Search results for: dairy cattle feed
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 536

Search results for: dairy cattle feed

536 The Effects of Production, Transportation and Storage Conditions on Mold Growth in Compound Feeds

Authors: N. Cetinkaya

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to determine the critical control points during the production, transportation and storage conditions of compound feeds to be used in the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) feed safety management system. A total of 40 feed samples were taken after 20 and 40 days of storage periods from the 10 dairy and 10 beef cattle farms following the transportation of the compound feeds from the factory. In addition, before transporting the feeds from factory immediately after production of dairy and beef cattle compound feeds, 10 from each total 20 samples were taken as 0 day. In all feed samples, chemical composition and total aflatoxin levels were determined. The aflatoxin levels in all feed samples with the exception of 2 dairy cattle feeds were below the maximum acceptable level. With the increase in storage period in dairy feeds, the aflatoxin levels were increased to 4.96 ppb only in a BS8 dairy farm. This value is below the maximum permissible level (10 ppb) in beef cattle feed. The aflatoxin levels of dairy feed samples taken after production varied between 0.44 and 2.01 ppb. Aflatoxin levels were found to be between 0.89 and 3.01 ppb in dairy cattle feeds taken on the 20th day of storage at 10 dairy cattle farm. On the 40th day, feed aflatoxin levels in the same dairy cattle farm were found between 1.12 and 7.83 ppb. The aflatoxin levels were increased to 7.83 and 6.31 ppb in 2 dairy farms, after a storage period of 40 days. These obtained aflatoxin values are above the maximum permissible level in dairy cattle feeds. The 40 days storage in pellet form in the HACCP feed safety management system can be considered as a critical control point.

Keywords: Aflatoxin, beef cattle feed, compound feed, dairy cattle feed, HACCP.

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535 Economic Returns of Using Brewery`s Spent Grain in Animal Feed

Authors: U. Ben-Hamed, H. Seddighi, K. Thomas

Abstract:

UK breweries generate extensive by products in the form of spent grain, slurry and yeast. Much of the spent grain is produced by large breweries and processed in bulk for animal feed. Spent brewery grains contain up to 20% protein dry weight and up to 60% fiber and are useful additions to animal feed. Bulk processing is economic and allows spent grain to be sold so providing an income to the brewery. A proportion of spent grain, however, is produced by small local breweries and is more variably distributed to farms or other users using intermittent collection methods. Such use is much less economic and may incur losses if not carefully assessed for transport costs. This study reports an economic returns of using wet brewery spent grain (WBSG) in animal feed using the Co-product Optimizer Decision Evaluator model (Cattle CODE) developed by the University of Nebraska to predict performance and economic returns when byproducts are fed to finishing cattle. The results indicated that distance from brewery to farm had a significantly greater effect on the economics of use of small brewery spent grain and that alternative uses than cattle feed may be important to develop.

Keywords: Animal Feed, Brewery Spent Grains, cattle CODE, Economic returns.

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534 Effect of Calving Season on the Economic and Production Efficiency of Dairy Production Breeds

Authors: Eman. K. Ramadan, Abdelgawad. S. El-Tahawy

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of calving season on the production and economic efficiency of dairy farms in Egypt. Our study was performed at dairy production farms in the Alexandria, Behera, and Kafr El-Sheikh provinces of Egypt from summer 2010 to winter 2013. The randomly selected dairy farms had herds consisting of Baladi, Holstein-Friesian, or cross-bred (Baladi × Holstein-Friesian) cows. The data were collected from production records and responses to a structured questionnaire. The average total return differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the different cattle breeds and calving seasons. The average total return was highest for the Holstein- Friesian cows that calved in the winter (29106.42 EGP/cow/year), and it was lowest for Baladi cows that calved in the summer (12489.79 EGP/cow/year). Differences in total returns between the cows that calved in the winter or summer or between the foreign and native breeds, as well as variations in calf prices, might have contributed to the differences in milk yield. The average net profit per cow differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the cattle breeds and calving seasons. The average net profit values for the Baladi cows that calved in the winter or summer were 2413 and 2994.96 EGP/cow/year, respectively, and those for the Holstein- Friesian cows were 10744.17 and 7860.56 EGP/cow/year, respectively, whereas those for the cross-bred cows were 10174.86 and 7571.33 EGP/cow/year, respectively. The variations in net profit might have resulted from variation in the availability or price of feed materials, milk prices, or sales volumes. Our results show that the breed and calving season of dairy cows significantly affected the economic efficiency of dairy farms in Egypt. The cows that calved in the winter produced more milk than those that calved in the summer, which may have been the result of seasonal influences, such as temperature, humidity, management practices, and the type of feed or green fodder available.

