Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 410

Search results for: Ethylene Oxide

410 Capacity Building for Hazmat Transport Emergency Preparedness: 'Hotspot Impact Zone' Mapping from Flammable and Toxic Releases

Authors: U K Chakrabarti, Jigisha Parikh

Abstract:

Hazardous Material transportation by road is coupled with inherent risk of accidents causing loss of lives, grievous injuries, property losses and environmental damages. The most common type of hazmat road accident happens to be the releases (78%) of hazardous substances, followed by fires (28%), explosions (14%) and vapour/ gas clouds (6 %.). The paper is discussing initially the probable 'Impact Zones' likely to be caused by one flammable (LPG) and one toxic (ethylene oxide) chemicals being transported through a sizable segment of a State Highway connecting three notified Industrial zones in Surat district in Western India housing 26 MAH industrial units. Three 'hotspots' were identified along the highway segment depending on the particular chemical traffic and the population distribution within 500 meters on either sides. The thermal radiation and explosion overpressure have been calculated for LPG / Ethylene Oxide BLEVE scenarios along with toxic release scenario for ethylene oxide. Besides, the dispersion calculations for ethylene oxide toxic release have been made for each 'hotspot' location and the impact zones have been mapped for the LOC concentrations. Subsequently, the maximum Initial Isolation and the protective zones were calculated based on ERPG-3 and ERPG-2 values of ethylene oxide respectively which are estimated taking the worst case scenario under worst weather conditions. The data analysis will be helpful to the local administration in capacity building with respect to rescue / evacuation and medical preparedness and quantitative inputs to augment the District Offsite Emergency Plan document.

Keywords: Hotspot, Ethylene Oxide, LPG, MAH (MajorAccident Hazard).

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409 Ethylene Epoxidation in a Low-Temperature Parallel Plate Dielectric Barrier Discharge System: Effects of Ethylene Feed Position and O2/C2H4 Feed Molar Ratio

Authors: Bunphot Paosombat, Thitiporn Suttikul, Sumaeth Chavadej

Abstract:

The effects of ethylene (C2H4) feed position and O2/C2H4 feed molar ratio on ethylene epoxidation in a parallel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) were studied. The results showed that the ethylene feed position fraction of 0.5 and the feed molar ratio of O2/C2H4 of 0.2:1 gave the highest EO selectivity of 34.3% and the highest EO yield of 5.28% with low power consumptions of 2.11×10-16 Ws/molecule of ethylene converted and 6.34×10-16 Ws/molecule of EO produced when the DBD system was operated under the best conditions: an applied voltage of 19 kV, an input frequency of 500 Hz and a total feed flow rate of 50 cm3/min. The separate ethylene feed system provided much higher epoxidation activity as compared to the mixed feed system which gave EO selectivity of 15.5%, EO yield of 2.1% and the power consumption of EO produced of 7.7×10-16 Ws/molecule.

Keywords: Dielectric Barrier Discharge, C2H4 Feed Position, Epoxidation, Ethylene Oxide

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408 [Ti(OC4H9)4/2,5-Dimethoxytetrahydrofuran/ TEA/Ethylene Chlorobromide] as a Novel Homogeneous Catalyst System Effective for the Ethylene Dimerization Reaction

Authors: Seyed Hamed Mahdaviani, Davood Soudbar, Matin Parvari

Abstract:

In the present research, the titanium-catalyzed ethylene dimerization and more specifically, the concomitant byproducts and polymer formation have been studied in the presence of 2,5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran as an electron donor compound in the combination with triethylaluminium (TEA) as activator. Then, we added ethylene chlorobromide as a new efficient promoter to the relevant catalyst system. Finally, the behavior of novel homogeneous [Titanium tetrabutoxide (Ti(OC4H9)4)/2,5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran/ TEA/ethylene chlorobromide] was investigated in the various operating conditions for the optimum production of 1-butene. In the optimum conditions, a very high ethylene conversion (almost 90.77 %), a relative high selectivity to 1-butene (79.00 %), yield of reaction equal to 71.70 % and a significant productivity (turnover frequency equal to 1370 h-1) were achieved.

