Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Cattle

17 Phenotypic Characterization of the Zebu Cattle in Tajikistan

Authors: A. Norezzine, N. Y. Rebouh, M. Souadkia, D. Parpura, A. Gadzhikurbanov, E. A. Gladyr, P. M. Klenovitsky, A. A. Nikishov, A. Dranidis

Abstract:

This article deals with the genetic characteristics of samples Schwyz-zebu cattle from three farms of the Republic of Tajikistan on 10 microsatellite markers (STS). Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the heterozygosity in the population and to characterize this breed by identifying DNA markers using microstatellites. Microsatellites often have multiple alleles and may have heterozygosity frequencies of 70% or more. This makes them highly informative for genetic analysis. A total of ten microsatellite primers were used for microsatellite analysis in genomic DNA of Zebu cattle. The amplified products were analysed for polymorphic alleles and their frequencies. The resulting information can be used in dealing with the conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources of the Tajik Schwyz-zebu cattle.

Keywords: DNA, gene pool, Schwyz-zebu cattle, microsatellite loci.

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16 Cellular Components of the Hemal Node of Egyptian Cattle

Authors: Amira E. Derbalah, Doaa M. Zaghloul

Abstract:

10 clinically healthy hemal nodes were collected from male bulls aged 2-3 years. Light microscopy revealed a capsule of connective tissue consisted mainly of collagen fiber surrounding hemal node, numerous erythrocytes were found in wide subcapsular sinus under the capsule. The parenchyma of the hemal node was divided into cortex and medulla. Diffused lymphocytes, and lymphoid follicles, having germinal centers were the main components of the cortex, while in the medulla there was wide medullary sinus, diffused lymphocytes and few lymphoid nodules. The area occupied with lymph nodules was larger than that occupied with non-nodular structure of lymphoid cords and blood sinusoids. Electron microscopy revealed the cellular components of hemal node including elements of circulating erythrocytes intermingled with lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, reticular cells, macrophages, megakaryocytes and endothelial cells lining the blood sinuses. The lymphocytes were somewhat triangular in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent erythrocytes. Nuclei were triangular to oval in shape, lightly stained with clear nuclear membrane indentation and clear nucleoli. The reticular cells were elongated in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent lymphocytes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and few lysosomes were seen in their cytoplasm. Nucleus was elongated in shape with less condensed chromatin. Plasma cells were oval to irregular in shape with numerous dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing electron lucent material occupying the whole cytoplasm and few mitochondria were found. Nuclei were centrally located and oval in shape with heterochromatin emarginated and often clumped near the nuclear membrane. Occasionally megakaryocytes and mast cells were seen among lymphocytes. Megakaryocytes had multilobulated nucleus and free ribosomes often appearing as small aggregates in their cytoplasm, while mast cell had their characteristic electron dense granule in the cytoplasm, few electron lucent granules were found also, we conclude that, the main function of the hemal node of cattle is proliferation of lymphocytes. No role for plasma cell in erythrophagocytosis could be suggested.

Keywords: Cattle, Electron microscopy, Hemal node, Histology, Immune system.

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15 Methods for Distinction of Cattle Using Supervised Learning

Authors: Radoslav Židek, Veronika Šidlová, Radovan Kasarda, Birgit Fuerst-Waltl

Abstract:

Machine learning represents a set of topics dealing with the creation and evaluation of algorithms that facilitate pattern recognition, classification, and prediction, based on models derived from existing data. The data can present identification patterns which are used to classify into groups. The result of the analysis is the pattern which can be used for identification of data set without the need to obtain input data used for creation of this pattern. An important requirement in this process is careful data preparation validation of model used and its suitable interpretation. For breeders, it is important to know the origin of animals from the point of the genetic diversity. In case of missing pedigree information, other methods can be used for traceability of animal´s origin. Genetic diversity written in genetic data is holding relatively useful information to identify animals originated from individual countries. We can conclude that the application of data mining for molecular genetic data using supervised learning is an appropriate tool for hypothesis testing and identifying an individual.

Keywords: Genetic data, Pinzgau cattle, supervised learning.

