefly on yellow sticky traps showed 15.0, 10.0 and 10.0 after 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr, respectively. For chronic effect, the whitefly was continuously collected and recorded at weekly intervals; the result showed that treatment of bacteria ISR found the average whitefly numbers only 8.06 and 11.0 on insect nets and sticky traps respectively, followed by treatment of nematode where the average whitefly was 9.87 and 11.43 on the insect nets and sticky traps, respectively. In addition, the minor insect pests were also observed and collected. The biopesticide influenced the reduction number of minor insect pests (red spider mites, beet armyworm, short-horned grasshopper, pygmy locusts, etc.) with only a few found on the culantro cultivation.

Keywords: Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius), Culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.), Entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), Bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens), wood vinegar, fermented organic substances.

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680 Possibilities of using a Portable Continuous Concentrator for Detection and Identification of Explosives

Authors: Z. Večeřa, P. Mikuška, J. Kellner, J. Navrátil, A. Langerová

Abstract:

The submitted paper deals with the problems of trapping and enriching the gases and aerosols of the substances to be determined in the ambient atmosphere. Further, the paper is focused on the working principle of the miniaturized portable continuous concentrator we have designed and the possibilities of its application in air sampling and accumulation of organic and inorganic substances with which the air is contaminated. The stress is laid on trapping vapours and aerosols of solid substances with the comparatively low vapour tension such as explosive compounds.

Keywords: Detectors of explosives, portable continuousconcentrator, misuse of explosive, terrorism.

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679 The Effects of Feeding Dried Fermented Cassava Peel on Milk Production and Composition of Etawah Crossedbred Goat

Authors: Y. Suranindyah, A. Astuti

Abstract:

Twelve lactating Etawah Crossedbred goats were used in this study. Goat feed consisted of Cally andra callothyrsus, Pennisetum purpureum, wheat bran and dried fermented cassava peel. The cassava peels were fermented with a traditional culture called “ragi tape" (mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisae, Aspergillus sp, Candida, Hasnula and Acetobacter). The goats were divided into 2 groups (Control and Treated) of six does. The experimental diet of the Control group consisted of 70% of roughage (fresh Callyandra callothyrsus and Pennisetum purpureum 60:40) and 30% of wheat bran on dry matter (DM) base. In the Treated group 30% of wheat bran was replaced with dried fermented cassava peels. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance followed SPSS program. The concentration of HCN in fermented cassava peel decreased to non toxic level. Nutrient composition of dried fermented cassava peel consisted of 85.75% dry matter; 5.80% crude protein and 82.51% total digestible nutrien (TDN). Substitution of 30% of wheat bran with dried fermented cassava peel in the diet had no effect on dry matter and organic matter intake but significantly (P< 0.05) decreased crude protein and TDN consumption as well as milk yields and milk composition. The study recommended to reduced the level of substitution to less than 30% of concentrates in the diet in order to avoid low nutrient intake and milk production of goats.

Keywords: Fermented Cassava Peel, Milk Production, Composition, Etawah Crossedbred Goat.

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678 The Relations of Volatile Compounds, Some Parameters and Consumer Preference of Commercial Fermented Milks in Thailand

Authors: Suttipong Phosuksirikul, Rawichar Chaipojjana, Arunsri Leejeerajumnean

Abstract:

The aim of research was to define the relations between volatile compounds, some parameters (pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solid (TSS), lactic acid bacteria count) and consumer preference of commercial fermented milks. These relations tend to be used for controlling and developing new fermented milk product. Three leading commercial brands of fermented milks in Thailand were evaluated by consumers (n=71) using hedonic scale for four attributes (sweetness, sourness, flavour, and overall liking), volatile compounds using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS, pH, TA, TSS and LAB count. Then the relations were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA data showed that all of four attributes liking scores were related to each other. They were also related to TA, TSS and volatile compounds. The related volatile compounds were mainly on fermented produced compounds including acetic acid, furanmethanol, furfural, octanoic acid and the volatiles known as artificial fruit flavour (beta pinene, limonene, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin). These compounds were provided the information about flavour addition in commercial fermented milk in Thailand.

Keywords: Fermented milk, volatile compounds, preference, PCA.