Keywords: Ethylene dimerization, 2, 5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran, ethylene chlorobromide, polymeric compounds

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407 The Effect of Ethylene Glycol to Soy Polyurethane Foam Classifications

Authors: Flora Elvistia Firdaus

Abstract:

Soy polyol obtained from hydroxylation of soy epoxide with ethylene glycol were prepared as pre-polyurethane. The two step process method were applied in the polyurethane synthesis. The blending of soy polyol with synthetic polyol then simultaneously carried out to TDI (2,4): MDI (4,4-) (80:20), blowing agent, and surfactant. Ethylene glycol were not taking part in the polyurethane synthesis. The inclusion of ethylene glycol were used as a control. Characterization of polyurethane foam through impact resillience, indentation deflection, and density can visualize the polyurethane classifications.

Keywords: Ethylene glycol, polyurethane foam, soy polyol, synthetic polyol

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406 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Microhardness of Polymer Blends of Poly (Ethyl Methacrylate)(Pema) and Poly (Ethylene Oxide) (Peo)

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Awasthi, Sunil Kumar Bajpai, Surendra Kumar Pandey, Ajay Utiye

Abstract:

The effect of gamma irradiation on micro-hardness of polymer blends of poly (ethyl methacrylate)(PEMA) and poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) has been investigated to detect the radiation induced crosslinking. The blend system comprises a noncrystallizable polymer, PEMA and a crystallizable polymer, PEO. On irradiation, the overall hardness of the blend specimens for different dose levels infers occurrence of a crosslinking process. The radiation-induced crosslinking was greater for blends having lower concentration of PEO. However, increase in radiation dose causes softening of blend system due to radiation induced scissioning of the chains

Keywords: Microhardness, Radiation induced crosslinking, Solution cast technique, Vicker's hardness number.

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405 Parametric Studies of Ethylene Dichloride Purification Process

Authors: Sh. Arzani, H. Kazemi Esfeh, Y. Galeh Zadeh, V. Akbari

Abstract:

Ethylene dichloride is a colorless liquid with a smell like chloroform. EDC is classified in the simple hydrocarbon group which is obtained from chlorinating ethylene gas. Its chemical formula is C2H2Cl2 which is used as the main mediator in VCM production. Therefore, the purification process of EDC is important in the petrochemical process. In this study, the purification unit of EDC was simulated, and then validation was performed. Finally, the impact of process parameter was studied for the degree of EDC purity. The results showed that by increasing the feed flow, the reflux impure combinations increase and result in an EDC purity decrease.

Keywords: Ethylene dichloride, purification, EDC, simulation.

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404 Synthesis and Characterization of PEG-Silane Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoparticle as MRI T2 Contrast Agent

Authors: Mu-Jen Young, Cheng-Yen Wu, Wen-Yuan Hsieh

Abstract:

Iron oxide nanoparticle was synthesized by reactive-precipitation method followed by high speed centrifuge and phase transfer in order to stabilized nanoparticles in the solvent. Particle size of SPIO was 8.2 nm by SEM, and the hydraulic radius was 17.5 nm by dynamic light scattering method. Coercivity and saturated magnetism were determined by VSM (vibrating sample magnetometer), coercivity of nanoparticle was lower than 10 Hc, and the saturated magnetism was higher than 65 emu/g. Stabilized SPIO was then transferred to aqueous phase by reacted with excess amount of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) silane. After filtration and dialysis, the SPIO T2 contrast agent was ready to use. The hydraulic radius of final product was about 70~100 nm, the relaxation rates R2 (1/T2) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was larger than 200(sec-1).

Keywords: Contrast Agent, Iron Oxide Nanoparticle, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Nanoparticle Stabilization

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403 Fabrication of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)/Chitosan/Indocyanine Green Nanoprobe by Co-Axial Electrospinning Method for Early Detection

Authors: Zeynep R. Ege, Aydin Akan, Faik N. Oktar, Betul Karademir, Oguzhan Gunduz

Abstract:

Early detection of cancer could save human life and quality in insidious cases by advanced biomedical imaging techniques. Designing targeted detection system is necessary in order to protect of healthy cells. Electrospun nanofibers are efficient and targetable nanocarriers which have important properties such as nanometric diameter, mechanical properties, elasticity, porosity and surface area to volume ratio. In the present study, indocyanine green (ICG) organic dye was stabilized and encapsulated in polymer matrix which polyethylene oxide (PEO) and chitosan (CHI) multilayer nanofibers via co-axial electrospinning method at one step. The co-axial electrospun nanofibers were characterized as morphological (SEM), molecular (FT-IR), and entrapment efficiency of Indocyanine Green (ICG) (confocal imaging). Controlled release profile of PEO/CHI/ICG nanofiber was also evaluated up to 40 hours.