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14 The Effects of Production, Transportation and Storage Conditions on Mold Growth in Compound Feeds

Authors: N. Cetinkaya

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to determine the critical control points during the production, transportation and storage conditions of compound feeds to be used in the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) feed safety management system. A total of 40 feed samples were taken after 20 and 40 days of storage periods from the 10 dairy and 10 beef cattle farms following the transportation of the compound feeds from the factory. In addition, before transporting the feeds from factory immediately after production of dairy and beef cattle compound feeds, 10 from each total 20 samples were taken as 0 day. In all feed samples, chemical composition and total aflatoxin levels were determined. The aflatoxin levels in all feed samples with the exception of 2 dairy cattle feeds were below the maximum acceptable level. With the increase in storage period in dairy feeds, the aflatoxin levels were increased to 4.96 ppb only in a BS8 dairy farm. This value is below the maximum permissible level (10 ppb) in beef cattle feed. The aflatoxin levels of dairy feed samples taken after production varied between 0.44 and 2.01 ppb. Aflatoxin levels were found to be between 0.89 and 3.01 ppb in dairy cattle feeds taken on the 20th day of storage at 10 dairy cattle farm. On the 40th day, feed aflatoxin levels in the same dairy cattle farm were found between 1.12 and 7.83 ppb. The aflatoxin levels were increased to 7.83 and 6.31 ppb in 2 dairy farms, after a storage period of 40 days. These obtained aflatoxin values are above the maximum permissible level in dairy cattle feeds. The 40 days storage in pellet form in the HACCP feed safety management system can be considered as a critical control point.

Keywords: Aflatoxin, beef cattle feed, compound feed, dairy cattle feed, HACCP.

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13 Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in 5'-UTR of CYP11B1 Gene in Pakistani Sahiwal Cattle

Authors: S. Manzoor, A. Nadeem, M. Javed, ME. Babar

Abstract:

A major goal in animal genetics is to understand the role of common genetic variants in diseases susceptibility and production traits. Sahiwal cattle can be considered as a global animal genetic resource due to its relatively high milk producing ability, resistance against tropical diseases and heat tolerant. CYP11B1 gene provides instructions for making a mitochondrial enzyme called steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase. It catalyzes the 11deoxy-cortisol to cortisol and 11deoxycorticosterone to corticosterone in cattle. The bovine CYP11B1 gene is positioned on BTA14q12 comprises of eight introns and nine exons and protein is associated with mitochondrial epithelium. The present study was aimed to identify the single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP11B1 gene in Sahiwal cattle breed of Pakistan. Four polymorphic sites were identified in exon one of CYP11B1 gene through sequencing approach. Significant finding was the incidence of the C→T polymorphism in 5'-UTR, causing amino acid substitution from alanine to valine (A30V) in Sahiwal cattle breed. That Ala/Val polymorphism may serve as a powerful genetic tool for the development of DNA markers that can be used for the particular traits for different local cattle breeds.

Keywords: CYP11B1, single nucleotide polymorphism, sahiwal cattle, Pakistan.

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12 Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus through Amplification of 12S rRNA Gene and Cox1 Gene Fragments from Cattle in Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: M. Omer Faruk, A. M. A. M. Zonaed Siddiki, M. Fazal Karim, Md. Masuduzzaman, S. Chowdhury, Md. Shafiqul Islam, M. Alamgir Hossain

Abstract:

The dog tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus develop hydatid cysts in various organs in human and domestic animals worldwide including Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the genotype of E. granulosus isolated from cattle using 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 (COX 1) genes. A total of 43 hydatid cyst samples were collected from 390 examined cattle samples derived from slaughterhouses. Among them, three cysts were fertile. Genomic DNA was extracted from germinal membrane and/or protoscoleces followed by PCR amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene fragments. The sequence data revealed existence of G1 (64.28%) and possible G3 (21.43%) genotypes for the first time in Bangladesh. The study indicates that common sheep strain G1 is the dominant subtype of E. granulosus in Chittagong region of Bangladesh. This will increase our understanding of the epidemiology of hydatidosis in the southern part of the country and will be useful to plan suitable control measures in the long run.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, molecular characterization, cattle, Bangladesh.

