Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30840
Bioactive Component in Milk and Dairy Product

Authors: Bahareh Hajirostamloo


Recent research has shown that milk proteins can yield bioactive peptides with opioid, mineral binding, cytomodulatory, antihypertensive, immunostimulating, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity in the human body. Bioactive peptides are encrypted in milk proteins and are only released by enzymatic hydrolysis in vivo during gastrointestinal digestion, food processing or by microbial enzymes in fermented products. At present significant research is being undertaken on the health effects of bioactive peptides. A variety of naturally formed bioactive peptides have been found in fermented dairy products, such as yoghurt, sour milk and cheese. In particular, antihypertensive peptides have been identified in fermented milks, whey and ripened cheese. Some of these peptides have been commercialized in the form of fermented milks. Bioactive peptides have the potential to be used in the formulation of health-enhancing nutraceuticals, and as potent drugs with well defined pharmacological effects.

Keywords: health effects, Milk protein, Bioactive Peptides, Dairy product

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3646


[1] F. Tidona, A. Criscione, A.M. Guastella, A. Zuccaro, S. Bordonaro and D. Marletta, "Bioactive peptides in dairy products", Ital. J. Anim. Sci., vol. 8, pp. 315-340, 2009.
[2] E. Minagawa, S. Kaminogawa, F. Tsukasaki and K. Yamauchi, "Deittering mechanism in bitter peptides of enzymatic hydrolysates from milk casein by aminopeptidase", T. J. Food Sci., vol. 54, pp. 1225-1229, 1989.
[3] K.D. Lee and J.J. Warthesen, "Preparative Methods of Isolating Bitter Peptides from Cheddar Cheese", J. Agricult. Food Chem., vol. 44, pp. 1058-1063, 1995.
[4] A.J. Cliffe and B.A. Law, "Peptide composition of enzyme-treated Cheddar cheese slurries determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography", Food Chem., vol. 36, pp. 73-80, 1990.
[5] G.E. Vegarud and T. Langsrud, "The level of bitterness and solubility of hydrolysates produced by controlled proteolysis of caseins", J. Dairy Res., vol. 56, pp. 375-379, 1989.
[6] M.A. Matin, M. Monnai and H. Otani, "Isolation and characterization of a cytotoxic pentapeptide -casecidin, from bovine -casein digested with bovine trypsin", J. Animal Sci., vol. 71, pp. 197-207, 2000.
[7] S.A. Adibi, "The oligopeptide transporter (PEPT1) in human intestine: biology and function", Gastroenterology, vol. 113, pp. 332-340, 1997.
[8] S. Adachi, Y. Kimura, K. Murakami, R. Matsuno and H. Yokogoshi, "Separation of peptide groups with definite characteristics from enzymatic protein hydrolysate", Agric. Biol. Chem., vol. 55, pp. 925- 932, 1991.
[9] A. Host and S. Halken, "Hypoallergenic formulas - when, to whom and how long: after more then 15 years we know the right indication", Allergy, vol. 59, pp. 45-52, 2004.
[10] V. Vermeirssen, J. Van Camp and W. Verstraete, "Bioavailability of angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides", British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 92, pp. 357-366, 2004.
[11] M. Gobetti, F. Minervini and C.G. Rizzello, "Angiotensin I-convertingenzyme- inhibitory and antimicrobial bioactive peptides", International Journal of Dairy Technology, vol. 57, pp. 173-188, 2004.
[12] S.V. Silva and F.X. Malcata, "Caseins as source of bioactive peptides", International Dairy Journal, vol. 15, pp. 1-5, 2005.
[13] D.A. Clare and H.E. Swaisgood, "Bioactive milk peptides: A prospectus", Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 83, pp. 1187-1195, 2000.
[14] M. Gobbetti, L. Stepaniak, M. De Angelis, A. Corsetti and R. Di Cagno, "Latent Bioactive Peptides in Milk Proteins: Proteolytic Activation and Signiicance in Dairy Processing", Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., vol. 42, pp. 223-239, 2002.