Keywords: Chitosan, coaxial electrospinning, controlled releasing, indocyanine green, nanoprobe, polyethylene oxide.

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402 Propylene Self-Metathesis to Ethylene and Butene over WOx/SiO2, Effect of Nano-Sized Extra Supports (SiO2 and TiO2)

Authors: A.Guntida, K. Suriye, S. Kunjara Na Ayudhya, J. Panpranot, P. Praserthdam

Abstract:

Propylene self-metathesis to ethylene and butene was studied over WOx/SiO2 catalysts at 450oC and atmospheric pressure. The WOx/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of ammonium metatungstate aqueous solution. It was found that, adding nano-sized extra supports (SiO2 and TiO2) by physical mixing with the WOx/SiO2 enhanced propylene conversion. The UV-Vis and FT-Raman results revealed that WOx could migrate from the original silica support to the extra support, leading to a better dispersion of WOx. The ICP-OES results also indicate that WOx existed on the extra support. Coke formation was investigated on the catalysts after 10 h time-on-stream by TPO. However, adding nano-sized extra supports led to higher coke formation which may be related to acidity as characterized by NH3-TPD.

Keywords: Extra support, nanomaterial, propylene self-metathesis, tungsten oxide.

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401 Study on Extraction of Lanthanum Oxide from Monazite Concentrate

Authors: Nwe Nwe Soe, Lwin Thuzar Shwe, Kay Thi Lwin

Abstract:

Lanthanum oxide is to be recovered from monazite, which contains about 13.44% lanthanum oxide. The principal objective of this study is to be able to extract lanthanum oxide from monazite of Moemeik Myitsone Area. The treatment of monazite in this study involves three main steps; extraction of lanthanum hydroxide from monazite by using caustic soda, digestion with nitric acid and precipitation with ammonium hydroxide and calcination of lanthanum oxalate to lanthanum oxide.

Keywords: Calcination, Digestion, Precipitation.

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400 Investigation of Titanium Oxide Layer in Thermal-Electrochemical Anodizing of Ti6Al4V Alloy

Authors: Z. Abdolldhi, A. A. Ziaee M., A. Afshar

Abstract:

In this paper the combination of thermal oxidation and electrochemical anodizing processes is used to produce titanium oxide layers. The response of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V to oxidation processes at various temperatures and electrochemical anodizing in various voltages are investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM); X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and porosity determination have been used to characterize the oxide layer thickness, surface morphology, oxide layer-substrate adhesion and porosity. In the first experiment, samples modified by thermal oxidation process then followed by electrochemical anodizing. Second experiment consists of surfaces modified by electrochemical anodizing process and then followed by thermal oxidation. The first method shows better properties than other one. In second experiment, Surfaces modified were achieved by thicker and more adherent thick oxide layers on titanium surface. The existence of an electrochemical anodized oxide layer did not improve the adhesion of thermal oxide layer. The high temperature, thermal formation of an oxide layer leads to a coarse oxide grain morphology and a complete oxidative particle. In addition, in high temperature oxidation porosity content is increased. The oxide layer of thermal oxidation and electrochemical anodizing processes; on Ti–6Al–4V substrate was covered with different colored oxide layers.

Keywords: Electrochemically anodizing, Porosity, Thermaloxidation, Ti6Al4 alloy.

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399 Copolymers of Pyrrole and α,ω-Dithienyl Terminated Poly(ethylene glycol)

Authors: Nesrin Köken, Esin A. Güvel, Nilgün Kızılcan

Abstract:

This work presents synthesis of α,ω-dithienyl terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGTh) capable for further chain extension by either chemical or electrochemical polymeriztion. PEGTh was characterized by FTIR and 1H-NMR. Further copolymerization of PEGTh and pyrrole (Py) was performed by chemical oxidative polymerization using ceric (IV) salt as an oxidant (PPy-PEGTh). PEG without end group modification was used directly to prepare copolymers with Py by Ce (IV) salt (PPy-PEG). Block copolymers with mole ratio of pyrrole to PEGTh (PEG) 50:1 and 10:1 were synthesized. The electrical conductivities of copolymers PPy-PEGTh and PPy-PEG were determined by four point probe technique. Influence of the synthetic route and content of the insulating segment on conductivity and yield of the copolymers were investigated.