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677 Preliminary Study of Fermented Pickle of Tabah Bamboo Shoot (Gigantochloa nigrociliata (Buese) Kurz)

Authors: Luh Putu T. Darmayanti, A. A. Duwipayana, I Nengah K. Putra, Nyoman S. Antara

Abstract:

Processing tabah bamboo shoot as fermented pickle is one of the way to increase the shelf life of this bamboo shoot. The advantage of this shoot is low concentration of hydro cyanic acid (HCN) make it potential for functional food product. This study aimed to determine the characteristic of tabah bamboo shoot pickle such as total of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), pH, total acidity, and hydro cyanic acid (HCN) content, and also find the LAB’s type involved during fermentation, and organic acids’ profiles. The pickle was made by natural fermentation with 6% salt concentration and fermentation conducted for 13 days. The result showed during the fermentation time, in the 4th day LAB’s number was highest as much as 72 x 107 CFU/ml and the lowest pH was 3.09. We also found decreasing in HCN from 37.8 ppm at the beginning to 20.52 ppm at the end of fermentation process. The organic acids detected during the fermentation were lactic acid with the highest concentration was 0.0546 g/100 g and small amount of acetic acid. By using PCR method, the 18 of LABs which had rod shape were detected as member of Lactobacillus spp., in which 17 strains detected as L. plantarum.

Keywords: Fermentation, LAB, pickle, tabah bamboo shoot.

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676 Bioactive Component in Milk and Dairy Product

Authors: Bahareh Hajirostamloo

Abstract:

Recent research has shown that milk proteins can yield bioactive peptides with opioid, mineral binding, cytomodulatory, antihypertensive, immunostimulating, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity in the human body. Bioactive peptides are encrypted in milk proteins and are only released by enzymatic hydrolysis in vivo during gastrointestinal digestion, food processing or by microbial enzymes in fermented products. At present significant research is being undertaken on the health effects of bioactive peptides. A variety of naturally formed bioactive peptides have been found in fermented dairy products, such as yoghurt, sour milk and cheese. In particular, antihypertensive peptides have been identified in fermented milks, whey and ripened cheese. Some of these peptides have been commercialized in the form of fermented milks. Bioactive peptides have the potential to be used in the formulation of health-enhancing nutraceuticals, and as potent drugs with well defined pharmacological effects.

Keywords: Milk protein, Bioactive peptides, Health effects, Dairy product.

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675 The Use of Simulation Programs of Leakage of Harmful Substances for Crisis Management

Authors: Jiří Barta

Abstract:

The paper deals with simulation programs of spread of harmful substances. Air pollution has a direct impact on the quality of human life and environmental protection is currently a very hot topic. Therefore, the paper focuses on the simulation of release of harmful substances. The first part of article deals with perspectives and possibilities of implementation outputs of simulations programs into the system which is education and of practical training of the management staff during emergency events in the frame of critical infrastructure. The last part shows the practical testing and evaluation of simulation programs. Of the tested simulations software been selected Symos97. The tool offers advanced features for setting leakage. Gradually allows the user to model the terrain, location, and method of escape of harmful substances.

Keywords: Computer Simulation, Symos97, spread, simulation software, harmful substances.

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674 Nutritional Evaluation of Sorghum Flour (Sorghumbicolor L. Moench) During Processing of Injera

Authors: Noha A. Mohammed, Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Elfadil E. Babiker

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional value of sorghum flour during processing of injera (unleavened thick bread). The proximate composition of sorghum flour before and after fermentation and that of injera was determined. Compared to the raw flour and fermented one, injera had low protein (11.55%), ash (1.57%) and fat (2.40%) contents but high in fiber content. Moreover, injera was found to have significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher energy (389.08 Kcal/100g) compared to raw and fermented sorghum flour. Injera contained lower levels of anti-nutritional factors (polyphenols, phytate and tannins) compared to raw and fermented sorghum. Also it was found to be rich in Ca (4.75mg/100g), Fe (3.95 mg/100g), and Cu (0.7 mg/100g) compared to that of raw and fermented flour. Moreover, both the extractable minerals and protein digestibility were high for injera due to low amount of anti-nutrients. Injera was found to contain an appreciable amount of amino acids except arginine and tyrosine.

Keywords: Cooking, Fermentation, Malt, Protein fractions, Sorghum.

