Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30172
Biochemical Characteristics of Sorghum Flour Fermented and/or Supplemented with Chickpea Flour

Authors: Omima E. Fadlallah, Abdullahi H. El Tinay, Elfadil E. Babiker

Abstract:

Sorghum flour was supplemented with 15 and 30% chickpea flour. Sorghum flour and the supplement were fermented at 35 oC for 0, 8, 16, and 24 h. Changes in pH, titrable acidity, total soluble solids, protein content, in vitro protein digestibility and amino acid composition were investigated during fermentation and/or after supplementation of sorghum flour with chickpea. The pH of the fermenting material decreased sharply with a concomitant increase in the titrable acidity. The total soluble solids remained unchanged with progressive fermentation time. The protein content of sorghum cultivar was found to be 9.27 and that of chickpea was 22.47%. The protein content of sorghum cultivar after supplementation with15 and 30% chickpea was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased to 11.78 and 14.55%, respectively. The protein digestibility also increased after fermentation from 13.35 to 30.59 and 40.56% for the supplements, respectively. Further increment in protein content and digestibility was observed when supplemented and unsupplemented samples were fermented for different periods of time. Cooking of fermented samples was found to increase the protein content slightly and decreased digestibility for both supplements. Amino acid content of fermented and fermented and cooked supplements was determined. Supplementation was found to increase the lysine and therionine content. Cooking following fermentation decreased lysine, isoleucine, valine and sulfur containg amino acids.

Keywords: Amino acid, Chickpea, Cooking, Fermentation, protein, Sorghum.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1332406

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2208

References:


[1] Deshpande, S.S. (1992). Food legumes in human nutrition: a personal perspective. Review in Food Science and Nutrition, 32: 333-363.
[2] Murty, D.S. and Kumar, K.A. (1995). Traditional uses of sorghum and millets. In sorghum and millets: Chemistry and Technology, (D.A.V. Dendy, ed), American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN, USA. 185-221.
[3] Nout, M.J.R. and Rombouts, F.M. (1992). Fermentation and preservation of plant foods. J. Appl. Bacteriol. Symp. Supplemented, 73:136S - 1475S.
[4] Hamaker, B.R.; Mertz, E.T. and Axtell, J.D. (1994). Effect of extrusion on sorghum kafirin solubility. Cereal Chemistry 71: 515-517.
[5] Rom, D.L.; Shull, J.M. and Chandrashekar, A.W. (1992). Effect of cooking and treatment with sodium bisulfite on in vitro protein digestibility and microstructure of sorghum flour. Cereal Chemistry 69: 178-181.
[6] Rooney, L.W.; Kirleis, A.W. and Murty, D.S. (1986). Traditional foods from sorghum their production, evaluation and nutritional value. In: Advances in Cereal Science and Technology, Vol. 8. Pomeranz, Y. (ed.). ICRISAT, American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN, USA. 317-353.
[7] Eggum, B. O., Monowar, L., Boch Knusden, K. E., Munck, L., & Axtell, J. (1983). Nutritional quality of sorghum foods from Sudan. Journal of Cereal Science, 1, 127-137.
[8] Amjad, I.; Igbal, A.; Kalil, I.A.; Ateeg, A. and Kahan, M.S. (2006). National quality of important legumes. Food Chemistry, 97: 331-335.
[9] Arbab, M.E. and El Tinay, A.H. (1997). Effect of cooking with sodium bisulphate or ascorbic acid on the in vitro protein digestibility of two sorghum cultivars. Food Chemistry, 59 (3): 339-343.
[10] Zamora, A.F. and Fields, M.L. (1979). Nutritive quality of fermented cowpeas and chickpeas. Journal of Food Sciences 44: 234-236.
[11] Joslyn, A. M. (1970). Methods in food analysis (2nd Ed.). New York: Academic Press. Pp 123-134.
[12] AOAC (2000). Association of official analytical chemists.Official methods of analysis, 17th ed Assoc. of analytical chemists, Washingon, DC, USA.
[13] Monjula, S. and John, E. (1991). Biochemical changes and in vitro protein digestibility of endosperm of germinating. Dolichos Lablab. J. Sci. Food Agric., 55: 429-438.
[14] Snedecor, G. W., & Cochran, W. G. (1987). Statistical Methods (P. 221- 222) (17th ed.). Ames. 1A: The Iowa State University Press.
[15] Mohammed, S.I.; Steenson, L.R. and Kirleis, A.W. (1991). Isolation and characterization of microorganisms associated with the traditional sorghum fermentation for production of Sudanese kisra. App. Env. Micr. 57: 2529-2533.
[16] Torres, C.T.E.; Alanis, G.M.G. and Maitir, R. (1996). Relationship between nutritional composition and anatomical parameters in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench). Journal of Arch Latinoam Nutr., 46 (3): 253-259.
[17] Osman, N. M., Hassan, A. B., Ali, M. A.I. and Babiker E. E. (2005). Effect of autoclaving on solubility and functional properties of chickpea (Cicer areitinum L) flour as a function of salt concentration. Journal of Food Technology 3 (3), 336-341.
[18] Rehman, Z.; Shah, W.H. (2005). Thermal heat processing effects on anti-nutrition, protein, starch digestibility of food legumes. Food Chemistry 91: 327-331.
[19] Taylor, J. and Taylor, J.R.N. (2002). Alleviation of the adverse effects of cooking on protein digestibility in sorghum through fermentation in traditional African porridges. International Journal o Food Science and Technology, 37 (2): 129-138.
[20] Clawson, A.R. and Taylor, A.J. (1993). Chemical changes during cooking of wheat. Food Chemistry. 47: 337-341.
[21] Monica, L.M.; Tovin, M. and Theresia, E. (1992). Nutritive composition of broth from selected bean varieties cooked for various periods. J. of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 58: 535-539.
[22] FAO/WHO/UNU (1985). Energy and protein requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation. World Health Organization Technical Report Series 724.Geneva: WHO, 113-130.
[23] Dendy, D.A.V. (1995). Sorghum and millets: Chemistry and Technology published by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.