Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Codeword

16 A Modified Run Length Coding Technique for Test Data Compression Based on Multi-Level Selective Huffman Coding

Authors: C. Kalamani, K. Paramasivam

Abstract:

Test data compression is an efficient method for reducing the test application cost. The problem of reducing test data has been addressed by researchers in three different aspects: Test Data Compression, Built-in-Self-Test (BIST) and Test set compaction. The latter two methods are capable of enhancing fault coverage with cost of hardware overhead. The drawback of the conventional methods is that they are capable of reducing the test storage and test power but when test data have redundant length of runs, no additional compression method is followed. This paper presents a modified Run Length Coding (RLC) technique with Multilevel Selective Huffman Coding (MLSHC) technique to reduce test data volume, test pattern delivery time and power dissipation in scan test applications where redundant length of runs is encountered then the preceding run symbol is replaced with tiny codeword. Experimental results show that the presented method not only improves the test data compression but also reduces the overall test data volume compared to recent schemes. Experiments for the six largest ISCAS-98 benchmarks show that our method outperforms most known techniques.

Keywords: Modified run length coding, multilevel selective Huffman coding, built-in-self-test modified selective Huffman coding, automatic test equipment

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15 Performance Comparison of Resource Allocation without Feedback in Wireless Body Area Networks by Various Pseudo Orthogonal Sequences

Authors: Ojin Kwon, Yong-Jin Yoon, Liu Xin, Zhang Hongbao

Abstract:

Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a short-range wireless communication around human body for various applications such as wearable devices, entertainment, military, and especially medical devices. WBAN attracts the attention of continuous health monitoring system including diagnostic procedure, early detection of abnormal conditions, and prevention of emergency situations. Compared to cellular network, WBAN system is more difficult to control inter- and inner-cell interference due to the limited power, limited calculation capability, mobility of patient, and non-cooperation among WBANs. In this paper, we compare the performance of resource allocation scheme based on several Pseudo Orthogonal Codewords (POCs) to mitigate inter-WBAN interference. Previously, the POCs are widely exploited for a protocol sequence and optical orthogonal code. Each POCs have different properties of auto- and cross-correlation and spectral efficiency according to its construction of POCs. To identify different WBANs, several different pseudo orthogonal patterns based on POCs exploits for resource allocation of WBANs. By simulating these pseudo orthogonal resource allocations of WBANs on MATLAB, we obtain the performance of WBANs according to different POCs and can analyze and evaluate the suitability of POCs for the resource allocation in the WBANs system.

Keywords: wireless body area network, body sensor network, resource allocation without feedback, interference mitigation, pseudo orthogonal pattern

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14 On Quantum BCH Codes and Its Duals

Authors: J. S. Bhullar, Manish Gupta

Abstract:

Classical Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes C that contain their dual codes can be used to construct quantum stabilizer codes this chapter studies the properties of such codes. It had been shown that a BCH code of length n which contains its dual code satisfies the bound on weight of any non-zero codeword in C and converse is also true. One impressive difficulty in quantum communication and computation is to protect informationcarrying quantum states against undesired interactions with the environment. To address this difficulty, many good quantum errorcorrecting codes have been derived as binary stabilizer codes. We were able to shed more light on the structure of dual containing BCH codes. These results make it possible to determine the parameters of quantum BCH codes in terms of weight of non-zero dual codeword.

Keywords: Quantum Codes, BCH codes, Dual BCH Codes, Designed Distance

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13 Variable Rate Superorthogonal Turbo Code with the OVSF Code Tree

Authors: Insah Bhurtah, P. Clarel Catherine, K. M. Sunjiv Soyjaudah

Abstract:

When using modern Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) in mobile communications, the user must be able to vary the transmission rate of users to allocate bandwidth efficiently. In this work, Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes are used with the same principles applied in a low-rate superorthogonal turbo code due to their variable-length properties. The introduced system is the Variable Rate Superorthogonal Turbo Code (VRSTC) where puncturing is not performed on the encoder’s final output but rather before selecting the output to achieve higher rates. Due to bandwidth expansion, the codes outperform an ordinary turbo code in the AWGN channel. Simulations results show decreased performance compared to those obtained with the employment of Walsh-Hadamard codes. However, with OVSF codes, the VRSTC system keeps the orthogonality of codewords whilst producing variable rate codes contrary to Walsh-Hadamard codes where puncturing is usually performed on the final output.

Keywords: CDMA, MAP Decoding, OVSF, Superorthogonal Turbo Code

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12 Algebraic Quantum Error Correction Codes

Authors: Ming-Chung Tsai, Kuan-Peng Chen, Zheng-Yao

Abstract:

A systematic and exhaustive method based on the group structure of a unitary Lie algebra is proposed to generate an enormous number of quantum codes. With respect to the algebraic structure, the orthogonality condition, which is the central rule of generating quantum codes, is proved to be fully equivalent to the distinguishability of the elements in this structure. In addition, four types of quantum codes are classified according to the relation of the codeword operators and some initial quantum state. By linking the unitary Lie algebra with the additive group, the classical correspondences of some of these quantum codes can be rendered.