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11 Investigation of Economic and Social Effects of the Dairy Cattle Support Project to Regional Economy via Cooperatives: Example of Isparta Province

Authors: Mevlüt Gül, Hilal Yılmaz, M. Göksel Akpınar, Ayse Karadağ Gürsoy, Özge Bayındır

Abstract:

Milk is a very important nutrient. Low productivity is a problem of Turkish dairy farming. During recent years, Turkish government has supported cooperatives that assist milk producers and encouraged farmers to become cooperative members. Turkish government established several ways to support specially smallholders. For example Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) provided two to four cows to villagers on a grant or loan basis with a long repayment period at low interest rates by cooperatives. Social Support Project in Rural Areas (SSPRA) is another support program targeting only disadvantaged people, especially poor villager. Both programs have a very strong social support component and similar objectives. But there are minor differences between them in terms of target people, terms and conditions of the credit supplied Isparta province in Mediterranean region of Turkey is one of the supported regions. MARA distributed dairy cows to 1072 farmers through 16 agricultural cooperatives in Isparta province in the context of SSPRA. In this study, economic-social impacts on dairy cattle project implemented through cooperatives were examined in Isparta. Primary data were collected from 12 cooperatives- president. The data were obtained by personal interview through a questionnaire and to cooperatives and given to farms benefiting from the project in order to reveal the economic and social developments. Finding of the study revealed that project provided new job opportunities and improved quality of livestock. It was found that producers who benefited from the project were more willing to participate in cooperative or other producer organizations.

Keywords: ooperative, Dairy Cattle, Economic Impact, Livestock Support Project, Social Impact.

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10 Occurrence of Adult Taenia saginata in Cattle Slaughtered in Major Abattoirs in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Lebari B. Gboeloh

Abstract:

The occurrence of adult Taenia saginata in major abattoirs in Port Harcourt metropolis was investigated. Out of 514 cattle investigated, an overall prevalence of 35(6.8%) was recorded. Infected male and female cattle represented 1.2% (6/514) and 5.6% (29/514) of the overall prevalence respectively. There was a statistical significant difference (P< 0.05) in prevalence of adult Taenaia saginata between male and female cattle examined in the study area. Old cattle have a significant (P< 0.05) infestation rate than young ones. Adult Taenia saginata exists in cattle and still remains a public health concern in the study area. Deliberate effort is needed from stake-holders and the Government to design and implement programs that will lead to the prevention and possible eradication of the parasite.

Keywords: Taenia saginata, Adult, Cattle, Occurrence, Port Harcourt.

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9 Beef Cattle Farmers Perception toward Urea Mineral Molasses Block

Authors: Veronica Sri Lestari, Djoni Prawira Rahardja, Tanrigiling Rasyid, Aslina Asnawi, Ikrar Muhammad Saleh, Ilham Rasyid

Abstract:

Urea Mineral Molasses Block is very important for beef cattle, because it can increase beef production. The purpose of this research was to know beef cattle farmers’ perception towards Urea Mineral Molasses Block (UMMB). This research was conducted in Gowa Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia in 2016. The population of this research were all beef cattle farmers. Sample was chosen through purposive sampling. Data were collected through observation and face to face with deep interview using questionnaire. Variables of perception consisted of relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability and triability. There were 10 questions. The answer for each question was scored by 1, 2, 3 which refer to disagree, agree enough, strongly agree. The data were analyzed descriptively using frequency distribution. The research revealed that beef cattle farmers’ perception towards UMMB was categorized as strongly agree.

Keywords: Beef cattle, farmers, perception, urea mineral molasses block.

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8 The Kinetic of Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure in Batch Mode

Authors: Budiyono, I N. Widiasa, S. Johari, Sunarso

Abstract:

In this study, the kinetic of biogas production was studied by performing a series laboratory experiment using rumen fluid of animal ruminant as inoculums. Cattle manure as substrate was inoculated by rumen fluid to the anaerobic biodigester. Laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid by manure : rumen weight ratio of 1:1 (MR11). The operating temperatures were varied at room temperature and 38.5 oC. The cumulative volume of biogas produced was used to measure the biodigester performance. The research showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester gave significant effect to biogas production (P<0.05). Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase two to three times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid. With the rumen fluid inoculums, gave the kinetic parameters of biogas production i.e biogas production rate constants (U), maximum biogas production (A), and minimum time to produce biogas (λ) are 3.89 ml/(gVS.day); 172.51 (ml/gVS); dan 7.25 days, respectively. While the substrate without rumen fluid gave the kinetic parameters U, A, and λ are 1.74 ml/(gVS.day); 73.81 (ml/gVS); dan 14.75 days, respectively. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system.

Keywords: rumen fluid, inoculums, anaerobic digestion, biogasproduction.