Keywords: Chemical oxidative polymerization, conducting copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol), polypyrrole.

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398 Characteristics of Cascade and C3MR Cycle on Natural Gas Liquefaction Process

Authors: Jung-in Yoon, Ho-saeng Lee, Seung-taek Oh, Sang-gyu Lee, Keun-hyung Choi

Abstract:

In this paper, several different types of natural gas liquefaction cycle. First, two processes are a cascade process with two staged compression were designed and simulated. These include Inter-cooler which is consisted to Propane, Ethylene and Methane cycle, and also, liquid-gas heat exchanger is applied to between of methane and ethylene cycles (process2) and between of ethylene and propane (process2). Also, these cycles are compared with two staged cascade process using only a Inter-cooler (process1). The COP of process2 and process3 showed about 13.99% and 6.95% higher than process1, respectively. Also, the yield efficiency of LNG improved comparing with process1 by 13.99% lower specific power. Additionally, C3MR process are simulated and compared with Process 2.

Keywords: Cascade, C3MR, LNG, Inter-cooler

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397 Effective Photodegradation of Tetracycline by a Heteropoly Acid/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Based on Uio-66

Authors: Anasheh Maridiroosi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Hanieh Fakhri

Abstract:

Heteropoly acid nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide based on UiO-66 were synthesized via in-situ growth hydrothermal method and tested for photodegradation of a tetracycline as critical pollutant. Results showed that presence of graphene oxide and UiO-66 with high specific surface area, great electron mobility and various functional groups make an excellent support for heteropoly acid and improve photocatalytic efficiency up to 95% for tetracycline. Furthermore, total organic carbon (TOC) analysis verified 79% mineralization of this pollutant under optimum condition.

Keywords: Heteropoly acid, graphene oxide, MOF, tetracycline.

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396 The Microstructure of Aging ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films

Authors: Z. C. Chang, S. C. Liang

Abstract:

RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The electric conduction mechanism of the AZO and GZO films came mainly from the Al and Ga, the oxygen vacancies, Zn interstitial atoms, and Al and/or Ga interstitial atoms. AZO and GZO films achieved higher conduction than did ZnO film, it being ion vacant and nonstoichiometric. The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films.

Keywords: ZnO, AZO, GZO, Doped, Sputtering

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395 The Effect of Aging of ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films on the Microstructure and Photoelectric Property

Authors: Zue Chin Chang

Abstract:

RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films. The AZO film had the best electrical properties; it had the lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-4 cm, the best sheet resistance of 2.2 × 10-1 Ω/square, and the highest carrier concentration of 4.3 × 1020 cm-3, as compared to the ZnO and GZO films.

Keywords: Aging, films, Microstructure, Photoelectric Property.

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394 Role of Oxide Scale Thickness Measurements in Boiler Conditions Assessment

Authors: M. Alardhi, A. Almazrouee, S. Alsaleh

Abstract:

Oxide scale thickness measurements are used in assessing the life of different components operating at high temperature environment. Such measurements provide an approximation for the temperature inside components such as reheater and superheater tubes. A number of failures were encountered in one of the boilers in one of Kuwaiti power plants. These failure were mainly in the first row of the primary super heater tubes, therefore, the specialized engineer decide to replace them during the annual shutdown. As a tool for failure analysis, oxide scale thickness measurement were used to investigate the temperature distribution in these tubes. In this paper, the oxide scale thickness of these tubes were measured and used for analysis. The measurements provide an illustration of the distribution of heat transfer of the primary superheater tubes in the boiler system. Remarks and analysis about the design of the boiler are also provided.

Keywords: Super heater tubes, oxide scale measurements, overheating.

