Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32468
Efficacy of Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Filtration with Low-Cost Organic Fiber Filter

Authors: Gautham Das, Edward Morrone, Erik Treble, Clinton Binder


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a low-cost filter regarding per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). PFAS is a commonly used man-made chemical that can be found in a variety of household and industrial products with deleterious effects on humans. The filter consists of a combination of low-cost materials which could be locally procured. Water testing results for 4 different PFAS contaminants indicated that for Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) regulation is 7 ppt, the initial concentration was 15 ppt, and the final concentration was 3.9 ppt. For Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), the ATSDR regulation is 10.5 ppt, the initial concentration was 15 ppt, and the final concentration was 3.9 ppt. For Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the ATSDR regulation is 11 ppt, the initial concentration was 15 ppt, and the final concentration was 3.9 ppt. For Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), the ATSDR regulation is 70 ppt, the initial concentration was 15 ppt, and the final concentration was 3.9 ppt. The results indicated a 74% reduction in PFAS concentration in filtered samples. Statistical data through regression analysis showed 0.9 validity of the sample data. Initial tests show the efficiency of the proposed filter described could be far greater if tested at a greater scale. It is highly recommended further testing to be conducted to validate the data for an innovative solution to a ubiquitous problem.

Keywords: PFAS, PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, low-cost filter.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 504


[1] Ahrens, L., 2011. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in the aquatic environment: a review of their occurrence and fate. J. Environ. Monit. 13 (1), 20e31.
[2] Backe WJ, Day TC, Field JA. Zwitterionic, cationic, and anionic fluorinated chemicals in aqueous film forming foam formulations and groundwater from U.S. military bases by nonaqueous large-volume injection HPLC-MS/MS. Environ Sci Technol. 2013 May 21;47(10): 5226-34. doi: 10.1021/es3034999. Epub 2013 May 1. PMID: 23590254.
[3] Buck, R.C., Franklin, J., Berger, U., Conder, J.M., Cousins, I.T., de Voogt, P., Jensen, A.A., Kannan, K., Mabury, S.A., van Leeuwen, S.P., 2011. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the environment: Terminology, classification, and origins. Integrated Environ. Assess. Manag. 7, 513e541.
[4] Appleman, T.D., Higgins, C.P., Qui~nones, O., Vanderford, B.J., Kolstad, C., Zeigler- Holady, J.C., Dickenson, E.R., 2014. Treatment of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in U.S. full-scale water treatment systems. Water Res. 51, 246e255.
[5] Biegel-Engler, A., Vierke, L., Apel, P., Fetter, E., Staude, C., 2017. Mitteilungen des Umweltbundesamtes zu per- und polyfluorierten Chemikalien (PFC) in Trinkwasser (in German). Bundesgesundheitsblatt 60, 341e346.
[6] Lindstrom, A.B., Strynar, M.J., Libelo, E.L., 2011. Polyfluorinated compounds: past, present, and future. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 7954e7961.
[7] Knutsen, H., Alexander, J., Barregård, L., Bignami, M., Brüschweiler, B., Ceccatelli, S., Cottrill, B., Dinovi, M., Edler, L., Grasl-Kraupp, B., et al., 2018. Risk to human health related to the presence of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid in food. EFSA journal 12.
[8] Post, G.B., Cohn, P.D., Cooper, K.R., jul, 2012. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an emerging drinking water contaminant: a critical review of recent literature. Environ. Res. 116, 93e117.
[9] Rahman, M.F., Peldszus, S., Anderson, W.B., 2014. Behaviour and fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water treatment: a review. Water Res. 50, 18e340.
[10] Vecitis, C.D., Park, H., Cheng, J., Mader, B.T., Hoffmann, M.R., 2009. Treatment technologies for aqueous perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. China 3, 129e151
[11] Carter, K.E., Farrell, J., mar, 2010. Removal of perfluorooctane and perfluorobutane sulfonate from water via carbon adsorption and ion exchange. Separ. Sci. Technol. 45, 762e767.
[12] Eschauzier, C., Beerendonk, E., Scholte-Veenendaal, P., Voogt, P.D., 2012. Impact of treatment processes on the removal of perfluoroalkyl acids from the drinking water production chain. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 1708e1715.
[13] Flores, C., Ventura, F., Martin-Alonso, J., Caixach, J., 2013. Occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in n.e. Spanish surface waters and their removal in a drinking water treatment plant that combines conventional and advanced treatments in parallel lines. Sci. Total Environ. 461e462, 618e626.
[14] Chularueangaksorn, P., Tanaka, S., Fujii, S., Kunacheva, C., 2014. Adsorption of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) onto anion exchange resin, non-ion exchange resin, and granular-activated carbon by batch and column. Desalination and Water Treatment 52, 6542e6548.
[15] Zhang, S., Lu, X., Wang, N., Buck, R.C., 2016b. Biotransformation potential of 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTSA) in aerobic and anaerobic sediment. Chemosphere 154, 224e230.
[16] Zaggia, A., Conte, L., Falletti, L., Fant, M., Chiorboli, A., 2016. Use of strong anion exchange resins for the removal of perfluoroalkylated substances from contaminated drinking water in batch and continuous pilot plants. Water Res. 91, 137e146.
[17] Franke, V., McCleaf, P., Lindegren, K., Ahrens, L., 2019. Efficient removal of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water treatment: nanofiltration combined with active carbon or anion exchange. Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol. 5, 1836e1843.
[18] Merino, N., Qu, Y., Deeb, R.A., Hawley, E.L., Hoffmann, M.R., Mahendra, S., 2016. Degradation and removal methods for perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in water. Environ. Eng. Sci. 33, 615e649.
[19] Crittenden, J.C., Trussell, R.R., Hand, D.W., Howe, K.J., Tchobanoglous, G., 2012. MWH’s Water Treatment: Principles and Design, third ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
[20] McCleaf, P., Englund, S., €Ostlund, A., Lindegrena, K., Wiberg, K., Ahrens, L., 2017. Removal efficiency of multiple poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water using granular activated carbon (GAC) and anion exchange (AE) column tests. Water Res. 120, 77e87.
[21] Takagi, S., Adachi, F., Miyano, K., Koizumi, Y., Tanaka, H., Watanabe, I., Tanabe, S., Kannan, K., jul, 2011. Fate of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in drinking water treatment processes. Water Res. 45, 3925e3932.
[22] Ericson, I., Domingo, J.L., Nadal, M., Bigas, E., Llebaria, X., van Bavel, B., Lindstr€om, G., 2009. Levels of perfluorinated chemicals in municipal drinking water from catalonia, Spain: public health implications. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 57, 631e638.
[23] Post, G.B., Louis, J.B., Cooper, K.R., Boros-Russo, B.J., Lippincott, R.L., 2009. Occurrence and potential significance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) detected in New Jersey public drinking water systems. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 4547e4554.
[24] Ullah, S., Alsberg, T., Berger, U., 2011. Simultaneous determination of perfluoroalkyl phosphonates, carboxylates, and sulfonates in drinking water. J. Chromatogr. A 1218, 6388e6395.
[25] USEPA, 2016. Drinking Water Health Advisories for PFOA and PFOS. (Accessed January 2017).¬
[26] Ankarberg, E.H., Lindberg, T., 2016. Riskhanteringsrapport- Risker vid f€ororening av dricksvatten med PFAS. Tech. rep., Livsmedelverket. 3 (7).