[15] E. Schlimme and H. Meisel, "Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins. Structural, physiological and analytical aspects", Die NMahrung, vol. 39, pp. 1-29, 1995.
[16] H. Korhonen and A. Pihlanto, "Food-derived bioactive peptidesÔÇö opportunities for designing future foods", Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 9, pp. 1297-1308, 2001.
[17] H. Korhonen and A. Pihlanto, A., "Milk-derived bioactive peptides: formation and prospects for health promotion" in Handbook of functional dairy products. Functional foods and nutraceuticals, C. Shortt and J. OÔÇÿBrien Eds. CRC Press: Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 2004, pp. 109-124.
[18] C. Matar, J.G. LeBlanc, L. Martin and G. Perdig├│n, "Biologically active peptides released in fermented milk: Role and functions", in Handbook of fermented functional foods. Functional foods and nutraceuticals, E.R. Farnworth, Ed. CRC Press: Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 2003, pp. 177- 201.
[19] Y. Nakamura, N. Yamamoto, K. Sakai and T. Takano, "Antihypertensive effect of sour milk and peptides isolated from it that are inhibitors to angiotensin I-converting enzyme", Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 78, pp. 1253-1257, 1995.
[20] I. Hata, J. Ueda and H. Otani, "Immuno stimulatory action of a commercially available casein phosphopeptide preparation CPP-III, in cell cultures", Milchwissenschaft, vol. 54, pp. 3-7, 1999.
[21] R.J. Fitzgerald, B.A Murray and D.J. Walsh, "Hypotensive peptides from milk proteins", Journal of Nutrition, vol. 134, pp. 980S-988S, 2004.
[22] H. Korhonen and A. Pihlanto, "Food-derived bioactive peptidesÔÇö opportunities for designing future foods", Curr. Pharm. Design, vol. 9, pp. 1297-1308, 2003.
[23] W. Bellamy, M. Takase, K. Yamauchi, H. Wakabayashi, K. Kawase and M. Tomita, "Identification of the bactericidal domain of lactoferrin", Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1121, pp. 130-136, 1992.
[24] E. Lahov and W. Regelson, "Antibacterial and immunostimulating casein-derived substances from milk: casecidin, isracidin peptides", Food Chemical Toxicology, vol. 34, pp. 131-145, 1996.
[25] I. Recio and S. Visser, "Two ion-exchange methods for the isolation of antibacterial peptides from lactoferrinÔÇöin situ enzymatic hydrolysis on an ion-exchange membrane", Journal of Chromatography, vol. 831, pp. 191-201, 1999.
[26] E. Smacchi and M. Gobbetti, "Peptides from several Italian cheeses inhibitory to proteolytic enzymes of lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 948 and to the angiotensin I-converting enzyme", Enzyme and microbial technology, vol. 22, pp. 687-694, 1998.
[27] H. Meisel, "Overview on milk protein-derived peptides", International Dairy Journal, vol. 8, pp. 363-373, 1998.
[28] S. Nagaoka, Y. Futamura, K. Miwa, T. Awano, K. Yamauchi and Y. Kanamaru, "Identification of novel hypocholesterolemic peptides derived from bovine milk β-lactoglobulin", Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 218, pp. 11-17, 2001.
[29] H. Korhonen, "Technology options for new nutritional concepts", International Journal of Dairy Technology, vol. 55, pp. 79-88, 2002.
[30] R. Mehra, and P.M. Kelly, "Whey protein fraction at ion using cascade membrane filtration", IDF Bulletin, vol. 389, pp. 40-44, 2004.
[31] A. Tolkach and U. Kulozik, "Fractionation of whey proteins and peptides by means of membrane techniques in connection with chemical and physical pretreatments", IDF Bulletin, vol. 389, vol. 20-23, 2004.
[32] K. DeSilva, R. Stockmann and G.W. Smithers, "Isolation procedures for functional dairy components-novel approaches to meeting the challenges", Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, vol. 58, pp. 148- 152, 2003.
[33] H. Korhonen, A. Pihlanto-Leppala, P. Rantamaki and T. Tupasela, "Impact of processing on bioactive proteins and peptides", Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 9, pp. 307-319, 1998.
[34] R. OÔÇÿDonnell, J.W. Holland, H.C. Deeth and P. Alewood, "Milk proteomics", International Dairy Journal, vol. 14, pp. 1013-1023, 2004.