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393 Study on Extraction of Niobium Oxide from Columbite–Tantalite Concentrate

Authors: Htet Htike Htwe, Kay Thi Lwin

Abstract:

The principal objective of this study is to be able to extract niobium oxide from columbite-tantalite concentrate of Thayet Kon Area in Nay Phi Taw. It is recovered from columbite-tantalite concentrate which contains 19.29 % Nb2O5.The recovery of niobium oxide from columbite-tantalite concentrate can be divided into three main sections, namely, digestion of the concentrate, recovery from the leached solution and precipitation and calcinations. The concentrate was digested with hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Of the various parameters that effect acidity and time were studied. In the recovery section solvent extraction process using methyl isobutyl ketone was investigated. Ammonium hydroxide was used as a precipitating agent and the precipitate was later calcined. The percentage of niobium oxide is 74%.

Keywords: Calcination, Digestion, Precipitation, SolventExtraction.

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392 Prediction of Kinematic Viscosity of Binary Mixture of Poly (Ethylene Glycol) in Water using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: M. Mohagheghian, A. M. Ghaedi, A. Vafaei

Abstract:

An artificial neural network (ANN) model is presented for the prediction of kinematic viscosity of binary mixtures of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) in water as a function of temperature, number-average molecular weight and mass fraction. Kinematic viscosities data of aqueous solutions for PEG (0.55419×10-6 – 9.875×10-6 m2/s) were obtained from the literature for a wide range of temperatures (277.15 - 338.15 K), number-average molecular weight (200 -10000), and mass fraction (0.0 – 1.0). A three layer feed-forward artificial neural network was employed. This model predicts the kinematic viscosity with a mean square error (MSE) of 0.281 and the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.983. The results show that the kinematic viscosity of binary mixture of PEG in water could be successfully predicted using an artificial neural network model.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, kinematic viscosity, poly ethylene glycol (PEG)

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391 Poly[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)Glyceric Acid] with Potential Therapeutic Effect

Authors: V. Barbakadze, L. Gogilashvili, L. Amiranashvili, M. Merlani, K .Mulkijanyan

Abstract:

According to IR, 13C and 1H NMR, APT, 1D NOE, 2D heteronuclear 1H/13C HSQC and 2D DOSY experiments the main chemical constituent of high-molecular preparations from Symphytum asperum, S. caucasicum, S. officinale and Anchusa italica (Boraginaceae) was found to be caffeic acid-derived polyether, namely poly[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric acid] (PDPGA) or poly[oxy-1-carboxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylene]. Most carboxylic groups of this polymer of A. italica are methylated.

Keywords: Anchusa, poly[3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric acid], poly[oxy-1-carboxy-2-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylene], Symphytum.

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390 Study on Extraction of Ceric Oxide from Monazite Concentrate

Authors: Lwin Thuzar Shwe, Nwe Nwe Soe, Kay Thi Lwin

Abstract:

Cerium oxide is to be recovered from monazite, which contains about 27.35% CeO2. The principal objective of this study is to be able to extract cerium oxide from monazite of Moemeik Myitsone Area. The treatment of monazite in this study involves three main steps; extraction of cerium hydroxide from monazite, solvent extraction of cerium hydroxide, and precipitation with oxalic acid and calcination of cerium oxalate.

Keywords: Calcination, Digestion, Precipitation, SolventExtraction

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389 Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Addition in Diesel and Diesel-Biodiesel Blends on the Performance Characteristics of a CI Engine

Authors: Abbas Alli Taghipoor Bafghi, Hosein Bakhoda, Fateme Khodaei Chegeni

Abstract:

An experimental investigation is carried out to establish the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine while using cerium oxide nanoparticles as additive in neat diesel and diesel-biodiesel blends. In the first phase of the experiments, stability of neat diesel and diesel-biodiesel fuel blends with the addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles is analyzed. After series of experiments, it is found that the blends subjected to high speed blending followed by ultrasonic bath stabilization improves the stability. In the second phase, performance characteristics are studied using the stable fuel blends in a single cylinder four stroke engine coupled with an electrical dynamometer and a data acquisition system. The cerium oxide acts as an oxygen donating catalyst and provides oxygen for combustion. The activation energy of cerium oxide acts to burn off carbon deposits within the engine cylinder at the wall temperature and prevents the deposition of non-polar compounds on the cylinder wall results reduction in HC emissions. The tests revealed that cerium oxide nanoparticles can be used as additive in diesel and diesel-biodiesel blends to improve complete combustion of the fuel significantly.