Keywords: Quotient-Algebra Partition, Codeword Spinors, Basis Codewords, Syndrome Spinors

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11 Optimization of Quantization in Higher Order Modulations for LDPC-Coded Systems

Authors: M.Sushanth Babu, P.Krishna, U.Venu, M.Ranjith

Abstract:

In this paper, we evaluate the choice of suitable quantization characteristics for both the decoder messages and the received samples in Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) coded systems using M-QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) schemes. The analysis involves the demapper block that provides initial likelihood values for the decoder, by relating its quantization strategy of the decoder. A mapping strategy refers to the grouping of bits within a codeword, where each m-bit group is used to select a 2m-ary signal in accordance with the signal labels. Further we evaluate the system with mapping strategies like Consecutive-Bit (CB) and Bit-Reliability (BR). A new demapper version, based on approximate expressions, is also presented to yield a low complexity hardware implementation.

Keywords: Mapping, Quantization, Low Density parity Check, Demapping, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

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10 Codes and Formulation of Appropriate Constraints via Entropy Measures

Authors: R. K. Tuli

Abstract:

In present communication, we have developed the suitable constraints for the given the mean codeword length and the measures of entropy. This development has proved that Renyi-s entropy gives the minimum value of the log of the harmonic mean and the log of power mean. We have also developed an important relation between best 1:1 code and the uniquely decipherable code by using different measures of entropy.

Keywords: Codeword, Instantaneous code, Prefix code, Uniquely decipherable code, Best one-one code, Mean codewordlength

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9 Mean Codeword Lengths and Their Correspondence with Entropy Measures

Authors: R.K.Tuli

Abstract:

The objective of the present communication is to develop new genuine exponentiated mean codeword lengths and to study deeply the problem of correspondence between well known measures of entropy and mean codeword lengths. With the help of some standard measures of entropy, we have illustrated such a correspondence. In literature, we usually come across many inequalities which are frequently used in information theory. Keeping this idea in mind, we have developed such inequalities via coding theory approach.

Keywords: Uncertainty, Codeword, Code alphabet, Uniquely decipherablecode, Mean codeword length, Noiseless channel

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8 Performance Analysis of HSDPA Systems using Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC)Coding as Compared to Turbo Coding

Authors: K. Anitha Sheela, J. Tarun Kumar

Abstract:

HSDPA is a new feature which is introduced in Release-5 specifications of the 3GPP WCDMA/UTRA standard to realize higher speed data rate together with lower round-trip times. Moreover, the HSDPA concept offers outstanding improvement of packet throughput and also significantly reduces the packet call transfer delay as compared to Release -99 DSCH. Till now the HSDPA system uses turbo coding which is the best coding technique to achieve the Shannon limit. However, the main drawbacks of turbo coding are high decoding complexity and high latency which makes it unsuitable for some applications like satellite communications, since the transmission distance itself introduces latency due to limited speed of light. Hence in this paper it is proposed to use LDPC coding in place of Turbo coding for HSDPA system which decreases the latency and decoding complexity. But LDPC coding increases the Encoding complexity. Though the complexity of transmitter increases at NodeB, the End user is at an advantage in terms of receiver complexity and Bit- error rate. In this paper LDPC Encoder is implemented using “sparse parity check matrix" H to generate a codeword at Encoder and “Belief Propagation algorithm "for LDPC decoding .Simulation results shows that in LDPC coding the BER suddenly drops as the number of iterations increase with a small increase in Eb/No. Which is not possible in Turbo coding. Also same BER was achieved using less number of iterations and hence the latency and receiver complexity has decreased for LDPC coding. HSDPA increases the downlink data rate within a cell to a theoretical maximum of 14Mbps, with 2Mbps on the uplink. The changes that HSDPA enables includes better quality, more reliable and more robust data services. In other words, while realistic data rates are only a few Mbps, the actual quality and number of users achieved will improve significantly.

Keywords: AMC, WCDMA, LDPC, HSDPA

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7 H-ARQ Techniques for Wireless Systems with Punctured Non-Binary LDPC as FEC Code

Authors: Ł. Kiedrowski, H. Gierszal, W. Hołubowicz

Abstract:

This paper presents the H-ARQ techniques comparison for OFDM systems with a new family of non-binary LDPC codes which has been developed within the EU FP7 DAVINCI project. The punctured NB-LDPC codes have been used in a simulated model of the transmission system. The link level performance has been evaluated in terms of spectral efficiency, codeword error rate and average number of retransmissions. The NB-LDPC codes can be easily and effective implemented with different methods of the retransmission needed if correct decoding of a codeword failed. Here the Optimal Symbol Selection method is proposed as a Chase Combining technique.