Keywords:

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533 Effects of Specific Essential Oil Compounds on, Feed Intake, Milk Production, and Ruminal Environment in Dairy Cows during Heat Exposure

Authors: K. Reza-Yazdi, M. Fallah, M. Khodaparast, F. Kateb, M. Hosseini-Ghaffari

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine effect of dietary essential oil (EO) compounds, which contained cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, peppermint, coriander, cumin, lemongrass, and an organic carrier on feed intake, milk composition, and rumen fermentation of dairy cows during heat exposure. Thirty-two Holstein cows (days in milk= 60 ± 5) were assigned to one of two treatment groups: a Control and EO fed. The experiment lasted 28 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) was measured daily while and milk production was measured weekly. Our result showed that DMI and milk yield was decreased (P < 0.01) in control cows relative to EO cows. Furthermore, supplementation with EO was associated with a decrease in the molar proportion of propionate (P < 0.05) and increase (P < 0.05) in acetate to propionate ratio. In conclusion, EO supplementations in diets can be useful nutritional modification to alleviate for the decrease DMI and milk production during heat exposure in lactating dairy cows.

Keywords: Dairy cow, feed additive, plant extract.

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532 Investigation of Economic and Social Effects of the Dairy Cattle Support Project to Regional Economy via Cooperatives: Example of Isparta Province

Authors: Mevlüt Gül, Hilal Yılmaz, M. Göksel Akpınar, Ayse Karadağ Gürsoy, Özge Bayındır

Abstract:

Milk is a very important nutrient. Low productivity is a problem of Turkish dairy farming. During recent years, Turkish government has supported cooperatives that assist milk producers and encouraged farmers to become cooperative members. Turkish government established several ways to support specially smallholders. For example Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) provided two to four cows to villagers on a grant or loan basis with a long repayment period at low interest rates by cooperatives. Social Support Project in Rural Areas (SSPRA) is another support program targeting only disadvantaged people, especially poor villager. Both programs have a very strong social support component and similar objectives. But there are minor differences between them in terms of target people, terms and conditions of the credit supplied Isparta province in Mediterranean region of Turkey is one of the supported regions. MARA distributed dairy cows to 1072 farmers through 16 agricultural cooperatives in Isparta province in the context of SSPRA. In this study, economic-social impacts on dairy cattle project implemented through cooperatives were examined in Isparta. Primary data were collected from 12 cooperatives- president. The data were obtained by personal interview through a questionnaire and to cooperatives and given to farms benefiting from the project in order to reveal the economic and social developments. Finding of the study revealed that project provided new job opportunities and improved quality of livestock. It was found that producers who benefited from the project were more willing to participate in cooperative or other producer organizations.

Keywords: ooperative, Dairy Cattle, Economic Impact, Livestock Support Project, Social Impact.

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531 Energy Evaluation and Utilization of Cassava Peel for Lactating Dairy Cows

Authors: Pipat Lounglawan, Yutthapong Sornwongkaew, Wassana Lounglawan, Wisitiporn Suksombat

Abstract:

The experiment was then conducted to investigate the effect of cassava peel addition in the concentrate on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred (>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in mid lactation; averaging 12.2+2.1 kg of milk, 119+45 days in milk, 44.1+6.2 months old and 449+33 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield, days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then randomly allocated to three treatment groups. The first, second and third groups were fed concentrates containing the respective cassava peel, 0, 20 and 40%. All cows were fed ad libitum corn silage and freely access to clean water. Dry matter intake, 4%FCM, milk composition and body weight change were affected (P<0.05) by the third treatments (40%). The present study indicated that 20% cassava peel can be used in the concentrate for lactating dairy cows.