Keywords: Diesel engine, cerium oxide, diesel-biodiesel blends, nanoparticles.

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388 Lithium Oxide Effect on the Thermal and Physical Properties of the Ternary System Glasses (Li2O3-B2O3-Al2O3)

Authors: D. Aboutaleb, B. Safi

Abstract:

The borate glasses are known by their structural characterized by existence of unit’s structural composed by triangles and tetrahedrons boron in different configurations depending on the percentage of B2O3 in the glass chemical composition. In this paper, effect of lithium oxide addition on the thermal and physical properties of an alumina borate glass, was investigated. It was found that the boron abnormality has a significant effect in the change of glass properties according to the addition rate of lithium oxide.

Keywords: Borate glasses, triangles and tetrahedrons boron, Lithium oxide, Boron anomaly, thermal properties, physical properties.

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387 Green-Reduction of Covalently Functionalized Graphene Oxide with Varying Stoichiometry

Authors: A. Pruna, D. Pullini, D. Busquets

Abstract:

Graphene-based materials were prepared by chemical reduction of covalently functionalized graphene oxide with environmentally friendly agents. Two varying stoichiometry of graphene oxide (GO) induced by using different chemical preparation conditions, further covalent functionalization of the GO materials with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride / N-hydroxysuccinimide and ascorbic acid and sodium bisulfite as reducing agents were exploited in order to obtain controllable properties of the final solution-based graphene materials. The obtained materials were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed successful functionalization of the GO materials, while a comparison of the deoxygenation efficiency of the two-type functionalized graphene oxide suspensions by the different reducing agents has been made, revealing the strong dependence of their properties on the GO structure and reducing agents.

Keywords: Graphene oxide, covalent functionalization, reduction, ascorbic acid, sodium bisulfate.

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386 Fabrication of Nanoporous Template of Aluminum Oxide with High Regularity Using Hard Anodization Method

Authors: Hamed Rezazadeh, Majid Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Reza Zeidi Yam

Abstract:

Anodizing is an electrochemical process that converts the metal surface into a decorative, durable, corrosion-resistant, anodic oxide finish. Aluminum is ideally suited to anodizing, although other nonferrous metals, such as magnesium and titanium, also can be anodized. The anodic oxide structure originates from the aluminum substrate and is composed entirely of aluminum oxide. This aluminum oxide is not applied to the surface like paint or plating, but is fully integrated with the underlying aluminum substrate, so cannot chip or peel. It has a highly ordered, porous structure that allows for secondary processes such as coloring and sealing. In this experimental paper, we focus on a reliable method for fabricating nanoporous alumina with high regularity. Starting from study of nanostructure materials synthesize methods. After that, porous alumina fabricate in the laboratory by anodization of aluminum oxide. Hard anodization processes are employed to fabricate the nanoporous alumina using 0.3M oxalic acid and 90, 120 and 140 anodized voltages. The nanoporous templates were characterized by SEM and FFT. The nanoporous templates using 140 voltages have high ordered. The pore formation, influence of the experimental conditions on the pore formation, the structural characteristics of the pore and the oxide chemical reactions involved in the pore growth are discuss.

Keywords: Alumina, Nanoporous Template, Anodization

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385 Influence of MgO Physically Mixed with Tungsten Oxide Supported Silica Catalyst on Coke Formation

Authors: T. Thitiapichart, P. Praserthdama

Abstract:

The effect of additional magnesium oxide (MgO) was investigated by using the tungsten oxide supported on silica catalyst (WOx/SiO2) physically mixed with MgO in a weight ratio 1:1. The both fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by FT-Raman spectrometer, UV-Vis spectrometer, X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). The results indicated that the additional MgO could enhance the conversion of trans-2-butene due to isomerization reaction. However, adding MgO would increase the amount of coke deposit on the WOx/SiO2 catalyst. The TPO profile presented two peaks when the WOx/SiO2 catalyst was physically mixed with MgO. The further peak was suggested that came from coke precursor could be produced by isomerization reaction of undesired product. Then, the occurred coke precursor could deposit and form coke on the acid catalyst.