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673 Biochemical Characteristics of Sorghum Flour Fermented and/or Supplemented with Chickpea Flour

Authors: Omima E. Fadlallah, Abdullahi H. El Tinay, Elfadil E. Babiker

Abstract:

Sorghum flour was supplemented with 15 and 30% chickpea flour. Sorghum flour and the supplement were fermented at 35 oC for 0, 8, 16, and 24 h. Changes in pH, titrable acidity, total soluble solids, protein content, in vitro protein digestibility and amino acid composition were investigated during fermentation and/or after supplementation of sorghum flour with chickpea. The pH of the fermenting material decreased sharply with a concomitant increase in the titrable acidity. The total soluble solids remained unchanged with progressive fermentation time. The protein content of sorghum cultivar was found to be 9.27 and that of chickpea was 22.47%. The protein content of sorghum cultivar after supplementation with15 and 30% chickpea was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased to 11.78 and 14.55%, respectively. The protein digestibility also increased after fermentation from 13.35 to 30.59 and 40.56% for the supplements, respectively. Further increment in protein content and digestibility was observed when supplemented and unsupplemented samples were fermented for different periods of time. Cooking of fermented samples was found to increase the protein content slightly and decreased digestibility for both supplements. Amino acid content of fermented and fermented and cooked supplements was determined. Supplementation was found to increase the lysine and therionine content. Cooking following fermentation decreased lysine, isoleucine, valine and sulfur containg amino acids.

Keywords: Amino acid, Chickpea, Cooking, Fermentation, protein, Sorghum.

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672 Effect of Zeolite on the Decomposition Resistance of Organic Matter in Tropical Soils under Global Warming

Authors: Mai Thanh Truc, Masao Yoshida

Abstract:

Global temperature had increased by about 0.5oC over the past century, increasing temperature leads to a loss or a decrease of soil organic matter (SOM). Whereas soil organic matter in many tropical soils is less stable than that of temperate soils, and it will be easily affected by climate change. Therefore, conservation of soil organic matter is urgent issue nowadays. This paper presents the effect of different doses (5%, 15%) of Ca-type zeolite in conjunction with organic manure, applied to soil samples from Philippines, Paraguay and Japan, on the decomposition resistance of soil organic matter under high temperature. Results showed that a remain or slightly increase the C/N ratio of soil. There are an increase in percent of humic acid (PQ) that extracted with Na4P2O7. A decrease of percent of free humus (fH) after incubation was determined. A larger the relative color intensity (RF) value and a lower the color coefficient (6logK) value following increasing zeolite rates leading to a higher degrees of humification. The increase in the aromatic condensation of humic acid (HA) after incubation, as indicates by the decrease of H/C and O/C ratios of HA. This finding indicates that the use of zeolite could be beneficial with respect to SOM conservation under global warming condition.

Keywords: Global warming, Humic substances, Soil organicmatter, Zeolite.

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671 Comparation Treatment Method for Industrial Tempeh Waste by Constructed Wetland and Activated Sludge

Authors: Imanda H. Pradana, Tillana Adilaviana, Christine Pretty Ballerena

Abstract:

Ever since industrial revolution began, our ecosystem has changed. And indeed, the negatives outweigh the positives. Industrial waste usually released into all kinds of body of water, such as river or sea. Tempeh waste is one example of waste that carries many hazardous and unwanted substances that will affect the surrounding environment. Tempeh is a popular fermented food in Asia which is rich in nutrients and active substances. Tempeh liquid waste- in particular- can cause an air pollution, and if penetrates through the soil, it will contaminates ground-water, making it unavailable for the water to be consumed. Moreover, bacteria will thrive within the polluted water, which often responsible for causing many kinds of diseases. The treatment used for this chemical waste is biological treatment such as constructed wetland and activated sludge. These kinds of treatment are able to reduce both physical and chemical parameters altogether such as temperature, TSS, pH, BOD, COD, NH3-N, NO3-N, and PO4-P. These treatments are implemented before the waste is released into the water. The result is a comparation between constructed wetland and activated sludge, along with determining which method is better suited to reduce the physical and chemical subtances of the waste.

Keywords: activated sludge, constructed wetland, waste, watertreatment

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670 Effect of Boric Acid on a-Hydroxy Acids Compounds in Thin Layer Chromatography

Authors: Elham Moniri, Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Ahmad Izadi, Mohamad Mehdi Parvin, Atyeh Rahimi

Abstract:

In this investigation Salicylic acid, Sulfosalicylic acid and Acetyl salicylic acid were chosen as a sample for thin layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel plates. Bicarbonate buffer at different pH containing different amounts of boric acid was applied as mobile phase. Specific interaction of these substances with boric acid has effect on Rf in thin layer chromatography. Regular and similar trend was observed in variations of Rf for mentioned compounds in TLC by altering of percentages of boric acid in mobile phase in pH range of 8-10. Also effect of organic solvent, mixture of water/ organic solvent and organic solvent containing boric acid as mobile phase was studied.

