Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30067
Method of Estimating Absolute Entropy of Municipal Solid Waste

Authors: Francis Chinweuba Eboh, Peter Ahlström, Tobias Richards

Abstract:

Entropy, as an outcome of the second law of thermodynamics, measures the level of irreversibility associated with any process. The identification and reduction of irreversibility in the energy conversion process helps to improve the efficiency of the system. The entropy of pure substances known as absolute entropy is determined at an absolute reference point and is useful in the thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions; however, municipal solid waste (MSW) is a structurally complicated material with unknown absolute entropy. In this work, an empirical model to calculate the absolute entropy of MSW based on the content of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, and chlorine on a dry ash free basis (daf) is presented. The proposed model was derived from 117 relevant organic substances which represent the main constituents in MSW with known standard entropies using statistical analysis. The substances were divided into different waste fractions; namely, food, wood/paper, textiles/rubber and plastics waste and the standard entropies of each waste fraction and for the complete mixture were calculated. The correlation of the standard entropy of the complete waste mixture derived was found to be somsw= 0.0101C + 0.0630H + 0.0106O + 0.0108N + 0.0155S + 0.0084Cl (kJ.K-1.kg) and the present correlation can be used for estimating the absolute entropy of MSW by using the elemental compositions of the fuel within the range of 10.3%  C 95.1%, 0.0%  H  14.3%, 0.0%  O  71.1%, 0.0  N  66.7%, 0.0%  S  42.1%, 0.0%  Cl  89.7%. The model is also applicable for the efficient modelling of a combustion system in a waste-to-energy plant.

Keywords: Absolute entropy, irreversibility, municipal solid waste, waste-to-energy.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1125351

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF

References:


[1] K. S. Woon, and I. M. C. Lo, “Greenhouse gas accounting of the proposed landfill extension and advanced incineration facility for municipal solid waste management in Hong Kong,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 458-460, pp. 499-507, 2013.
[2] A. Fazeli, F. Bakhtvar, L. Jahanshaloo, N. A. Che Sidik, and A. E. Bayat, “Malaysia's stand on municipal solid waste conversion to energy: A review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 58, pp. 1007-1016, 2016.
[3] T. Solheimslid, H. K. Harneshaug, and N. Lümmen, “Calculation of first-law and second-law-efficiency of a Norwegian combined heat and power facility driven by municipal waste incineration-A case study,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 95, pp. 149-159, 2015.
[4] V. S. Stepanov, “Chemical energies and exergies of fuels,” Energy, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 235-242, 1995.
[5] W. Eisermann, P. Johnson, and W. L. Conger, “Estimating thermodynamic properties of coal, char, tar and ash,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 39-53, 1980.
[6] J. H. Shieh, and L. T. Fan, “Estimation of energy (enthalpy) and exergy (availability) contents in structurally complicated materials,” Energy Sources, vol. 6, no. 1-2, pp. 1-46, 1982.
[7] S. Ikumi, C. D. Luo, and C. Y. Wen, “METHOD OF ESTIMATING ENTROPIES OF COALS AND COAL LIQUIDS,” CAN J CHEM ENG, vol. V 60, no. N 4, pp. 551-555, 1982.
[8] G. Song, L. Shen, and J. Xiao, “Estimating specific chemical exergy of biomass from basic analysis data,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 50, no. 16, pp. 9758-9766, 2011.
[9] G. Song, J. Xiao, H. Zhao, and L. Shen, “A unified correlation for estimating specific chemical exergy of solid and liquid fuels,” Energy, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 164-173, 2012.
[10] E. S. Domalski, and E. D. Hearing, “Heat Capacities and Entropies of Organic Compounds in the Condensed Phase. Volume III,” Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 1-525, 1996.
[11] K. K. Pandey, “A Study of Chemical Structure of Soft and Hardwood and Wood Polymers by FTIR Spectroscopy,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 71, no. 12, pp. 1969-1975, 1999.
[12] F. Dietrich, and W. Gerd, “Wood: Chemistry, Ultrastructure, Reactions,” De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 66-181, 1983.
[13] A. K. Bledzki, V. E. Sperber and O. Faruk. “Natural Wood and Fibre Reinforcement in Polymers,” Smithers Rapra, Shropshire, United Kingdom. pp. 4-18, 2002.
[14] J. F. Fundo, M. A. C. Quintas, and C. L. M. Silva, “Molecular Dynamics and Structure in Physical Properties and Stability of Food Systems,” Food Engineering Reviews, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 384-392, 2015.
[15] R. E. Wrolstad, “Food Carbohydrate Chemistry,” Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, United Kingdom. 2011.
[16] T. P. Coultate, “Food: the chemistry of its components,” Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pp. 7-408, 2002.
[17] J. A. Brydson, “Plastics Materials (Seventh Edition),” Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, United Kingdom. pp. 205-813, 1999.
[18] Q. Fan, “Chemical Testing of Textiles (First Edition),” Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, England. 2005.
[19] S. Gordon and Y. L. Hsieh, “Cotton: Science and Technology,” Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, England. 2007.
[20] R. B. Simpson, “Rubber Basics,” Smithers Rapra, United Kingdom. 2002.
[21] C. Sheng, and J. L. T. Azevedo, “Estimating the higher heating value of biomass fuels from basic analysis data,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 499-507, 2005.
[22] S. A. Channiwala, and P. P. Parikh, “A unified correlation for estimating HHV of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels,” Fuel, vol. 81, no. 8, pp.1051-1063, 2002.
[23] Standard thermodynamic properties of chemical substances, CRC Press. Available at http://www.update.uu.se/~jolkkonen/pdf/CRC_TD.pdf (accessed 3 July 2015), 2000.