Keywords: Coke formation, metathesis, magnesium oxide, physically mix.

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384 Graphene Oxide Fiber with Different Exfoliation Time and Activated Carbon Particle

Authors: Nuray Uçar, Mervin Ölmez, Özge Alptoğa, Nilgün K. Yavuz, Ayşen Önen

Abstract:

In recent years, research on continuous graphene oxide fibers has been intensified. Therefore, many factors of production stages are being studied. In this study, the effect of exfoliation time and presence of activated carbon particle (ACP) on graphene oxide fiber’s properties has been analyzed. It has been seen that cross-sectional appearance of sample with ACP is harsh and porous because of ACP. The addition of ACP did not change the electrical conductivity. However, ACP results in an enormous decrease of mechanical properties. Longer exfoliation time results to higher crystallinity degree, C/O ratio and less d space between layers. The breaking strength and electrical conductivity of sample with less exfoliation time is some higher than sample with high exfoliation time.

Keywords: Activated carbon, coagulation by wet spinning, exfoliation, graphene oxide fiber.

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383 The Light Response Characteristics of Oxide-Based Thin Film Transistors

Authors: Soo-Yeon Lee, Seung-Min Song, Moon-Kyu Song, Woo-Geun Lee, Kap-Soo Yoon, Jang-Yeon Kwon, Min-Koo Han

Abstract:

We fabricated the inverted-staggered etch stopper structure oxide-based TFT and investigated the characteristics of oxide TFT under the 400 nm wavelength light illumination. When 400 nm light was illuminated, the threshold voltage (Vth) decreased and subthreshold slope (SS) increased at forward sweep, while Vth and SS were not altered when larger wavelength lights, such as 650 nm, 550 nm and 450 nm, were illuminated. At reverse sweep, the transfer curve barely changed even under 400 nm light. Our experimental results support that photo-induced hole carriers are captured by donor-like interface trap and it caused the decrease of Vth and increase of SS. We investigated the interface trap density increases proportionally to the photo-induced hole concentration at active layer.

Keywords: thin film transistor, oxide-based semiconductor, lightresponse

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382 Advanced Materials Based on Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Terpolymers and Organically Modified Montmorillonite

Authors: M. D. Stelescu, E. Manaila, G. Pelin, M. Georgescu, M. Sonmez

Abstract:

This paper presents studies on the development and characterization of nanocomposites based on ethylene-propylene terpolymer rubber (EPDM), chlorobutyl rubber (IIR-Cl) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). Mixtures were made containing 0, 3 and 6 phr (parts per 100 parts rubber) OMMT, respectively. They were obtained by melt intercalation in an internal mixer - Plasti-Corder Brabender, in suitable blending parameters, at high temperature for 11 minutes. Curing agents were embedded on a laboratory roller at 70-100 ºC, friction 1:1.1, processing time 5 minutes. Rubber specimens were obtained by compression, using a hydraulic press at 165 ºC and a pressing force of 300 kN. Curing time, determined using the Monsanto rheometer, decreases with the increased amount of OMMT in the mixtures. At the same time, it was noticed that mixtures containing OMMT show improvement in physical-mechanical properties. These types of nanocomposites may be used to obtain rubber seals for the space application or for other areas of application.

Keywords: Chlorobutyl rubber, ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymers, montmorillonite, rubber seals, space application.

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381 Preparation of Nanosized Iron Oxide and their Photocatalytic Properties for Congo Red

Authors: Akram Hosseinian, Hourieh Rezaei, Ali Reza Mahjoub

Abstract:

Nanostructured Iron Oxide with different morphologies of rod-like and granular have been suc-cessfully prepared via a solid-state reaction in the presence of NaCl, NaBr, NaI and NaN3, respectively. The added salts not only prevent a drastic increase in the size of the products but also provide suitable conditions for the oriented growth of primary nanoparticles. The formation mechanisms of these materials by solid-state reaction at ambient temperature are proposed. The photocatalytic experiments for congo red (CR) have demonstrated that the mixture of α-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 nanostructures were more efficient than α-Fe2O3 nanostructures.

Keywords: Nano, Iron Oxide, Solid-State, Halide salts, Congored

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