Keywords: Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Aspirin, Salicylic acid, Sulfosalycylic acid, Boric acid.

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669 Bifidobacterium lactis Fermented Milk Was Not Effective for Helicobacter pylori Eradication: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study

Authors: R. C. Barbuti, M. N. Oliveira, N. P. Perina, C. Haro, P. Bosch, C. S. Bogsan, J. N. Eisig, T. Navarro-Rodriguez

Abstract:

The management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is still a matter of discussion, full effectiveness is rarely achieved, and it has many adverse effects. The use of probiotics may be associated with better eradication rates and possibly prevention of adverse events due to antibiotic therapy. The present clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a specially designed fermented milk product, containing Bifidobacterium lactis B420, on the eradication of H. pylori infection in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study in humans. Four test fermented milks (FM) were specially designed in which counts of viable cells in all products were 10^10 Log CFU. 100 mL-1 for Bifidobacterium lactis - Bifidobacterium species 420. 190 subjects infected with H. pylori, with previous diagnosis of functional dyspepsia according to Rome III criteria entered the study. Bifidobacterium lactis B420, administered twice a day for 90 days was not able to eradicate H. pylori in Brazilian patients with functional dyspepsia.

Keywords: Antibacterial Therapy, Bifidobacteria Fermented milk, Helicobacter pylori, probiotics.

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668 Efficacy of Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Filtration with Low-Cost Organic Fiber Filter

Authors: Gautham Das, Edward Morrone, Erik Treble, Clinton Binder

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a low-cost filter regarding per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). PFAS is a commonly used man-made chemical that can be found in a variety of household and industrial products with deleterious effects on humans. The filter consists of a combination of low-cost materials which could be locally procured. Water testing results for 4 different PFAS contaminants indicated that for Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) regulation is 7 ppt, the initial concentration was 15 ppt, and the final concentration was 3.9 ppt. For Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), the ATSDR regulation is 10.5 ppt, the initial concentration was 15 ppt, and the final concentration was 3.9 ppt. For Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the ATSDR regulation is 11 ppt, the initial concentration was 15 ppt, and the final concentration was 3.9 ppt. For Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), the ATSDR regulation is 70 ppt, the initial concentration was 15 ppt, and the final concentration was 3.9 ppt. The results indicated a 74% reduction in PFAS concentration in filtered samples. Statistical data through regression analysis showed 0.9 validity of the sample data. Initial tests show the efficiency of the proposed filter described could be far greater if tested at a greater scale. It is highly recommended further testing to be conducted to validate the data for an innovative solution to a ubiquitous problem.

Keywords: PFAS, PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, low-cost filter.

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667 Effect of Organic-waste Compost Addition on Leaching of Mineral Nitrogen from Arable Land and Plant Production

Authors: Jakub Elbl, Lukas Plošek, Antonín Kintl, Jaroslav Záhora, Jitka Přichystalová, Jaroslav Hynšt

Abstract:

Application of compost in agriculture is very desirable worldwide. In the Czech Republic, compost is the most often used to improve soil structure and increase the content of soil organic matter, but the effects of compost addition on the fate of mineral nitrogen are only scarcely described. This paper deals with possibility of using combined application of compost, mineral and organic fertilizers to reduce the leaching of mineral nitrogen from arable land. To demonstrate the effect of compost addition on leaching of mineral nitrogen, we performed the pot experiment. As a model crop, Lactuca sativa L. was used and cultivated for 35 days in climate chamber in thoroughly homogenized arable soil. Ten variants of the experiment were prepared; two control variants (pure arable soil and arable soil with added compost), four variants with different doses of mineral and organic fertilizers and four variants of the same doses of mineral and organic fertilizers with the addition of compos. The highest decrease of mineral nitrogen leaching was observed by the simultaneous applications of soluble humic substances and compost to soil samples, about 417% in comparison with the control variant. Application of these organic compounds also supported microbial activity and nitrogen immobilization documented by the highest soil respiration and by the highest value of the index of nitrogen availability. The production of plant biomass after this application was not the highest due to microbial competition for the nutrients in soil, but was 24% higher in comparison with the control variant. To support these promising results the experiment should be repeated in field conditions.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Compost, Salad, Arable land.