Keywords: Cassava peel, Energy evaluation, Milk production, Dairy cattle

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530 Effect of Cassava Root Ensiled with Cassava Top or Legumes on Feed Intake and Digestibility of Dairy Cows

Authors: S. Bureenok, C. Yuangklang, K. Vasupen

Abstract:

The effect of cassava root ensiled with cassava top or legumes on voluntary feed intake and milk production were determined in 12 dairy cows using a 4×3 change-over design. Experimental period were 30 days long and consisted of 14 days of adaptation. Silage was prepared from cassava root mixed with cassava top or legumes at ratio 60:40. Cows were allotted at random to receive ad libitum one of four rations: T1) control, T2) cassava root +cassava top-silages, T3) cassava root +hamata - silages and T4) cassava root +Thapra stylo-silages. The dry matter intake (BW0.75) was higher (P< 0.05) in cow fed with silages diets compared with T1. However, the intake of T2 was higher among treatments. Milk production was lowest in cow fed with T1. Among silages based diets, milk production was not significantly different but 4%FCM was higher in cow fed T2. Milk compositions were not affected by feeding diets. It is concluded that feeding cassava root ensiled with its leaves as a supplement increased dry matter intake and significantly improved 4%FCM. The combination of cassava root and legume silages did not improve the feed intake but did increase the milk production.

Keywords: Cassava, dairy cow, hamata, Thapra stylo, silage.

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529 Occurrence of Adult Taenia saginata in Cattle Slaughtered in Major Abattoirs in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Lebari B. Gboeloh

Abstract:

The occurrence of adult Taenia saginata in major abattoirs in Port Harcourt metropolis was investigated. Out of 514 cattle investigated, an overall prevalence of 35(6.8%) was recorded. Infected male and female cattle represented 1.2% (6/514) and 5.6% (29/514) of the overall prevalence respectively. There was a statistical significant difference (P< 0.05) in prevalence of adult Taenaia saginata between male and female cattle examined in the study area. Old cattle have a significant (P< 0.05) infestation rate than young ones. Adult Taenia saginata exists in cattle and still remains a public health concern in the study area. Deliberate effort is needed from stake-holders and the Government to design and implement programs that will lead to the prevention and possible eradication of the parasite.

Keywords: Taenia saginata, Adult, Cattle, Occurrence, Port Harcourt.

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528 Phenotypic Characterization of the Zebu Cattle in Tajikistan

Authors: A. Norezzine, N. Y. Rebouh, M. Souadkia, D. Parpura, A. Gadzhikurbanov, E. A. Gladyr, P. M. Klenovitsky, A. A. Nikishov, A. Dranidis

Abstract:

This article deals with the genetic characteristics of samples Schwyz-zebu cattle from three farms of the Republic of Tajikistan on 10 microsatellite markers (STS). Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the heterozygosity in the population and to characterize this breed by identifying DNA markers using microstatellites. Microsatellites often have multiple alleles and may have heterozygosity frequencies of 70% or more. This makes them highly informative for genetic analysis. A total of ten microsatellite primers were used for microsatellite analysis in genomic DNA of Zebu cattle. The amplified products were analysed for polymorphic alleles and their frequencies. The resulting information can be used in dealing with the conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources of the Tajik Schwyz-zebu cattle.

Keywords: DNA, gene pool, Schwyz-zebu cattle, microsatellite loci.

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527 Biogas Potentiality of Agro-wastes Jatropha Fruit Coat

Authors: M.S. Dhanya, N. Gupta, H.C. Joshi, Lata

Abstract:

The present investigation was undertaken to explore the biogas potentiality of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas, Euphorbiaceae) Fruit Coat (JFC) alone and in combination with cattle dung (CD) in various proportions at 15 per cent total solids by batch phase anaerobic digestion for a period of ten weeks HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time) under a temperature of 35°C+1°C. The maximum biogas production was noticed in Cattle dung and Jatropha Fruit Coat in 2:1 ratio with 403.84 L/kg dry matter followed by 3:1,1:2, 1:1 and 1:3 having 329.66, 219.77, 217.79, 203.64 L /kg dm respectively as compared to 178.49 L/kg dm in CD alone. The JFC alone found to produce 91 per cent of total biogas that obtained from Cattle dung. The per cent methane content of the biogas in all the treatments was found on par with Cattle dung.