Keywords: LDPC, H-ARQ, Non-Binary, Punctured Codes

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6 Hand Gesture Recognition Based on Combined Features Extraction

Authors: Mahmoud Elmezain, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Bernd Michaelis

Abstract:

Hand gesture is an active area of research in the vision community, mainly for the purpose of sign language recognition and Human Computer Interaction. In this paper, we propose a system to recognize alphabet characters (A-Z) and numbers (0-9) in real-time from stereo color image sequences using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Our system is based on three main stages; automatic segmentation and preprocessing of the hand regions, feature extraction and classification. In automatic segmentation and preprocessing stage, color and 3D depth map are used to detect hands where the hand trajectory will take place in further step using Mean-shift algorithm and Kalman filter. In the feature extraction stage, 3D combined features of location, orientation and velocity with respected to Cartesian systems are used. And then, k-means clustering is employed for HMMs codeword. The final stage so-called classification, Baum- Welch algorithm is used to do a full train for HMMs parameters. The gesture of alphabets and numbers is recognized using Left-Right Banded model in conjunction with Viterbi algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that, our system can successfully recognize hand gestures with 98.33% recognition rate.

Keywords: Pattern Recognition, Gesture Recognition, Computer Vision & Image Processing

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5 A Multipurpose Audio Watermarking Algorithm Based on Vector Quantization in DCT Domain

Authors: Jixin Liu, Zheming Lu

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel multipurpose audio watermarking algorithm is proposed based on Vector Quantization (VQ) in Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain using the codeword labeling and index-bit constrained method. By using this algorithm, it can fulfill the requirements of both the copyright protection and content integrity authentication at the same time for the multimedia artworks. The robust watermark is embedded in the middle frequency coefficients of the DCT transform during the labeled codeword vector quantization procedure. The fragile watermark is embedded into the indices of the high frequency coefficients of the DCT transform by using the constrained index vector quantization method for the purpose of integrity authentication of the original audio signals. Both the robust and the fragile watermarks can be extracted without the original audio signals, and the simulation results show that our algorithm is effective with regard to the transparency, robustness and the authentication requirements

Keywords: discrete cosine transform, copyright protection, Vector Quantization , Integrity Authentication, Multipurpose Audio Watermarking

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4 The Minimum PAPR Code for OFDM Systems

Authors: Inderjeet Kaur, M. Kulkarni, Daya Gupta, Kamal Thakur, Janki Arora

Abstract:

In this paper, a block code to minimize the peak-toaverage power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals is proposed. It is shown that cyclic shift and codeword inversion cause not change to peak envelope power. The encoding rule for the proposed code comprises of searching for a seed codeword, shifting the register elements, and determining codeword inversion, eliminating the look-up table for one-to-one correspondence between the source and the coded data. Simulation results show that OFDM systems with the proposed code always have the minimum PAPR.

Keywords: Wireless Communications, OFDM, block codes, peak-to averagepower ratio, peak envelope power

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3 A Hidden Markov Model-Based Isolated and Meaningful Hand Gesture Recognition

Authors: Mahmoud Elmezain, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Jörg Appenrodt, Bernd Michaelis

Abstract:

Gesture recognition is a challenging task for extracting meaningful gesture from continuous hand motion. In this paper, we propose an automatic system that recognizes isolated gesture, in addition meaningful gesture from continuous hand motion for Arabic numbers from 0 to 9 in real-time based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM). In order to handle isolated gesture, HMM using Ergodic, Left-Right (LR) and Left-Right Banded (LRB) topologies is applied over the discrete vector feature that is extracted from stereo color image sequences. These topologies are considered to different number of states ranging from 3 to 10. A new system is developed to recognize the meaningful gesture based on zero-codeword detection with static velocity motion for continuous gesture. Therefore, the LRB topology in conjunction with Baum-Welch (BW) algorithm for training and forward algorithm with Viterbi path for testing presents the best performance. Experimental results show that the proposed system can successfully recognize isolated and meaningful gesture and achieve average rate recognition 98.6% and 94.29% respectively.

Keywords: Pattern Recognition, Application, Gesture Recognition, Computer Vision & Image Processing

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2 A New Construction of 16-QAM Codewords with Low Peak Power

Authors: Jiaxiang Zhao

Abstract:

We present a novel construction of 16-QAM codewords of length n = 2k . The number of constructed codewords is 162×[4k-1×k-k+1] . When these constructed codewords are utilized as a code in OFDM systems, their peak-to-mean envelope power ratios (PMEPR) are bounded above by 3.6 . The principle of our scheme is illustrated with a four subcarrier example.

Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Extended Rudin-Shapiro construction, peak-to-mean envelope power ratio (PMEPR)

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1 A File Splitting Technique for Reducing the Entropy of Text Files

Authors: Abdel-Rahman M. Jaradat, , Mansour I. Irshid, Talha T. Nassar

Abstract:

A novel file splitting technique for the reduction of the nth-order entropy of text files is proposed. The technique is based on mapping the original text file into a non-ASCII binary file using a new codeword assignment method and then the resulting binary file is split into several subfiles each contains one or more bits from each codeword of the mapped binary file. The statistical properties of the subfiles are studied and it is found that they reflect the statistical properties of the original text file which is not the case when the ASCII code is used as a mapper. The nth-order entropy of these subfiles are determined and it is found that the sum of their entropies is less than that of the original text file for the same values of extensions. These interesting statistical properties of the resulting subfiles can be used to achieve better compression ratios when conventional compression techniques are applied to these subfiles individually and on a bit-wise basis rather than on character-wise basis.

Keywords: Entropy, Bit-wise compression, file splitting, source mapping

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