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666 Formation of Vasoactive Amines in Dry Fermented Sausage Petrovská Klobása during Drying and Ripening in Traditional and Industrial Conditions

Authors: Tatjana A. Tasić, Predrag M. Ikonić, Ljiljana S. Petrović, Marija R. Jokanović, Vladimir M. Tomović, Branislav V. Šojić, Snežana B. Škaljac

Abstract:

Formation of histamine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine and tyramine (vasoactive amines) in dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása during drying and ripening in traditional room (B1) and industrial ripening chamber (B3) were investigated. Dansyl chloride derivatized vasoactive amines were determined using HPLC-DAD on Eclipse XDB-C18 column.

Histamine, the most important amine from food safety point of view, was not detected in any analyzed sample. Unlike most of the other fermented sausages, where tyramine is reported as the most abundant amine, in Petrovská klobása tryptamine was the most abundant vasoactive amine in both groups of sausages even though concentrations of tryptamine and tyramine in B3 sausages at the end of ripening were nearly the same (39.8 versus 39.6mg/kg). Sum of vasoactive amines in samples varied from not detected ND (B3) to 176 mg/kg (B1), with concentration of 36.1 (B3) and 73.6 (B1) mg/kg at the end of drying and 96 (B3) and 176 (B1) mg/kg at the end of ripening period. Although the sum of vasoactive amines has increased from the end of drying (45. and 90. day) to the end of ripening period (120. day), during whole production period these values did not exceed 200 mg/kg proposed as possible indicator of hygienic conditions and GMP in the sausage production.

Keywords: Vasoactive amines, traditional dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása.

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665 Positive Periodic Solutions in a Discrete Competitive System with the Effect of Toxic Substances

Authors: Changjin Xu, Qianhong Zhang

Abstract:

In this paper, a delayed competitive system with the effect of toxic substances is investigated. With the aid of differential equations with piecewise constant arguments, a discrete analogue of continuous non-autonomous delayed competitive system with the effect of toxic substances is proposed. By using Gaines and Mawhin,s continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, a easily verifiable sufficient condition for the existence of positive solutions of difference equations is obtained.

Keywords: Competitive system, periodic solution, discrete time delay, topological degree.

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664 Quality Evaluation of Cookies Produced from Blends of Sweet Potato and Fermented Soybean Flour

Authors: Abayomi H. T., Oresanya T. O., Opeifa A. O., Rasheed T. R.

Abstract:

The study was conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of cookies produced from sweet potato-fermented soybean flour. Cookies were subjected to proximate and sensory analysis to determine the acceptability of the product. Protein, fat and ash increased as the proportion of soybean flour increased, ranging from 13.8-21.7, 1.22-5.25 and 2.20-2.57 respectively. The crude fibre content was within the range of 3.08-4.83%. The moisture content of the cookies decreased with increase in soybean flour from 3.42- 2.13%. Cookies produced from whole sweet potato flour had the highest moisture content of 3.42% while 30% substitution had the lowest moisture content 2.13%. A nine point hedonic scale was used to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics of the cookies. The sensory analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between the cookies produced even when compared to the control 100% sweet potato cookies. The overall acceptance of the cookies was ranked to 20% soybean flour substitute.

Keywords: Cookies, Fermented Soybean, Overall Acceptability, Sweet Potatoes.

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663 Sorption of Charged Organic Dyes from Anionic Hydrogels

Authors: Georgios Linardatos, Miltiadis Zamparas, Vlasoula Bekiari, Georgios Bokias, Georgios Hotos

Abstract:

Hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks composed of homopolymers or copolymers and are insoluble in water due to the presence of chemical or physical cross-links. When hydrogels come in contact with aqueous solutions, they can effectively sorb and retain the dissolved substances, depending on the nature of the monomeric units comprising the hydrogel. For this reason, hydrogels have been proposed in several studies as water purification agents. At the present work anionic hydrogels bearing negatively charged –COO- groups were prepared and investigated. These gels are based on sodium acrylate (ANa), either homopolymerized (poly(sodiumacrylate), PANa) or copolymerized (P(DMAM-co-ANa)) with N,N Dimethylacrylamide (DMAM). The hydrogels were used to extract some model organic dyes from water. It is found that cationic dyes are strongly sorbed and retained by the hydrogels, while sorption of anionic dyes was negligible. In all cases it was found that both maximum sorption capacity and equilibrium binding constant varied from one dye to the other depending on the chemical structure of the dye, the presence of functional chemical groups and the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance. Finally, the nonionic hydrogel of the homopolymer poly(N,Ndimethylacrylamide), PDMAM, was also used for reasons of comparison.