Keywords: Jatropha Fruit Coat, Cattle dung, Hydraulic Retention Time, Dry matter

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526 Determination of EDTA in Dairy Wastewater and Adjacent Surface Water

Authors: Congmin Z. Xie, Terry Healy, Peter Robinson, Kevin Stewart

Abstract:

An HPLC-UV analytical method was developed to determine ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in dairy wastewater and surface water. The optimizing separation was achieved by reversed–phase ion-pair liquid chromatography on a C18 column using methanol as mobile phase solvent, tetrabutylammonium bromide as the ion-pair reagent in pH 3.3 formate buffer solution at a flow rate of 0.9 mL min-1 with a UV detector at 265 nm. No interference of Ca, Mg or NO3 - was detected. Method performance was evaluated in terms of linearity, repeatability and reproducibility. The method detection limit was 5 μg L-1. The contents of EDTA in dairy effluents were 72 ~ 261 μg L-1 at a large dairy site. A change of EDTA concentration was observed downstream of the dairy effluent discharge, but this was well under the predicted no effect concentration for aquatic ecosystem.

Keywords: Dairy wastewater, EDTA, HPLC, surface water.

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525 Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in 5'-UTR of CYP11B1 Gene in Pakistani Sahiwal Cattle

Authors: S. Manzoor, A. Nadeem, M. Javed, ME. Babar

Abstract:

A major goal in animal genetics is to understand the role of common genetic variants in diseases susceptibility and production traits. Sahiwal cattle can be considered as a global animal genetic resource due to its relatively high milk producing ability, resistance against tropical diseases and heat tolerant. CYP11B1 gene provides instructions for making a mitochondrial enzyme called steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase. It catalyzes the 11deoxy-cortisol to cortisol and 11deoxycorticosterone to corticosterone in cattle. The bovine CYP11B1 gene is positioned on BTA14q12 comprises of eight introns and nine exons and protein is associated with mitochondrial epithelium. The present study was aimed to identify the single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP11B1 gene in Sahiwal cattle breed of Pakistan. Four polymorphic sites were identified in exon one of CYP11B1 gene through sequencing approach. Significant finding was the incidence of the C→T polymorphism in 5'-UTR, causing amino acid substitution from alanine to valine (A30V) in Sahiwal cattle breed. That Ala/Val polymorphism may serve as a powerful genetic tool for the development of DNA markers that can be used for the particular traits for different local cattle breeds.

Keywords: CYP11B1, single nucleotide polymorphism, sahiwal cattle, Pakistan.

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524 Beef Cattle Farmers Perception toward Urea Mineral Molasses Block

Authors: Veronica Sri Lestari, Djoni Prawira Rahardja, Tanrigiling Rasyid, Aslina Asnawi, Ikrar Muhammad Saleh, Ilham Rasyid

Abstract:

Urea Mineral Molasses Block is very important for beef cattle, because it can increase beef production. The purpose of this research was to know beef cattle farmers’ perception towards Urea Mineral Molasses Block (UMMB). This research was conducted in Gowa Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia in 2016. The population of this research were all beef cattle farmers. Sample was chosen through purposive sampling. Data were collected through observation and face to face with deep interview using questionnaire. Variables of perception consisted of relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability and triability. There were 10 questions. The answer for each question was scored by 1, 2, 3 which refer to disagree, agree enough, strongly agree. The data were analyzed descriptively using frequency distribution. The research revealed that beef cattle farmers’ perception towards UMMB was categorized as strongly agree.

Keywords: Beef cattle, farmers, perception, urea mineral molasses block.

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523 In vivo Alterations in Ruminal Parameters by Megasphaera elsdenii Inoculation on Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA)

Authors: M. S. Alatas, H. D. Umucalilar

Abstract:

SARA is a common and serious metabolic disorder in early lactation in dairy cattle and in finishing beef cattle, caused by diets with high inclusion of cereal grain. This experiment was performed to determine the efficacy of Megasphaera elsdenii, a major lactate-utilizing bacterium in prevention/treatment of SARA in vivo. In vivo experimentation, it was used eight ruminally cannulated rams and it was applied the rapid adaptation with the mixture of grain based on wheat (80% wheat, 20% barley) and barley (80% barley, 20% wheat). During the systematic adaptation, it was followed the probability of SARA formation by being measured the rumen pH with two hours intervals after and before feeding. After being evaluated the data, it was determined the ruminal pH ranged from 5.2-5.6 on the condition of feeding with 60 percentage of grain mixture based on barley and wheat, that assured the definite form of subacute acidosis. In four days SARA period, M. elsdenii (1010 cfu ml-1) was inoculated during the first two days. During the SARA period, it was observed the decrease of feed intake with M. elsdenii inoculation. Inoculation of M. elsdenii was caused to differentiation of rumen pH (P<0.0001), while it was found the pH level approximately 5.55 in animals applied the inoculation, it was 5.63 pH in other animals. It was observed that total VFA with the bacterium inoculation tended to change in terms of grain feed (P<0.07). It increased with the effect of total VFA inoculation in barley based diet, but it was more stabilized in wheat based diet. Bacterium inoculation increased the ratio of propionic acid (18.33%-21.38%) but it caused to decrease the butyric acid, and acetic/propionic acid. During the rapid adaptation, the concentration of lactic acid in the rumen liquid increased depending upon grain level (P<0.0001). On the other hand bacterium inoculation did not have an effect on concentration of lactic acid. M. elsdenii inoculation did not affect ruminal ammonia concentration. In the group that did not apply inoculation, the level of ruminal ammonia concentration was higher than the others applied inoculation. M. elsdenii inoculation did not changed protozoa count in barley-based diet whereas it decreased in wheat-based diet. When it is generally evaluated, it is seen that M. elsdenii inoculation has not a positive impact on rumen parameters. Therefore, to reveal the full impact of the inoculation with different strains, feedstuffs and animal groups, further research is required.

Keywords: In vivo, subactute ruminal acidosis, Megasphaera elsdenii, rumen fermentation.

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522 Minimizing Fish-feed Loss due to Sea Currents: An Economic Methodology

Authors: V. Vassiliou, M. Charalambides, M. Menicou

Abstract:

Fish-feed is a major cost component of operating expenses for any aquaculture farm. Due to soaring prices of fish-feed ingredients, the need for better feeding schedule management has become imperative. On such factor that influences the utilization rate of fish-feed are sea currents. Up to now, practical monitoring of fishfeed loss due to sea currents is not exercised. This paper gives a description of an economic methodology that aims at quantifying the amount of fish-feed lost due to sea currents and draws on data from a Mediterranean aquaculture farm to formulate the associated model.

Keywords: Aquaculture, economic model, fish-feed loss, sea currents.

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521 Influence of Environmental Temperature on Dairy Herd Performance and Behaviour

Authors: L. Krpalkova, N. O' Mahony, A. Carvalho, S. Campbell, S. Harapanahalli, J. Walsh

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of environmental stressors on the performance of lactating dairy cows and discuss some future trends. There exists a relationship between the meteorological data and milk yield prediction accuracy in pasture-based dairy systems. New precision technologies are available and are being developed to improve the sustainability of the dairy industry. Some of these technologies focus on welfare of individual animals on dairy farms. These technologies allow the automatic identification of animal behaviour and health events, greatly increasing overall herd health and yield while reducing animal health inspection demands and long-term animal healthcare costs. The data set consisted of records from 489 dairy cows at two dairy farms and temperature measured from the nearest meteorological weather station in 2018. The effects of temperature on milk production and behaviour of animals were analyzed. The statistical results indicate different effects of temperature on milk yield and behaviour. The “comfort zone” for animals is in the range 10 °C to 20 °C. Dairy cows out of this zone had to decrease or increase their metabolic heat production, and it affected their milk production and behaviour.

Keywords: Behaviour, milk yield, temperature, precision technologies.

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520 Ethylene Epoxidation in a Low-Temperature Parallel Plate Dielectric Barrier Discharge System: Effects of Ethylene Feed Position and O2/C2H4 Feed Molar Ratio

Authors: Bunphot Paosombat, Thitiporn Suttikul, Sumaeth Chavadej

Abstract:

The effects of ethylene (C2H4) feed position and O2/C2H4 feed molar ratio on ethylene epoxidation in a parallel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) were studied. The results showed that the ethylene feed position fraction of 0.5 and the feed molar ratio of O2/C2H4 of 0.2:1 gave the highest EO selectivity of 34.3% and the highest EO yield of 5.28% with low power consumptions of 2.11×10-16 Ws/molecule of ethylene converted and 6.34×10-16 Ws/molecule of EO produced when the DBD system was operated under the best conditions: an applied voltage of 19 kV, an input frequency of 500 Hz and a total feed flow rate of 50 cm3/min. The separate ethylene feed system provided much higher epoxidation activity as compared to the mixed feed system which gave EO selectivity of 15.5%, EO yield of 2.1% and the power consumption of EO produced of 7.7×10-16 Ws/molecule.