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7 Result of Fatty Acid Content in Meat of Selenge Breed Younger Cattle

Authors: Myagmarsuren Soronzonjav, N. Togtokhbayar, L. Davaahuu, B. Minjigdorj, Seong Gu Hwang

Abstract:

The number of natural or organic product consumers is increased in recent years and this healthy demand pushes to increase usage of healthy meat. At the same time, consumers pay more attention on the healthy fat, especially on unsaturated fatty acids. These long chain carbohydrates reduce heart diseases, improve memory and eye sight and activate the immune system. One of the important issues to be solved for our Mongolia’s food security is to provide healthy, fresh, widely available and cheap meat for the population. Thus, an importance of the Selenge breed meat production is increasing in order to supply the quality meat food security since the Selenge breed cattle are rapidly multiplied, beneficial in term of income, the same quality as Mongolian breed, and well digested for human body. We researched the lipid, unsaturated and saturated fatty acid contents of meat of Selenge breed younger cattle by their muscle types. Result of our research reveals that 11 saturated fatty acids are detected. For the content of palmitic acid among saturated fatty acids, 23.61% was in the sirloin meat, 24.01% was in the round and chuck meat, and 24.83% was in the short loin meat.

Keywords: Chromatogram, gas chromatography, organic resolving, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

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6 Biogas Potentiality of Agro-wastes Jatropha Fruit Coat

Authors: M.S. Dhanya, N. Gupta, H.C. Joshi, Lata

Abstract:

The present investigation was undertaken to explore the biogas potentiality of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas, Euphorbiaceae) Fruit Coat (JFC) alone and in combination with cattle dung (CD) in various proportions at 15 per cent total solids by batch phase anaerobic digestion for a period of ten weeks HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time) under a temperature of 35°C+1°C. The maximum biogas production was noticed in Cattle dung and Jatropha Fruit Coat in 2:1 ratio with 403.84 L/kg dry matter followed by 3:1,1:2, 1:1 and 1:3 having 329.66, 219.77, 217.79, 203.64 L /kg dm respectively as compared to 178.49 L/kg dm in CD alone. The JFC alone found to produce 91 per cent of total biogas that obtained from Cattle dung. The per cent methane content of the biogas in all the treatments was found on par with Cattle dung.

Keywords: Jatropha Fruit Coat, Cattle dung, Hydraulic Retention Time, Dry matter

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5 Comparison of Process Slaughtered on Beef Cattle Based on Level of Cortisol and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

Authors: Pudji Astuti, C. P. C. Putro, C. M. Airin, L. Sjahfirdi, S. Widiyanto, H. Maheshwari

Abstract:

Stress of slaughter animals starting long before until at the time of process of slaughtering which cause misery and decrease of meat quality. Meanwhile, determination of animal stress using hormonal such as cortisol is expensive and less practical so that portable stress indicator for cows based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) must be provided. The aims of this research are to find out the comparison process of slaughter between Rope Casting Local (RCL) and Restraining Box Method (RBM) by measuring of cortisol and wavelength in FTIR methods. Thirty two of male Ongole crossbred cattle were used in this experiment. Blood sampling was taken from jugular vein when they were rested and repeated when slaughtered. All of blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 minutes to get serum, and then divided into two parts for cortisol assayed using ELISA and for measuring the wavelength using FTIR. The serum then measured at the wavelength between 4000-400 cm-1 using MB3000 FTIR. Band data absorption in wavelength of FTIR is analyzed descriptively by using FTIR Horizon MBTM. For RCL, average of serum cortisol when the animals rested were 11.47 ± 4.88 ng/mL, when the time of slaughter were 23.27 ± 7.84 ng/mL. For RBM, level of cortisol when rested animals were 13.67 ± 3.41 ng/mL and 53.47 ± 20.25 ng/mL during the slaughter. Based on student t-Test, there were significantly different between RBM and RCL methods when beef cattle were slaughtered (P<0.05), but no significantly different when animals were rested (P>0.05). Result of FTIR with the various of wavelength such as methyl group (=CH3 ) 2986cm-1, methylene (=CH2 ) 2827 cm-1, hydroxyl (- OH) 3371 cm-1, carbonyl (ketones) (C=O) 1636 cm-1, carboxyl (COO-1) 1408 cm-1, glucosa 1057 cm-1, urea 1011 cm-1have been obtained. It can be concluded that the RCL slaughtered method is better than the RBM method based on the increase of cortisol as an indicator of stress in beef cattle (P<0.05). FTIR is really possible to be used as stub of stress tool due to differentiate of resting and slaughter condition by recognizing the increase of absorption and the separation of component group at the wavelength.  

Keywords: Cows, cortisol, FTIR, RBM, RCL, stress indicator.