Keywords: Anionic organic hydrogels, sorption, organic dyes, water purification agents.

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662 The Possibility-Probability Relationship for Bloodstream Concentrations of Physiologically Active Substances

Authors: Arkady Bolotin

Abstract:

If a possibility distribution and a probability distribution are describing values x of one and the same system or process x(t), can they relate to each other? Though in general the possibility and probability distributions might be not connected at all, we can assume that in some particular cases there is an association linked them. In the presented paper, we consider distributions of bloodstream concentrations of physiologically active substances and propose that the probability to observe a concentration x of a substance X can be produced from the possibility of the event X = x . The proposed assumptions and resulted theoretical distributions are tested against the data obtained from various panel studies of the bloodstream concentrations of the different physiologically active substances in patients and healthy adults as well.

Keywords: Possibility distributions, possibility-probability relationship.

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661 Consumer Behavior and Knowledge on Organic Products in Thailand

Authors: Warunpun Kongsom, Chaiwat Kongsom

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the awareness, knowledge and consumer behavior towards organic products in Thailand. For this study, a purposive sampling technique was used to identify a sample group of 2,575 consumers over the age of 20 years who intended or made purchases from 1) green shops; 2) supermarkets with branches; and, 3) green markets. A questionnaire was used for data collection across the country. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. The results showed that more than 92% of consumers were aware of organic agriculture, but had less knowledge about it. More than 60% of consumers knew that organic agriculture production and processing did not allow the use of chemicals. And about 40% of consumers were confused between the food safety logo and the certified organic logo, and whether GMO was allowed in organic agriculture practice or not. In addition, most consumers perceived that organic agricultural products, good agricultural practice (GAP) products, agricultural chemicals free products, and hydroponic vegetable products had the same standard. In the view of organic consumers, the organic Thailand label was the most seen and reliable among various organic labels. Less than 3% of consumers thought that the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) Global Organic Mark (GOM) was the most seen and reliable. For the behaviors of organic consumers, they purchased organic products mainly at the supermarket and green shop (55.4%), one to two times per month, and with a total expenditure of about 200 to 400 baht each time. The main reason for buying organic products was safety and free from agricultural chemicals. The considered factors in organic product selection were price (29.5%), convenience (22.4%), and a reliable certification system (21.3%). The demands for organic products were mainly rice, vegetables and fruits. Processed organic products were relatively small in quantity.

Keywords: Consumer behavior, consumer knowledge, organic products, Thailand.

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660 Proteolysis in Serbian Traditional Dry Fermented Sausage Petrovská klobása as Influenced by Different Ripening Processes

Authors: P. M. Ikonić, T. A. Tasić, L. S. Petrović, S. B. Škaljac, M. R. Jokanović, V. M. Tomović, B. V. Šojić, N. R. Džinić, A. M. Torbica, B. B. Ikonić

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine how different ripening processes (traditional vs. industrial) influenced the proteolysis in traditional Serbian dry-fermented sausage Petrovská klobása. The obtained results indicated more intensive pH decline (0.7 units after 9 days) in industrially ripened products (I), what had a positive impact on drying process and proteolytic changes in these samples. Thus, moisture content in I sausages was lower at each sampling time, amounting 24.7% at the end of production period (90 days). Likewise, the process of proteolysis was more pronounced in I samples, resulting in higher contents of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and free amino acids nitrogen (FAAN), as well as in faster and more intensive degradation of myosin (≈220 kDa), actin (≈45 kDa) and other polypeptides during processing. Consequently, the appearance and accumulation of several protein fragments were registered.

Keywords: Dry-fermented sausage, Petrovská klobása, proteolysis, ripening process.