Keywords: Dielectric Barrier Discharge, C2H4 Feed Position, Epoxidation, Ethylene Oxide

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519 A Research about Determination of the Quality of Feed Oils Used as Mixed Feed Raw Material from Some Feed Factories in Konya-Turkey

Authors: Gülşah Kanbur, Veysel Ayhan

Abstract:

Feed oil samples which are used as mixed feed raw material were taken from six different feed factories in March, May and July. All factories make production in Konya, Turkey and all of the samples were crude soybean oils. Physical and chemical analyses, free radical scavenger effect, and total phenol content were determined on these oil samples. Moisture (M) content was found between 0.10-22.23%, saponification number (SF) was determined 143.13 to 167.93 KOH/kg, free fatty acidity (FFA) was varied 0.73 to 35.00%, peroxide value (PV) was found between 1.53 and 28.43 meq/kg, unsaponifiable matter (USM) was determined from 0.40 to 17.10%, viscosity (V) was found between 34.30 and 625.67 mPas, sediment (S) amount was determined between 0.60-18.16%, free radical scavenger effect (FRSE) was varied 20.7 to 43.04% inhibition of the extract and total phenol (TPC) content was found between 1.20 and 2.69mg/L extract. Different results were found between months and factories.

Keywords: Crude soybean oil, Feed oils, mixed feed.

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518 Carotenoid Potential to Protect Cow-s Milk Fat Against Oxidative Deterioration

Authors: U. Antone, V. Sterna, J. Zagorska

Abstract:

Milk from differently fed cows (supplemented with carotenoids from carrots or palm oil product Carotino CAF 100) was obtained in a conventional dairy farm to assess the carotenoid potential to protect milk fat against oxidation. The extracted anhydrous milk fat (AMF) was tested by peroxide value, and Rancimat tests. Temperature, and light stimulation for reaction acceleration was used. The oxidative stability enhancement by carotenoids was detected in peroxide value test – the strongest effect was observed in palm oil, following by carrot supplemented group, compared to control group, whose feed was unchanged. Rancimat accelerated oxidation test results did not show any superiority of the oxidative stability of the AMF samples from milk of the carotenoidsupplemented cow groups. The average oxidation stability of AMF dark-stored samples was 12.59 ± 0.294 h, and it was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of AMF light-affected samples, i.e. 2.60 ± 0.191 h.

Keywords: antioxidants, dairy products, forages, lipid aging, peroxide

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517 Photocatalytic Detoxification Method for Zero Effluent Discharge in Dairy Industry: Effect of Operational Parameters

Authors: Janhavi Inamdar, S.K. Singh

Abstract:

Laboratory experiments have been performed to investigate photocatalytic detoxification by using TiO2 photocatalyst for treating dairy effluent. Various operational parameters such as catalyst concentration, initial concentration, angle of tilt of solar flat plate reactor and flow rate were investigated. Results indicated that the photocatalytic detoxification process can efficiently treat dairy effluent. Experimental runs with dairy wastewater can be used to identify the optimum operational parameters to perform wastewater degradation on large scale for recycling purpose. Also effect of two different types of reactors on degradation process was analyzed.

Keywords: Photocatalytic detoxification, TiO2 photocatalyst, solar flat plate reactor, Zero effluent discharge.

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516 Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus through Amplification of 12S rRNA Gene and Cox1 Gene Fragments from Cattle in Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: M. Omer Faruk, A. M. A. M. Zonaed Siddiki, M. Fazal Karim, Md. Masuduzzaman, S. Chowdhury, Md. Shafiqul Islam, M. Alamgir Hossain

Abstract:

The dog tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus develop hydatid cysts in various organs in human and domestic animals worldwide including Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the genotype of E. granulosus isolated from cattle using 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 (COX 1) genes. A total of 43 hydatid cyst samples were collected from 390 examined cattle samples derived from slaughterhouses. Among them, three cysts were fertile. Genomic DNA was extracted from germinal membrane and/or protoscoleces followed by PCR amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene fragments. The sequence data revealed existence of G1 (64.28%) and possible G3 (21.43%) genotypes for the first time in Bangladesh. The study indicates that common sheep strain G1 is the dominant subtype of E. granulosus in Chittagong region of Bangladesh. This will increase our understanding of the epidemiology of hydatidosis in the southern part of the country and will be useful to plan suitable control measures in the long run.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, molecular characterization, cattle, Bangladesh.