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4 Effect of Utilization of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Source on the Potato Shoots Dry Matter, Leaf Area Index and Plant Height, During Middle Stage of Growth

Authors: A. A. Najm, M. R. Haj Seyed Hadi, F. Fazeli, M. Taghi Darzi, R. Shamorady

Abstract:

Cattle manure and mineral fertilizers are two source of Nitrogen, which can affect the growth and quantity of potato. In this research the effects of the use of cattle manure (5, 10, 15 and 20 ton ha-1), Nitrogen fertilizer (50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1) and their interaction on potato growth were evaluated during field experiments in 2008 with the help of Randomized Complete Block (RCB) with the factorial arrangement of three experimental replications in Iran. At the 75 th day after emergence, dry weight of Shoots, leaf area index (LAI) and plant height were recorded. Results showed that, dry weight of Shoots, LAI and plant height increased linearly and very significantly in response to the application of manure and Nitrogen fertilizer. While the interaction between manure and Nitrogen fertilizer just on the LAI and plant height was significant, somehow the maximum amount of plant height( 73 cm) was obtained by using 150 kg Nitrogen + 15 tons of manure per hectare, and maximum LAI ( 5.36) was obtained by using 150 kg Nitrogen + 20 tons of manure per hectare. Also in this experiment maximum tuber yield (36.8 tons ha-1) was obtained by the utilization of 150 kg Nitrogen per hectare + 20 tons manure.

Keywords: Solanum tuberosum, LAI, cattle manure, mineral fertilizer, integrated management.

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3 Differentiation between Common Tick Species Using Molecular Biology Techniques in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Kholoud A. Al-Shammery , Badr El-Sabah A. Fetoh, Ahmed M. Alshammari

Abstract:

Protein and Esterase electrophoresis were used to genetically identify two Saudi tick species. Engorged females of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Koch) (Acari: Ixodidae) and the cattle tick Boophilus annulatus (Say) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks collected from infested camels and cattle in the animals resting house at Hail region in KSA were used. The results showed that there are a variation in both of protein and esterase activity levels and a high polymorphism within and between the genera and species of Hyalomma and Boophilus . In conclusion, the protein and esterase electrophoretic analysis used in the present study could successfully distinguish among tick species, commonly found in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Molecular biology, The camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii, The cattle tick Boophilus annulatus , Ticks.

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2 Energy Evaluation and Utilization of Cassava Peel for Lactating Dairy Cows

Authors: Pipat Lounglawan, Yutthapong Sornwongkaew, Wassana Lounglawan, Wisitiporn Suksombat

Abstract:

The experiment was then conducted to investigate the effect of cassava peel addition in the concentrate on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred (>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in mid lactation; averaging 12.2+2.1 kg of milk, 119+45 days in milk, 44.1+6.2 months old and 449+33 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield, days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then randomly allocated to three treatment groups. The first, second and third groups were fed concentrates containing the respective cassava peel, 0, 20 and 40%. All cows were fed ad libitum corn silage and freely access to clean water. Dry matter intake, 4%FCM, milk composition and body weight change were affected (P<0.05) by the third treatments (40%). The present study indicated that 20% cassava peel can be used in the concentrate for lactating dairy cows.

Keywords: Cassava peel, Energy evaluation, Milk production, Dairy cattle

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1 Economic Returns of Using Brewery`s Spent Grain in Animal Feed

Authors: U. Ben-Hamed, H. Seddighi, K. Thomas

Abstract:

UK breweries generate extensive by products in the form of spent grain, slurry and yeast. Much of the spent grain is produced by large breweries and processed in bulk for animal feed. Spent brewery grains contain up to 20% protein dry weight and up to 60% fiber and are useful additions to animal feed. Bulk processing is economic and allows spent grain to be sold so providing an income to the brewery. A proportion of spent grain, however, is produced by small local breweries and is more variably distributed to farms or other users using intermittent collection methods. Such use is much less economic and may incur losses if not carefully assessed for transport costs. This study reports an economic returns of using wet brewery spent grain (WBSG) in animal feed using the Co-product Optimizer Decision Evaluator model (Cattle CODE) developed by the University of Nebraska to predict performance and economic returns when byproducts are fed to finishing cattle. The results indicated that distance from brewery to farm had a significantly greater effect on the economics of use of small brewery spent grain and that alternative uses than cattle feed may be important to develop.

Keywords: Animal Feed, Brewery Spent Grains, cattle CODE, Economic returns.

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