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659 Fenton’s Oxidation as Post-Treatment of a Mature Municipal Landfill Leachate

Authors: Susana Cortez, Pilar Teixeira, Rosário Oliveira, Manuel Mota

Abstract:

Mature landfill leachates contain some macromolecular organic substances that are resistant to biological degradation. Recently, Fenton-s oxidation has been investigated for chemical treatment or pre-treatment of mature landfill leachates. The aim of this study was to reduce the recalcitrant organic load still remaining after the complete treatment of a mature landfill leachate by Fenton-s oxidation post-treatment. The effect of various parameters such as H2O2 to Fe2+ molar ratio, dosage of Fe2+ reagent, initial pH, reaction time and initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) strength, that have an important role on the oxidation, was analysed. A molar ratio H2O2/Fe2+ = 3, a Fe2+ dosage of 4 mmol·L-1, pH 3, and a reaction time of 40 min were found to achieve better oxidation performances. At these favorable conditions, COD removal efficiency was 60.9% and 31.1% for initial COD of 93 and 743 mg·L-1 respectively (diluted and non diluted leachate). Fenton-s oxidation also presented good results for color removal. In spite of being extremely difficult to treat this leachate, the above results seem rather encouraging on the application of Fenton-s oxidation.

Keywords: Fenton's oxidation, mature landfill leachate, recalcitrant organic matter.

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658 Cyanide and Heavy Metal Concentration of Fermented Cassava Flour (Lafun) Available in the Markets of Ogun and Oyo States of Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo-Oyetoro A. O., Oyewole O. B., Obadina A. O, Omemu M. A.

Abstract:

Fermented cassava flours (lafun) sold in Ogun and Oyo States of Nigeria were collected from 10 markets for a period of two months and analysed to determine their safety status. The presence of trace metals was due to high vehicular movement around the drying sites and markets. Cyanide and moisture contents of samples were also determined to assess the adequacy of fermentation and drying. The result showed that sample OWO was found to have the highest amount of 16.02±0.12mg/kg cyanide while the lowest was found in sample OJO with 10.51±0.10mg/kg. The results also indicated that sample TVE had the highest moisture content of 18.50±0.20% while sample OWO had the lowest amount of 12.46±0.47%. Copper and lead levels were found to be highest in TVE with values 28.10mg/kg and 1.1mg/kg respectively, while sample BTS had the lowest values of 20.6mg/kg and 0.05mg/kg respectively. High value of cyanide indicated inadequate fermentation.

Keywords: Cyanide, fermented, heavy metal, lafun.

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657 Effects of Varying Fermentation Periods on the Chemical Composition of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and Acha (Digitaria exilis) Flour Blends and Sensory Properties of Their Products

Authors: P. N. Okeke, J. N. Chikwendu

Abstract:

The study evaluated the effects of varying fermentation periods on the nutrients and anti-nutrients composition of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and acha (Digitaria exilis) flour blends and sensory properties of their products. The African yam bean seeds and acha grains were fermented for 24 hrs, 48 and 72 hrs, dried (sun drying) and milled into fine flour. The fermented flours were used in a ratio of 70:30 (Protein basis) to formulate composite flour for meat pie and biscuits production. Both the fermented and unfermented flours and products were analyzed for chemical composition using the standard method. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 15 to determine the mean and standard deviation. The 24, 48, and 72 hrs fermentation periods increased protein (22.81, 26.15 and 24.00% respectively). The carbohydrate, ash and moisture contents of the flours were also increased as a result of fermentation (68.01-76.83, 2.26-4.88, and 8.36-13.00% respectively). The 48 hrs fermented flour blends had the highest increase in ash relative to the control (4.88%). Fermentation increased zinc, iron, magnesium and phosphorus content of the flours. Treatment drastically reduced the anti-nutrient (oxalate, saponin, tannin, phytate, and hemagglutinin) levels of the flours. Both meat pie and biscuits had increased protein relative to the control (27.36-34.28% and 23.66-25.09%). However, the protein content of the meat pie increased more than that of the biscuits. Zinc, Iron, Magnesium and phosphorus levels increased in both meat pie and biscuits. Organoleptic attributes of the products (meat pie and biscuits) were slightly lower than the control except those of the 72 hrs fermented flours.

Keywords: Fermentation, African yam bean, Acha, biscuits, meat-pie.