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515 Opportunities for Precision Feed in Apiculture for Managing the Efficacy of Feed and Medicine

Authors: John Michael Russo

Abstract:

Honeybees are important to our food system and continue to suffer from high rates of colony loss. Precision feed has brought many benefits to livestock cultivation and these should transfer to apiculture. However, apiculture has unique challenges. The objective of this research is to understand how principles of precision agriculture, applied to apiculture and feed specifically, might effectively improve state-of-the-art cultivation. The methodology surveys apicultural practice to build a model for assessment. First, a review of apicultural motivators is made. Feed method is then evaluated. Finally, precision feed methods are examined as accelerants with potential to advance the effectiveness of feed practice. Six important motivators emerge: colony loss, disease, climate change, site variance, operational costs, and competition. Feed practice itself is used to compensate for environmental variables. The research finds that the current state-of-the-art in apiculture feed focuses on critical challenges in the management of feed schedules which satisfy requirements of the bees, preserve potency, optimize environmental variables, and manage costs. Many of the challenges are most acute when feed is used to dispense medication. Technology such as RNA treatments have even more rigorous demands. Precision feed solutions focus on strategies which accommodate specific needs of individual livestock. A major component is data; they integrate precise data with methods that respond to individual needs. There is enormous opportunity for precision feed to improve apiculture through the integration of precision data with policies to translate data into optimized action in the apiary, particularly through automation.

Keywords: Apiculture, precision apiculture, RNA varroa treatment, honeybee feed applications.

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514 Feed-Forward Control in Resonant DC Link Inverter

Authors: Apinan Aurasopon, Worawat Sa-ngiavibool

Abstract:

This paper proposes a feed-forward control in resonant dc link inverter. The feed-forward control configuration is based on synchronous sigma-delta modulation. The simulation results showing the proposed technique can reject non-ideal dc bus improving the total harmonic distortion.

Keywords: Feed-forward control, Resonant dc link inverter, Synchronous sigma-delta modulation.

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513 Decision-Making Strategies on Smart Dairy Farms: A Review

Authors: L. Krpalkova, N. O' Mahony, A. Carvalho, S. Campbell, G. Corkery, E. Broderick, J. Walsh

Abstract:

Farm management and operations will drastically change due to access to real-time data, real-time forecasting and tracking of physical items in combination with Internet of Things (IoT) developments to further automate farm operations. Dairy farms have embraced technological innovations and procured vast amounts of permanent data streams during the past decade; however, the integration of this information to improve the whole farm decision-making process does not exist. It is now imperative to develop a system that can collect, integrate, manage, and analyze on-farm and off-farm data in real-time for practical and relevant environmental and economic actions. The developed systems, based on machine learning and artificial intelligence, need to be connected for useful output, a better understanding of the whole farming issue and environmental impact. Evolutionary Computing (EC) can be very effective in finding the optimal combination of sets of some objects and finally, in strategy determination. The system of the future should be able to manage the dairy farm as well as an experienced dairy farm manager with a team of the best agricultural advisors. All these changes should bring resilience and sustainability to dairy farming as well as improving and maintaining good animal welfare and the quality of dairy products. This review aims to provide an insight into the state-of-the-art of big data applications and EC in relation to smart dairy farming and identify the most important research and development challenges to be addressed in the future. Smart dairy farming influences every area of management and its uptake has become a continuing trend.

Keywords: Big data, evolutionary computing, cloud, precision technologies

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512 Assessment of the Effect of Feed Plate Location on Interactions for a Binary Distillation Column

Authors: A. Khelassi, R. Bendib

Abstract:

The paper considers the effect of feed plate location on the interactions in a seven plate binary distillation column. The mathematical model of the distillation column is deduced based on the equations of mass and energy balances for each stage, detailed model for both reboiler and condenser, and heat transfer equations. The Dynamic Relative Magnitude Criterion, DRMC is used to assess the interactions in different feed plate locations for a seven plate (Benzene-Toluene) binary distillation column ( the feed plate is originally at stage 4). The results show that whenever we go far from the optimum feed plate position, the level of interaction augments.

Keywords: Distillation column, assessment of interactions, feedplate location, DRMC.