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656 Method of Estimating Absolute Entropy of Municipal Solid Waste

Authors: Francis Chinweuba Eboh, Peter Ahlström, Tobias Richards

Abstract:

Entropy, as an outcome of the second law of thermodynamics, measures the level of irreversibility associated with any process. The identification and reduction of irreversibility in the energy conversion process helps to improve the efficiency of the system. The entropy of pure substances known as absolute entropy is determined at an absolute reference point and is useful in the thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions; however, municipal solid waste (MSW) is a structurally complicated material with unknown absolute entropy. In this work, an empirical model to calculate the absolute entropy of MSW based on the content of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, and chlorine on a dry ash free basis (daf) is presented. The proposed model was derived from 117 relevant organic substances which represent the main constituents in MSW with known standard entropies using statistical analysis. The substances were divided into different waste fractions; namely, food, wood/paper, textiles/rubber and plastics waste and the standard entropies of each waste fraction and for the complete mixture were calculated. The correlation of the standard entropy of the complete waste mixture derived was found to be somsw= 0.0101C + 0.0630H + 0.0106O + 0.0108N + 0.0155S + 0.0084Cl (kJ.K-1.kg) and the present correlation can be used for estimating the absolute entropy of MSW by using the elemental compositions of the fuel within the range of 10.3%  C 95.1%, 0.0%  H  14.3%, 0.0%  O  71.1%, 0.0  N  66.7%, 0.0%  S  42.1%, 0.0%  Cl  89.7%. The model is also applicable for the efficient modelling of a combustion system in a waste-to-energy plant.

Keywords: Absolute entropy, irreversibility, municipal solid waste, waste-to-energy.

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655 The Use of Substances and Sports Performance among Youth: Implications for Lagos State Sports

Authors: Osifeko Olalekan Remigious, Adesanya Adebisi Joseph, Omolade Akinmade Olatunde

Abstract:

The focus of this study was to determine the factors associated with the use of substances for sport performance of youth in Lagos state sport. Questionnaire was the instrument used for the study. Descriptive research method was used. The estimated population for the study was 2000 sport men and women. The sample size was 200 respondents for purposive sampling techniques were used. The instrument was validated in it content and constructs value. The instrument was administered with the assistance of the coaches. Same 200 copies administered were returned. The data obtained was analysed using simple percentage and chi-square (x2) for stated hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The finding reveal that sport injuries exercise induced and anaphylaxis and asthma and feeling of loss of efficacy associated with alcohol used on sport performance among the users of substances. Alcohol users are recommended to partake in sport like swimming, basketball and volleyball because they have space of time for resting while at play. Government should be fully in charge of the health of sport men and women.

Keywords: Implications, Lagos state, substances, sports performance, youths.

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654 Possibilities of Mathematical Modelling of Explosive Substance Aerosol and Vapour Dispersion in the Atmosphere

Authors: A. Bumbová, J. Kellner, J. Navrátil, D. Pluskal, M. Kozubková, E. Kozubek

Abstract:

The paper deals with the possibilities of modelling vapour propagation of explosive substances in the FLUENT software. With regard to very low tensions of explosive substance vapours the experiment has been verified as exemplified by mononitrotoluene. Either constant or time variable meteorological conditions have been used for calculation. Further, it has been verified that the eluent source may be time-dependent and may reflect a real situation or the liberation rate may be constant. The execution of the experiment as well as evaluation were clear and it could also be used for modelling vapour and aerosol propagation of selected explosive substances in the atmospheric boundary layer.

Keywords: atmospheric boundary layer, explosive substances, FLUENT software, modelling of propagation

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653 Optimization of Methods for Development of Fermented-Distillate of Passion Fruit Beverage

Authors: Luciana C. Azevedo, Reinaldo S. Dantas, Antonio G. B. De Sá, Adalberto M. Filho, Patrícia M. Azoubel

Abstract:

Fermented beverages have high expression in the market for beverages in general, is increasingly valued in situations where the characteristic aroma and flavor of the material that gave rise to them are kept after processing. This study aimed to develop a distilled beverage from passion fruit, and assess, by sensory tests and chromatographic profile, the influence of different treatments (FM1- spirit with pulp addiction and FM2 – spirit with bigger ratio of pulp in must) in the setting of volatiles in the fruit drink, and performing chemical characterization taking into account the main parameters of quality established by the legislation. The chromatograms and the first sensorial tests had indicated that sample FM1 possess better characteristics of aroma, as much of how much quantitative the qualitative point of view. However, it analyzes it sensorial end (preference test) disclosed the biggest preference of the cloth provers for sample FM2-2 (note 7.93), being the attributes of decisive color and flavor in this reply, confirmed for the observed values lowest of fixed and total acidity in the samples of treatment FM2.

Keywords: Fermented-distilled drink, fruit spirits, passion fruit.

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