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511 Sophorolipids Production by Candida Bombicola using Synthetic Dairy Wastewater

Authors: A. Daverey, K. Pakshirajan, P. Sangeetha

Abstract:

Sophorolipids (SLs) production by the yeast Candida bombicola was studied in batch shake flasks using synthetic dairy wastewaters (SDWW) with or without any added external carbon and nitrogen sources. A maximum SLs production of 38.76 g/l was observed with the SDWW supplemented with low cost substrate of sugarcane molasses at 50 g/l and soybean oil at 50 g/l. When the SDWW was supplemented with more costly glucose, yeast extract, urea and soybean oil, the production, however, got lowered to only 29.49 g/l, but with a maximum biomass production of 17.38 g/l together with a complete utilization of the carbon sources.

Keywords: Candida bombicola, dairy wastewater, fat and oil, sophorolipids.

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510 Waste Oils pre-Esterification for Biodiesel Synthesis: Effect of Feed Moisture Contents

Authors: Kalala Jalama

Abstract:

A process flowsheet was developed in ChemCad 6.4 to study the effect of feed moisture contents on the pre-esterification of waste oils. Waste oils were modelled as a mixture of triolein (90%), oleic acid (5%) and water (5%). The process mainly consisted of feed drying, pre-esterification reaction and methanol recovery. The results showed that the process energy requirements would be minimized when higher degrees of feed drying and higher preesterification reaction temperatures are used.

Keywords: Waste oils, moisture content, pre-esterification.

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509 Differentiation between Common Tick Species Using Molecular Biology Techniques in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Kholoud A. Al-Shammery , Badr El-Sabah A. Fetoh, Ahmed M. Alshammari

Abstract:

Protein and Esterase electrophoresis were used to genetically identify two Saudi tick species. Engorged females of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Koch) (Acari: Ixodidae) and the cattle tick Boophilus annulatus (Say) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks collected from infested camels and cattle in the animals resting house at Hail region in KSA were used. The results showed that there are a variation in both of protein and esterase activity levels and a high polymorphism within and between the genera and species of Hyalomma and Boophilus . In conclusion, the protein and esterase electrophoretic analysis used in the present study could successfully distinguish among tick species, commonly found in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Molecular biology, The camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii, The cattle tick Boophilus annulatus , Ticks.

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508 Feed-Forward Control in Half-Bridge Resonant DC Link Inverter

Authors: Apinan Aurasopon, Worawat Sa-ngiavibool

Abstract:

This paper proposes a feed-forward control in a halfbridge resonant dc link inverter. The configuration of feed-forward control is based on synchronous sigma-delta modulation and the halfbridge resonant dc link inverter consists of two inductors, one capacitor and two power switches. The simulation results show the proposed technique can reject non-ideal dc bus improving the total harmonic distortion.

Keywords: Feed-forward control, Resonant dc link inverter, Synchronous sigma-delta modulation.

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507 Effect of Parenteral Administration of Vitamin A in Late Pregnant Cows on Vitamin A Status of Neonatal Calves

Authors: Samad Lotfollahzadeh

Abstract:

To evaluate the effect of intramuscular administration of vitamin A in pregnant dairy cows during late stages of pregnancy, on vitamin A status of neonatal calves, a total of 30 cows were randomly selected and divided into three groups; two treatment groups and one control group. Single intramuscular injection of 2000000 IU vitamin A; was carried in 10 dairy cows at 7 months of pregnancy (group 1). In second group of treated animals (10 cows) the injection was performed in 8 months of pregnancy (group 2). Ten pregnant dairy cows were received saline injection as placebo and selected as control group. Blood samples were collected from experimental dairy cows at 7 and 8 months of pregnancy as well as their newborn calves’ pre and after colostrum intake. There was no significant difference between vitamin A and β-carotene concentration of dairy cows of three groups in two last months of pregnancy (P> 0.05). Vitamin A concentration of calves of two treatment groups before and after receiving of colostrum were significantly higher than that in control group (P< 0.05). There was no significant difference between serum concentrations of vitamin A in calves of two treated groups (P> 0.05). β-Carotene concentration of serum samples of dairy cows and neonatal calves of three groups were not significantly different as compared with together. From results of the present study it can be concluded that single injection of vitamin A during at 7 or 8 month of pregnancy can significantly increase level of vitamin A in their colostrum and neonatal calves.

Keywords: Dry cow, Beta-carotene, Newborn calves, Vitamin A.

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